Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - March 1, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta
34 IETH8RIDGE HtBAlD WoJnmiloy, Mmth 1, Former CdtHuUfin fAP END OF ORDEAL Japanese rid police remove one of the five youlhs from o mountain lodge at Karuizawo, Japan, Monday oiler police stormed the villa the caretaker's wife had been held hostage for nine days. Police headquarters said the youths would be charged wilh murder, altempled murder and kidnapping. Two policemen were killed whan they smashed into the lodge. By KEVIN DOV1.K LONDON (CP) inter- national labor movement, a sleeping giant for more than a century, seems to be stirring slowly" in Europe under the urging of a former University of Toronlo lecturer. diaries Levinson, general secretary of tlie Gonova-hasril International Federation of Chemical and General Work- ers, says unions in all pnrls of the world face a serious threat from tlic rapid spread of multinational corporations. Levinson, who hokis docto- rates in economics from the universities of Toronlo a rut Paris, sees internationally-ai- ordinatcd bargaining prac- tices as labor's and perhaps only in con- fronting the multinationals. He is among several promi- nent Europeans and Britons to publish recent books on thf subject, expressing the con- viction that the elusive fioal ol strung, international Icbar ac- tivity now may be posKib'c. Most say Mie expedcd cn- largcmenl" of the European Common Market aiui Iho concern in many countries over the strength of international firms are already providing a strong impetus to unions to unite across national Lsouncla.- rics. srri'.vrioN Levlnsun's book, Capital, In- flation and the Mn'.LinatioiKtls, published by George Allen and Uiwin [.Id, says labor's predicament tjcen v.'orsencd by Ilie effoi'ls (if government during Ihc last few years to blsmc liig'n wage claim> for inflation. Singling out Canada and Britain for vigorous criticism, ho says the major cause of inflation has been competition among multinational compa- nies for new capital needed to expand nnd increase produc- tion This had forced up interest rates, caused a credit short- age and encouraged firms to finance grov.th more and more out of internal cash flOU'S, As governments exercised pressure to wage in- creases low, Leviuson argues, large companies simply in- creased prices to maintain their cash flow levels and compensate for falling de- mand. He says unions are grad- ually (incling their bargaining techniques are ineffective dealing wilh giant inter- national companies. Such firir.s, he contends, can al- ways switch production to a plant in another country if workers in one state declare a strike. MUST ACT IN UNISON Only co-ordinated interna- tional action by unions can prevent this, says Levinson. lie already claims some suc- cess in promoting joint action. He lias beta able to organ- workers In the French multinational glass making firm, St. Gobain, during the last couple of years to obtain wage increases Jr. several countries, including Ihs United States and Italy, at tbo same time. Nicholas Faith, deputy edi- tor of tire Sunday Times bu.-i- ucss section, has just com- plelcd a somewhat-similar book on the growth in multin- ationals. His study is con- cerned, although int'irectJy, with the intcrnaUonal labor movement. The bonk lins been pub- lished by Ilamish Hamilton Ltd. in London. In a recent private discus- sion, Faith expressed views along the same lines as tboso of Levinson. He qualifies his belief in Ilia growing interna- tionalism of unions with the statement that the movement will be very slow. He says Levi'ison's views represent a fairly largo cross-section of current labor thinking in Europe. A number of academic economists, par- ticularly those on the political left, also pay tribute to Lcviii- soti's views. CITES DIFFICULTIES Faith, however, stresses the difficulties which must be overcome before viions can co-ordinate their bargaining activities. For example, he says it is still virtually impossible to in- sist on equal wages for work- ers wilh similar skills In all countries because of the diffi- culty of comparing wage rales in different states wliere so- cial security bcneli's, insur- ance schemes and other bene- fits are not alike. In s imii'ied Europe with .similar social legislation and living conditions, he adds, these differences might bo greatly reduced. Faith adds ihat national un- ions have a strong tradition of protecting ll'eir own interests first and cases of workers going on strike ir- one country to support those in another are extremely rare. But he says national unions can be clearly overpowered by multinational corporations and as this becomes more ap- parent, unions will be forced to move closer together. tncke e !ly MAX London Obser GENEVA iii most cam- tries the pay for women is not pqual to the rale earned by men. Uiit a report from the Interim- I between wen's and women's wage or salary income has riened. The average wage for was fiS.fl per cent of ni in and only 53.2 per in Duncan ___ Elizabeth tional Lal-ar Office now says Koontz. a U.S. delegate, told the thai even in countries whicn j j-y Commission that M states equality of oppurUm- ity and treatment the guaran- tees arc not honoured. First of all. nnd em- ployment opportunities, and the t !an- and practice. "It possibility of promo'ion appear evidence.'1 she said, i to remain largely outside tiiL1 "ihat as wcmen tn- scope of such independently and fore- I Then, in addition, "some gov- fully to correct injustice'; will j emmets nnd .some employers they eliminate those continuing still refuse to accept the discrepancies between law and, ciple of equal pav, arguing, for practice that prevent (lieni from that women have few- j exercising _ then- full rights as or family responsibilities than i human brings. men, or none at all: that thru: I The other international con- i average output is less than the j vent ion. the Discrimination average output of men: that (Employment nnd Occupation their rate of abserce is higher I Convcn'ion bed been ratified by nnd that they are less depend- 77 countries by October. !971, able tlmn men; and that their h-.it not by Iho I'm; erf Kingdom, vrork lives are shorter in Switzerland, thy I'nited States, i other words, that they are less or France. j than men and that this j f0.- women is not: .should he reflet-ted in their yel n rcaiuv in France. wages." thouali th? rlnfei-enlial between The report, which lias boon, men's and women's average submitted to the UN Com mis- j from 10. '1 per cent in July. 19GG sion on the Status of Women to 7.2 per cent in April, 1070. In now in session in Geneva, also the ILO report men- blames trades unions. Although Uons one way in which women they "generally fully endorse j ore cheated. "It is a spreading anci support the equal pay prin- j practice for (French) employ- ciple, (they) are net always will-; ors to seek to recruit girls with j ing, or in a position, in collec- a certificate of vocational apti- i live negotiations, to give its j tude for sewing, on the ground com p 1 e t c application prior- that they have a high degree of ity over o'hjr important com- i digital dexterity but need not j peting claims. In some cases b? paid skilled rates." hostile attitudes on the part of The latest on pay dif- fcrrr.tials in Common Mark countries in tlie report i show October, 1566, the male workers have to be over- Another factor is public in- IUW) difference and pcrsisling tra- i average wast! of women com- diticnal attitudes towards the that of nion was 24.3 employment of women, whn are i per rent less in Italy, per supposed to be uninterested LH less in Gc-rrnany, 31.9 participation in economic activ- per cent less in Belgium, 39.3 ity. per cent less in the Netherlands Thr-re are two international and less in Luxembourg, conventions in which the eciu.nl The mosl favourable situation pay principle is laid down. The for vromcn workers is to he first, the Equal Remuneration found in Searul-navia. Tn Den- Convention, came into force in i mark, by the end of 1971, cost IttiS, and by Octnber t'r71. 7-1 of living for States had ratified it. T'ne ear- i jn virtuallv all fields of vrork liest ratification was by Yugo- j reac-hed the same level as that slavia, the latest was by lh? payable fo men. In hourly av- United Kinsdom, in 1iV7! crave of nnlo and fe- ter 2i) years of finding exeiP-cs male ncn skilled tlie for not doing so. And even now trend is towards a greater in- under the Kcjiial Pay Act of' crer-so in the wapes of British omnloycrs ba-.'o thim in of men. until the end cf 1975 lo remove' in Norway, the equal pyy all discrimiiiation against wo- was inlrcduced into nil men- The Secretary of State collecuve agreements between may require the partial implc- I emplovers and trades unions in mentation of equal pay by the But tv.o years Inter, the end of if it appears to him average hourly wanes far ?duH that orderly progress towards v.omen were onlv thrre qinr- r.nual pay is not being rnado. i trrs those adiili mr-n. In pro- Switzerland lias not yet rati- nnd fird the Convention, although a rrmimcrce. (he differences are proposal lo do so is now bcfoie the Swiss National A major to rrqu.il pav The difference in average wane Tor we mm. the rtnori still ranges between 20 and 23! the 'Timidity of occupational per cent, to the disadvantage of on traditional women workers. In mo lar_-.rc i concepts fti" 'ivomen's ar.cl Swiss textile mill, the wage al- j 'men's work.' This, Iha rc- Jocatcii to a particular job is j port assorls. is especially (he lower if a woman does it. lease in Finland, where "many The United States has not r.i- I attitudes in Finnish tifiecl the convention either i srjcintv to be changed he- the report points out, fore there will bo any thc passing of the Federal Equal Pay Act iii the able i mprovc mcr; t i n worn en's earnin MOROCCO-TRIPPING Losf year's hiich.hiktri hav a spot. Morocco h the loicsf place !o go. And hunc of young Canadians ore hooding there. So did Don Bell. no mnrior fnr-oul place he hil-Marrakesh, Eisn- ouira-he found Conadion hockey fans. Why am so mnny Iripping? Find our in Bell's gjidcd to-jr fhu IN YOUR LETHBR1DGE HERALD WEEKEND MAGAZINE install Yourself shog-fovers, come up a shag lhat's no! only gorgeous enough for your living room and bedroom, it's practical enough for every where in the house, ll's made loucih hard-wen ring confinuous filimenf nylon thai h hoof seJ for long, long lift and lasting good looks. And, besides saving money on the price, you save because you don't have to buy undorcushion it's part of the rug. You save on insfallalion too. Do it easily yourself. Jusf tfim ft lo fit and U falls inJo place. 8 vibrant colours bring any room to life. Comes in 9' ond 12' widths to suit you. Mew rake designed for shag carpels. Keeps pile high and thick, low. A little loving care goes a long way, 3.98. Save; 11.00 sq. yil. 9.99 yd. sq. yd. OUAUTY COSTS ISO MOKE AT SIMPSONS-SEARS STORE HOURS; Opon Daily 9 a.m. lo p.m. Thursday and Friday 9 a.m. lo 9 p.m. Cenlre Village. Telephone 326-9231.