Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - June 30, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta
Saturday, JUM 30, THI LCTHMIDCB HERALD 9 1 The dangers resulting from detente A good way to got the Brezhnev-Nixon encounter Into some sort of perspective is to think back nearly 14 years to Khrushchev's descent on Camp David and reflect on what has changed since then and on what may not have changed. The changes have been fling. In 1969 General Eisen- hower presided over an Am- erica emerged from the hyster- ia of McCarthyism and full of the confidence of power, Khrush- ehev was achieving his dizzy ambition to be welcomed as an equal by an American presi- dent on American soil. This was a demonstration not only of his own ascendancy, but also of the acceptance of Soviet Russia as a future partner in keeping the peace and policing the world. It was a challenge too; nuclear war was not to be thought of, but Khrushchev would not for one movent re- lax the ideological conflict. The Soviet Union, he declared, would catch up with America in a very few years and then surpass it. How different today The old confidence expressed in Khrushchev's dynamic ebulli- ence and America's unques- tioning faith in technology and the dollar has now departed. Both Russia and America have had to suffer a sharp diminu- tion of their power relative to the world as a whole. Neither can any longer behave as though the only serious check to its freedom of action was the existence of the other. The hostility of China has brought about a contraction of Russia's apparently limitless horizon and deprived it of its undisputed leadership of the world revolutionary move- ment. America has suffered the humiliation of the war in Viet- nam, and now treats with Com- munist China as an element in an enlarged and fluid balance of power in which Japan has an increasingly weighty part to play. Russia has found It expedi- ent to treat with West Ger- many, partly for economic rea- sons, partly in an attempt to consolidate the status quo in Eastern Europe on grounds more stable than an artificially sustained fear of the German menace. The new pattern of Western Europe is in the mak- ing, and the Atlantic alliance is in flux. On top of all this, far from catching up with America, Rus- sia is faltering in its industrial expansion and continuing to wrestle with a chronic state of agricultural crisis, being com- pelled to import foodstuffs on a very large scale. America has seen the dollar bowled over, and now discovers that it is heading for a fuel shortage which could threaten the whole basis of its economy. The grow- ing consciousness among the oil-producing countries, partic- cularly the Arab States, of the strength of their position, has created a new area of high ten- sion which neither they nor the oil-consuming countries (includ- ing the Soviet Union) know how to handle. One could go on like this. But enough has been said to under- line the fact that the innocent certitudes of the Khrushchev era, when America and the Soviet Union took it for granted that their own direct mutual relationship was the only thing in the world that seriously mat- tered, have vanished, no doubt forever. When Khrushchev and Eisenhower came together each man spoke as though for half the world. They, the two giants, were the makers. To- day it is hardly too much to say Nixon and Brezhnev are coming together for mutual support in face of the troubles that beset them from without and within. We are faced with a truly fascinating situation to make Stalin turn in his grave and Roosevelt at least raise his eyebrows, in which the United States is being called upon to prop up the Communist sys- tem in the Soviet Union to say nothing of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to prop up capitalism in America. Both sides look like obliging. Italy, France, Germany very much, Britain to a lesser extent, are already in on the act. What are we to make of this tadt reassurance pact between two opposed systems? I am not one of those who believe that by helping the Russians to strengthen their economy and improve their standard of liv- ing the West is putting weapons into the hands of a foe which will one day rise up and de- stroy it. Such fantasies (which no doubt appeal to certain prim- Hive mentalities inside Russia) do not accord with the facts of the changing global pattern of power in the nuclear age. There is no doubt in my mind that the logic of events compels Rus- Gia towards detente no less than America, and that the preoccu- pations and ambitions of young- er men born into a conserva- tive Russia and with no mem- ories of the revolutionary years must inevitably weaken the revolutionary dynamic. This, indeed, is happening, and has been seen to be happening, off and on, since 1966. But the logic of events takes a long time to work out and leads through many pitfalls. Old attitudes die hard, surviving the situations which produced them. The refurbished Brezhnev (new confidence, new barber, new tailor, new jokes, new fast motorcars) is a consensus lead- er if ever there was one. He has achieved his present emin- ence and emerged as a front runner in the rapprochement stakes by the majority deci- sion of a Politburo, or cabin- et. Nevertheless, this body in- cludes Marshal Andrei Grech- ko, the architect of the invasion of Czechoslovakia, as well as the head of the KGB, Mr. Yuri Andropov, dedicated to repres- sion at home and subversion and espionage abroad, whose role in Budapest as Soviet ambassador at the tune of the Hungarian uprising should not be forgotten. Any- one who is inclined to believe that Brezhnev's expressions of benevolent regard for a West Germany which he was vilufy- ing until quite recently indi- cates a complete change of heart and manners, should take a look at the continuing stream of vicious propaganda directed from Moscow towards Israel to say nothing of China. A certain wariness is called for, to say the least. The danger it seems to me is that in sheer relief at the let-up in openly hostile propaganda and the general relaxation of tension, in our eagerness to be rid of the burden of expen- sive armaments, in the enthus- iastic competition for the So- viet market, we should allow what must be a gradual read- justment to the new fact of power which, in any case, is still very far from being under- stood by anyone to be trans- formed into a field-day for Moscow. Russians are very persistent in trying to eat their cake and have it. Thus, with all their talk about peace their expendi- ture on armaments is out of all proportion to their defensive needs, and they keep the pot stirring in the Middle East. Sit- ting down in Vienna to discuss the reduction of armed forces in Europe, they start off firmly with proposals calculated to perpetuate their present su- periority. Again, preparing for the Helsinki conference, they determinedly stonewall West- ern attempts to link talks about the security of Europe with questions of human rights and free movement across fron- tiers. Their great hope, of course, is that the democracies will weary of endless wrangling and give way point by point. And, indeed, democracies are not good at sustaining a rea- sonable mean between total hostility and total accord. We have moved and this itself is an immense step for- ward by all parties from rigid confrontation, which does nobody any good, into a period of manoeuvre, which is the nat- ural condition for a world con- taining sovereign states, and which stands for constant change without which no good can come. The Russians recog- nize this, but their aim is quite evidently to exploit the present fluidity in order to consolidate by agreement positions estab- lished by force. Already there are voices in West Germany, no doubt in- spired by the vision of vast Russian markets, raised to de- clare that since Bonn has made its peace with Moscow, i.e. the Soviet State, the Soviet State must be accepted as it is and has the right to expect that West Germany should do noth- ing to show sympathy with even the most distinguished protesters against the excesses of the regime, such as the novelist Solzhenitsyn. Already there is a tendency in Britain and elsewhere to dismiss the Czechoslovakia tragedy as an unfortunate incident over and done with. Let bygones be bygones by all means. Who but the dead will bury the dead? But it takes two to make a bygone. The Russians Still control Czechoslovakia, and much else besides. And it was Brezhnev, then unsmiling, who presided over those brutal meetings with Dubcek and his colleagues. The Soviet Communists, with their incessant outcry against im- perialism, are still the supreme imperialists. In the nuclear age, in the light of the Moscow- Bonn accord and the all-too- evident desire of America to reduce its forces in Europe, thftre is not, from the defence point of view, the slightest reason for the Russians to keep direct control of their European neighbors, and any serious dis- cussion about European secur- ity should take notice of this fact, and concern itself with ways end means of guarantee- ing the neutrality of a ring of independent States. Clearly we are a very long way from that consummation, Che approach to which will be By Edward Craikshaw. London Observer commentator arduous indeed. Our part is to for a formidable complex of weclome all signs of detente reasons, no Soviet government and to work hard and imagina- can contemplate the fearful tively over the years to broad- en the depth and range of agreement, bearing in mind the requirements of human decency and not being stam- peded by our sense of guilt over our own offences against decency. For the tune being, prospect of any country which the Soviet Communist party has once controlled backslid- ing out of the earthly paradise as established by Russian pow- er. But the day may come wlien Russia, reluctantly like the rest of us, will decide that other peoples must be allowed to go to hell in their own way. We should not encourage the indef- inite postponement of that day, for the sake of short-term ease, allowing Moscow to use the present period of flux to establish a Barricade against the future. Baby panda at Peking Zoo The animal was found orphaned in th e bamboo forests erf western Szechuan pro- vince, and carried 1500 miles to Peking on foot, bus, train and plane, by a woman Zoologist. Picture by John Burnt Book reviews The Hollywood glamor industry "Close by Len Deigh- ton (Clarke, Irwin and Co., 381 Despite the disclaimer which states that although some nov- elists use thinly disguised material about show business figures, "I have not intended to depict any person film (or) corporation" you get the impression after finishing Lai Deighton's novel that he is talking about real people if "show business figures" can be considered real in the first place. The novel traces the career of Marshall Stone, a gifted member of the Hollywood elite, with all the movie star preten- sions and attitudes that leap from the pages of the fan mag- azines. The novel hinges on a cute literary trick: telling the story from the viewpoint of a biog- rapher of Stone's (who is also married to Stone's and it ends with a cuter trick, but perhaps it's a little unfair to call it a trick. After 378 pages detailing the corruption and human fraility well-covered by zealous PR men, the biographer states that he will, instead of writing Ms biography, write a novel. "A book of fiction can get nearer to the truth than a biog- Peter Anson (the biog- rapher) says. He makes up the name Mar- shall Stone and recounts how he will begin his novel. And so Close Up ends with the same paragraph with which it begins, 381 pages back. At the beginning of each chapter, Deighton deploys a short quote from a real per- son, either living or dead. Chapter One is headed with a quote from Billy Wilder Avhich seems to set the tone of the entire book: "Today we spend 80 per cent of our time making deals and 20 per cent Crazy Capers' making pictures." And when Marshall Stone (or his agent) isn't wheeling and dealing, he is worrying that his increasing age may cast him from the world of high in- come-tax brackets. Close Up is a fine novel, and to invoke that old cliche, once you pick it up and start un- ravelling it, it becomes ex- ceedingly difficult to put down. It also has a well honed schizophrenic quality it can be taken up as a light novel, to be enjoyed and then hidden in the bookshelf, or it can be taken the way I think Deighton intended, as a bard-hitting and thinly-disguised tale cf the behind-the-scenes-and-gloss ac- activity of the Hollywood "gla- mor industry." WARREN CARAGATA Humor and tragedy "The Outlaw of Megan- by Bernard Epps. (Mc- Clelland and Stewart Ltd., 157 pages, An intriguing book covering the two extremes in human drama; humor and tragedy. The reader will laugh at the bumblings of the law and the men who try to enforce it and at Donald Morrison's bravedo as he taunts his tormentors. They will then sit in stunned silence at the sudden turn in the story, completely in disbe- lief that the law could be so absurd. Donald Morrison, a Scottish pioneer in the 1880s in Me- gantic, Quebec, is the torment- ed subject of this book. An un- scrupulous money-lender and a shister lawyer lead Morrison to the eventual shoot-out with a questionable deputy that drastically changes his life. Circumstance piles on cir- cumstance, culminating in one of the most bizzare manhunt's in Canada's history. Morrison teases his pursuers making them look like bigger fools than the law that has set down he should be hunted in the first place. Aided by his numerous friends Morrison's saga reads like a Walt Disney fiction fan- tasy; but every so often the reader is jolted back to the reality of the situation and the frustrations Morrison is going through. The book is written with great feeling, not only in refer- ence to Morrison's plight but the tenderness he must have shared with his parents, girl friend and close friends, each of whom is described with real meaning. Epp's book is an important defence for Morrison. It puts the law in an all-too-bright light its weaknesses, par- ticularly regarding the rest who seem to get the breaks over those less well off. To quote Charles Dicken's, and Judy LaMarsh former MP and another reviewer of this book, "the law is an ass.1' GARRY ALLISON Canadian environment You're not listening-just watching J "Much is Taken, Much Re- mains" by Rorke Bryan (Duxbury Rorke Bryan is professor of the department of geography in the University of Calgary. In this work he has put to- gether a scholarly, very read- able, highly informative and comprehensive book on the broad, extremely variable and detailed subject of the Cana- dian environment. It is by far the best work of its kind that has come into this writer's hands, and it could easily be a veritable bible for all per- sons sufficiently aware and in- terested to study environmen- tal conservation in Canada. This book is an outstanding example of what awareness and caring can do. Ten years ago nobody in or out of scholastic circles in Canada had really attempted or was truly equip- ed to coyer the entire scene of our environment in this fash- ion. We were then just begin- ning to wake up to the fact that humans are totally involv- ed with environment and that conservation meant something else than merely saving wild- life. It could mean that failure to recognize the total picture would put humans into the list of endangered species. Only by assuming the responsibilities that go along with the exercise of our technocratic culture can this be averted. It is not sufficient to be merely interested enough in the environmental conservation of our living quarters on this space vehicle called earth to pay the problems lip service. To assume that technology is all-powerful is self destructive for nature can be bent but not broken without an awful cost. It takes much more than emo- tional involvement but real recognition of the problems and sound information. Rorke Bry- an's book gives us this kind of information over the wide range of Canadian environment. It is highly required reading mater- ial, interesting and vital to to- day's most important question. ANDY RUSSELL The Voice Of One -By. DR. FRANK S. MORIEY The national problem Two post-graduate students of psychol- ogy at Texas University, James McCon- nell and Robert Thompson, set out to prove that worms could learn despite their lack of a brain. They noted that the Plan- aria worms have a plexus of nerve endings at one end of their body which are flared like an arrow with two light sensitive patches on the sides which might be the evolutionary precursor of eyes. The experi- menters found that the worm would con- vulse if given a shock and when associated with a beam of light the light finally of it- self produced a convulsed movement. Fin- ally the worm could be trained to follow the white squares in a checkerboard by shining the light. It is tempting to make this an article on strange occupations. Bernard Shaw in one of his plays describes a woman juggler who would take six oranges, -open the Bible at the Psalms, and read a Psalm while juggl- ing the oranges. A famous publisher de- clares it is his life's calling to publish eroti- ca and he has founded a press for that very purpose. But a current television program has the vocation of describing such unusual personalities. Everyone also knows men like Horace Walpole whose biographer describ- ed him this way: "All his tastes were minor; they were for decoration and cur- iosities, for antiquarian anecdotes and con- temporary gossip.'' The national problem is this: How can men and women feel that their lives are worthily invested? That the things they are doing are worthwhile? That they are not forced to do their work merely for wag- es and status? The increase of leisure makes the question particularly poignant. Professor Harold Wilensky of the Uni- versity of California says that his studies bring the conclusion that people whose work is trivial or without value and mean- ing to them are unable to make productive use of leisure. People are destroyed when the objectives of life are meaningless or they are regard- ed and treated as merely means and not ends In themselves. Peter Drucker states that in the automobile industry the only meaning of the job is in the pay check. Work appeared as an unnatural, stultify- ing condition of getting a pay check, de- void of dignity and importance. The result was a discontented worker. Many studies are now being done in this industrial prob- lem. Erich Fromm, in "The Sane Society" pointed out another and more menacing re- action in the hostility which the busi- ness man feels for his business and his products. He hates competitors, custom- ers, and employees, with contempt for himself, repressing the hatred in the sub- conscious. Now another menace has become all too obvious, the degradation of character through status seeking. To be close to the president, to work for the president, was the American boy's dream. What matters if integrity has to be sacrificed? What mat- ters principle? "What is honor? A word. What is in that word hon-cr? Air." So said the pitiful FaJstaff. Is the total society caught in "Tte Salivation Army1' wnere responses are engineered in a Pavlovian response? Are the members merely super- ior worms whose tastes, opinions, and de- cisions are manipulated by "Hidden Per- If so, they are merely aliented automatons caught in a materialistic fat- alism which breeds despair and impotence. All good work Involves drudgery, but drudgery is not dehumanizing. Newton re- wrote his Chronology 15 times: Gibbon re- wrote his Decline and Fall nine times; Tos- canini made 26 recordings before approv- ing his production of Debussy's "La Mer." "Love said the ancient Jews. "Ha who does not teach his son a trade teaches him robbery." But this is in the context of a total life pattern where work is a voca- tion. Only as a man lives and works for God does he achieve personhood and dignity. "A servant with this clause makes drud- gery divine; Who sweeps a room, as for Thy laws, Makes that and th' action One." F. S. M. The law and seat belts From The Hamilton Spectator FORD of. Canada president Roy F. Ben- nett advocates legislation requiring the use of seat belts; such a law could save lives a year in Canada, he estimates. If everyone who drove cars or rode in them were sensible, a seat belt law wouldn't be seriously considered; the fact that the use of seat belts saves lives and prevents serious injuries is beyond dispute and has been publicized ad nauseam. But many people aren't sensible and that's a basic weakness in proposed seat belt legislation. Sensible people don't need it and the irresponsible would ignore it as they ignore the other traffic laws in- tended to save their lives and others. If there is a good chance that seat belt legislation could save many lives, it should be put into effect as quckly as possible. But there is more to it than passing a law. Traffic laws generally are treated with contempt by many, if not most, drivers. There is no reason to expect drivers would respect a seat belt law any more than they respect laws against speeding, laneThopping anfd improper turning. If it isn't possible to provide effective enforcement of the many traffic offences that are easily visible, how can a govern- ment expect to enforce a law that would require a policeman to look over every per- son in every car? In passing seat-belt legislaton, govern- ment, on behalf of society as a whole, would be taking on a responsibility that belongs to the individual. If a person Is too lazy or indifferent to take one simple precaution to protect his own life, the blame for the conseqsunces should be his own, not the public's. Probably the most effective way to wrap seat belts around fools would be an insur- ance provision that didn't pay for dam- ages suffered by a policy-holder who wasn't wearing his seat bslt. But that could be universally applied only under a compul- sory insurance system. The Ontario government should look Into the Ford president's proposal in detail be- cause any reasonable prospect of prevent- ing death and serious injury deserves a chance. But it should be kept in mind that every law that's generally ignored weakens re- spect for the entire body cf law. And the traffic laws already have been weakened far too much. Public involvement needed From The Nelson News, Nelson, B.C. Nelson without Notre Dame University? The thought is a horrifying one, yet en- tirely possible if the Commission to study post secondary education in the Kootenays happens to decide that the institution is not meeting the needs of the community. It will make that decision on the number of briefs or letters it receives from Koot- enay residents supporting NDU. The sub- missions are the only means the commis- sion has of knowing how we, as Nelson residents, feel about the university its educational, economical, and cultural val- ue to the community. So why haven't we, if we are the "con- cerned" citizens we claim to be, got off our hocks and made known our feelings to the McTaggart-Cowan Commission? Briefs from Nelson have been few and far between as opposed to the 40 letters received thus far from Cranbrook and oth- er centres of East Kootenay. Chairman of the commission, Ian McTag- gart-Cowan, has 'said he will judge the people's desirs to establish or retain post- secondary educational institutions in the Kootenays according to the number of sub- missions received. If Cranbrook has sub- mitted 40 letters and Nelson nary a one, it is obvious which one will be favored by the Commission. If we lose the university, educationally we lose: an institution where our children can further their education, at the same time cutting costs by having them live at home; a school that offered five live theatre productions to people last year; a learning centre for 25 per cent of ths teachers in the Nelson School district and one third of all social workers in the Kootenays; and we lose the opportunity to develop the university into a specialized ed- ucational institution with innovative and personable programming. If we lose NDU, financially we lose: the sixth largest employer in Nelson with a yearly payroll of a community of students, staff, faculty and administration who spend an estimated annually on miscellaneous living expenses in Nelson; a university which contributes an- nually to the revenues of the city: and we lose the largest catering and banquet fa- cilities in the area which served some meals to non-university personnel in 1972. The practised one By Dong Walker Our minister pressed the Rogers family into conducting the service one Sunday while he was out of town. It was a good service and had the added merit, as Phil Blakeley pointed out, that it was over in time for our wives to get In their stint of visiting and allow us to get home icon tfter twelve. That was surprising too because it was Lil who did the preaclung and who admit- ted to the congregation that they had an understanding in their does the singing; I do the talking."