Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - June 27, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta
Thursday, LtTHBRIDGt Russian communism not wanted in China By Mark Frankland, London Observer commentator TOKYO During nine days spent following Mr. Edward Heath around China, I tried, in an effort to keep my balance in a strange world, to compare the things I saw to what I knew of Russia. It was easy enough to spot traces of Russian influence, even though Russia withdrew its advisers and technicians from China nearly 15 years ago. Both the architecture and organization of some of the hotels must have been inspired by a heavy Russian hand. The Shanghai, China's medium size car looks very like an old-style Russian Volga. And surely only a teacher from some Russian conservatory could have coached the tenors and baritones who sang for us at concerts in their emphatic and, to Western taste, old- fashioned gestures. But these specks of Russianness, already perhaps of no more importance than freak archaeological deposits, soon lost significance as one became aware of the immense difference in the spirit of the two countries' life and their regimes. Unlike the Russians, the Chinese are still very much moral romantics in their attitude to Communism. At Peking University we listened to some third-year students of English discussing the value of practical, as opposed to classroom, work. One of the 1974 by NEA, Inc WITH APOLOGIES TO THE GREAT -JOHN HELD. JR. "Oh, HONESTLY, Daddy! Those grubby jeans and that hairstyle are SO out of girls told a story about an acquaintance, a girl who on leaving school had been assigned to work as a waitress in a hotel. This girl was terribly ashamed of her job the implication was that she did not come from a working- class family and when one day she saw some friends of her father come into the hotel restaurant it was too much for her, and she ran away. Eventually, after weeks of study, the girl came to see the error of her ways, and to understand that work of any kind is honorable. "I was deeply educated by this girl's the student telling the story concluded. Conversations with Chinese officials often came round to the same subject, which was not surprising because many of them had done spells at May 7 cadre schools, the moral reformatories set up during the Cultural Revolution for officials who "lost touch with the masses" or, in other words, got too big for their boots. In Russia officials from the highest to the lowest may be removed if they are on the losing side in a policy debate. But the Chinese bureaucrat or party man who vanishes from his job and goes for one or two years to a May 7 school seems as likely as not to return to his old desk. What they learn at these schools was summed up for me "very simply by an official on the Revolutionary Committee of Yunnan Province. "Before I went to the he said, "I knew how to drink tea. but not how it's grown. I lived in a house, but did not know how to build one." Of course, it was not merely the practical knowledge that this man learned that was important, for after all Mr. Khrushchev in his day as Russia's leader often made the point that a party leader who ate cabbage without knowing how to grow it was in danger of losing his job. Much more significant for the Chinese was the moral regeneration that such work brought about, and the thorough learning of the lesson that the leaders are no better than the led. The daily attacks in the press on Confucius and the late Defence Minister Lin Piao may reflect jockeying among the present leadership, but they are also a powerful reaffirmation of the duty of people in commanding positions to observe the high morals of the revolution. This moral romanticism has had an effect on the way Chinese enterprises are run which Russian managers would surely find most inconvenient. Since in China the party men and managers are, or ought to be, in Chairman Mao's words, "ordinary workers and not overlords sitting on the backs of the they have to learn to accept with a smile criticism from the shop floor. There does not seem to be much doubt where this- romanticism and belief in the humble leader comes from: the years of guerrilla warfare against Chiang Kai-shek and the Japanese, when the present leadership of China fought and worked alongside the peasants of the liberated areas. The revolution was won only because the leader stayed close to the people. Hence the conviction that it can be sustained only in the same way. How different the experience of the great Russian revolutionaries whose equivalent of the long march and the years in the Yenan caves were the in- fighting of Russian emigre politics and hours of cogitation in middle-class studies effective preparation, as it turned out. for the great opportunity of 1917, but difficult all the same for Chinese to sympathize with. In matters of economic development the Chinese stress on the moral value of revolution and the Russian emphasis on its material achievements also leave little room for mutual Big Apple Wine by Andres. Since time began, the most tempting fruit has been the apple. With that in mind, Andres invites you to think Apple Wine. A refreshing new sparkling apple wine. Truth is, Andres Big Apple is everything apple but the crunch. In a wine. Brimming with tiny, tingly bubbles. So with your first sip, you'll be tickled pink. Chill and serve some Andres Big Apple Wine tonight. We feel sure you'll take a shine to it. ANDReS understanding. Khrushchev once laughed at Chinese communism as "highly politically conscious' and 'completely equal' people sitting at a table with empty plates." This was grossly unfair, of course, but it reflects the horror of most Russians at the thought that communism should still have anything to do with austerity. In Moscow last summer I had a conversation with a woman friend that might have taken place in Twickenham. Her husband had just bought a new car, a Zhiguli from the factory built by Fiat in Russia, and she complained that instead of taking her out in it at weekends he spent all his time pulling the engine to pieces and putting it back again. Such consumer pains and pleasures are unknown in China, where private ownership of cars is neither allowed nor planned for. While young Russians expect their living standard will one day equal the West's, I never once heard a Chinese suggest that economic development was a true criterion of success. Chinese officials are annoyed when Western journalists pay what they consider to be insufficient attention to the achievements of their modern industry. But they are so disapproving of the style of the Russian ruling cfass, with its cars and good clothes and summer villas, that they can easily imagine the growing effects that prosperity may have on China. This of course is what the chairman, brooding in his study in the Forbidden City, is working to prevent. A week in China is long enough at least to appreciate the extraordinary task he has set himself no less than to give' future generations of Chinese the moral and philosophical bastions from which to defend the ideals of a peasant guerrilla revolution. One can see why this, too. is a source of misunderstanding between Chinese and' Russians. Marf believes that he must start from scratch because the intellectual and ethical heritage of Chinese cannot be separated from the bad old China of emperors and inequality. Mao is filling a void, which is something the Russians have never really had to do. The Russians eventually found that their nationalism, much of their old culture and even their Christian ethics were in fact pretty much on the side of their revolution. The Russians thus have a settled, even comfortable view of the world these days. Their discomfort over .the Chinese is the discomfort of the settled man anywhere who comes across a prophet who insists on going back to first principles. Books in brief "Why Johnny Can't Add" by Morris Kline (Random, 208 pages.) Take heart parents and teachers who have puzzled and sweated over the new math! Here is a book that claims much of the new math is unnecessary and was written by people who didn't know what they were doing. Morris Kline, professor of mathematics at New York University, "examines the origins of the modern mathematics movement and takes a hearty swipe at some of the math work inflicted on students. His style is lucid and his treatment of certain educators abrasive. "The new mathematics as a whole is a presentation from the point of view of the shallow mathematician, who can appreciate only the petty deductive details and minor pedantic, sterile distinctions such as between number and numeral and who seeks to enhance trivia with imposing sounding terminology and Fighting words, but Professor Kline backs them with some powerful arguments. This paperback edition of. Why Johnny Can't Add, sells for less than two dollars and is essential reading for school trustees, teachers, and interested parents. TERRY MORRIS "Birthday for the Princess" by A. Lobel (Filzhenry Whiteside, 38 This is 3 delightful story about a little girl who had everything but what she really needed. The ending, of course, is a happy one. ELSPETH WALKER Words now, war later By Louis Burke, local writer MONTREAL Debate on the new languages Act, Bill 22, began in Quebec city recently. Two important groups put their views and recommendations before the committee. They stressed the urgent need for the bill and compared Montreal to a London- derry-like situation. The Conseil des Hommes d'Affaires Quebecois and the Association Quebecois des Professeurs de Francais spoke vehemently in favour of Bill 22 and against the English language being used or supported in any form in Quebec province. The one represents Quebec businessmen; the other commands over French language professors in various institutions throughout the province. Their denunciations were strong and their demands for action, immediate. 1. Outlaw all public English language schools now and phase them out within five years. 2. Cut all grants to private English schools now and terminate their licenses within 10 years. 3. Declare French the only official language throughout the territory. 4. Remove all English instruction from French elementary schools before the new academic year. 5. Force immigrants to learn French and oblige them to send their children to the school system of the majority. 6. Leave no rights of choice to parents, immigrant or French-Canadian and abolish Bill 63 (which left such 7. Enforce French as the language of instruction as soon as possible. And the list goes on. The French businessmen proposed no less than 25 extra points to add teeth to the 55 clauses of the bill. These would effectively remove all English- language rights in Quebec. Andre Belanger, president, C.H.A.Q., declared the English minority had acquired rights "directly from conquest. They are rights we have never pronounced democratically upon." The implication was they had no rights whatever. Claude Carron, Parti Quebecois, congratulated the businessmen on the "clearest and most concise" presentation to date. Henri Gaulin, A.Q.P.F., a French-language professor, demanded surgery be applied to the English problem immediately, or "Montreal will become another Londonderry. It is not possible to make Quebec bilingual without killing the French he warned. Why the reference to Londonderry, Ireland? In that Irish city, the minority held all the power. In Montreal, the French- Canadians have the political power, but the English-speaking minority controls commerce, industry and money. The French have tried hard to crack this golden nugget, and failed. Now, the velvet glove gives way to the steel fist. In education, too, they have failed to entice immigrants to enter the French system and to control their own from leaving it, as an official of St. Patrick's Open-Space School. Montreal, explained. Thus, the Montreal School Commission has come up with some drastic recommendations of its own. 1. A freeze on all English-language schools immediately. 2. A "repatriation" of all French-speaking students to the French system. 3. An intake for next year into English-language schools of only those students whose parents attended such institutions and those who pass a fluency examination in English. So the clouds of educational trouble quickly gather over Montreal and Quebec. Canada, when millions return to their desk in September, will be a different nation. ANDY RUSSELL The anti-hunting movement WATERTON LAKES Recently I received a letter from a young man 18 years old congratulating me on an article I had written concerned with grizzly bear conservation. His comments were at first warm and appreciative but turned into a diatribe against hunting and hunters in general. His remarks were pungent as he ripped the hide off of hunters, and particularly those blank-blank Americans who take trophies. Nor could he comprehend the obscenity types who make money guiding them. He left me with mixed feelings a warmth of appreciation for a young man interested enough to write, and some dismay at so much energy being thrown away in destructive and negative accusation that is not justified. Although my hunting is done mostly with cameras now, my face was a bit red, for I have spent a lot of my life outdoors with guns and as a professional guide. Having met and hunted with men from all over the world, some of the finest sportsmen I have known are Americans. There are good, bad and indifferent hunters everywhere, and if the actions of some visiting hunters are not always ethical, it is much more of a reflection on our management than a smear on the wonderful recreation hunting affords. It is dismaying to know that there is a strong anti-hunting movement afoot and the people who support it so vociferously are acting out of emotion more than informed knowledge of fact. Hunting is a very important part of wildlife management, as has been illustrated many times. For instance, previous to 1952 the Michigan wildlife authorities knew their whitetail population there was far too high in proportion to available winter range. They tried to open a doe season to trim the herds. but sentiment on the part of people who did not understand the danger put political pressure on State representatives and blocked the requested doe season. Then came the hard winter of 1951 and '52. Seventy thousand deer died of starvation within a few weeks, swinging the population pendulum far past its normal low point and marking the waste of a very valuable resource. It was a monument to misguided effort and sheer ignorance, for it is an inescapable fact that no northern hemisphere area will carry more wildlife than its winter feed and shelter habitat will support. Wildlife management in the face of the millions of human population in North America takes money. The anti-hunting faction are sincere and make themselves heard, but they do not reach very deep in their pockets for the finance necessary for good management. Nearly all of the money spent on wetlands reclamation for wildfowl conservation by Ducks Unlimited of Canada is from donations by hunters. Last year this international organization spent on wetlands improvements in Canada alone and more in the United States and Mexico. The World Wildlife Fund and other wildlife foundations throughout the world enjoy hunter patronization running into millions of dollars. Without this support, wildlife would be even in greater danger than it is in the face of human pressures on suitable habitat. For by far the most damage done to all species of wildlife is inflicted by loss of habitat caused by the sheer weight of people and relative effects of industrial and urban encroachment, pollution and general apathy. Those of us who really care should focus our attention on the real problem. This is not hunters. Book review. Influential Canadian "Watch-fires on the Mountains: the life and writings of Ethel Johns" by Margaret Street (University of Toronto Press, From the bleak, dirty, uninformed, exploited job of Victorian nursing to the edu- cated dignity of a respected profession in Canada was the life work of Ethel Johns. She emigrated from Wales in 1892. aged 11. and lived on an Ojibway Reserve until she entered nursing training at Winnipeg General Hospital in 1899. "The hours of duty were from seven in the morning until seven at night with one hour off and 20 minutes for meals. If we could be spared, we were given one afternoon a week. On Sundays we were supposed to have four hours free so that we could go to church." Student nurses were then primarily the work staff of the hospital, with difficulty in finding hospital employment after graduation. On her return to Winnipeg General she was Director of Nursing, and busied herself in the moves towards the registration of qualified nurses. Next came further education as a teacher at Columbia University and 1915-19 at Winnipeg Children's Hospital (including the influenza epidemic and general strike. Then appointment as director and assistant professor of nursing at University of British Columbia. Nurses henceforeward could qualify for a B.Sc. at Vancouver. Editor of "The Canadian Nurse" 1935-44. a weliknown lecturer and writer in Canada and the U.S.A. she continued activity past retirement and died in 1968. This book details, with bibliography, the life of a martinet nurse, a very able administrator and one of the most influential of Canadians. ERIC WILLIAMS ON THE USE OF WORDS By Theodore M. Bernstein Word oddities. In some senses let has almost opposite meanings. On the one hand, it sometimes means to permit to escape or allow to pass. On the other, it means to hinder. In the latter sense it crops up in one of those tautological legalisms: without let or hindrance. It also shows its negative side on the tennis court; a let ball is one that is hindered by hitting the net. Really there are two different words let, which come from two different Old English roots. Luckily they are never confused, though Shakespeare did his best to muddy things with a line in "Unhand me, gentlemen. By heaven. I'll make a ghost of him that lets The meaning there, of course, was "him that hinders me."