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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - June 21, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta Thvrnlay, Junt 21, 1979 THI UTHMIDGS HERALD 5 Canada helps build African railway By Thomas Land, London Observer commentator Yean of persistence, plus a (rowing multi-million dollar in- have enabled Can' dp to turn the million Gambia Tanzania railway the focal point of China's drive to win friends in Africa, into an international of co-operation beyond ideological barriers. The partially completed Uhu- (Freedom) railway line is o link the Zambian copper belt with the Tanzanian port of Dar js Salaam across miles this year, over 12 months ahead of schedule. It will by- all white-controlled heigh- wing territories, finally sol- ving the recurring transpor- ,ation crises arising from the unilateral declaration of inde- endence in Rhodesia, through which Zambia's main commu- ilcations arteries run. But the new line could hard- y perform as landlocked Zam- bia's major single trade to ths sea, and thence :he world markets, without a complete reorganization of the entire railway net- work, undertaken by Canada X) prepare for the change Canada moved to turn the Tambia Tanzania railway link into a co-operative effort aftsr making considerable efforts to iromote the creation of an ex- -lusively Western consortium or the financing of the line. Canada participated with Bri- in a free survey, estab- '.sbing the technical and eco- nomic feasibility of 'the pro- ect sought by the African lartners. But Western govern- ments and financing organiza- dons failed to raise the devsl- opment capital and the way thus left open for China .o launch its biggest single over- seas project, challenging West- ern influence in Africa. The Canadian National Rail- ways (CNR) entered into a uni- jue agreement with the Zam- lian railway network, with spe- emphasis on development training. Formerly the northern half of the Rhodesian Railways system (which broke up after UDI) and Zambia Rail- ways had to build up its entire administration, engineering and store establishment practically from scratch. Its inheritance rom Britain's Central African system was meagre and included 87 of Rhodesian Railways' 403 locomotives, 800 freight cars out of and 70 of 672 passenger coaches. About 30 senior Canadian management personnel from the general manager down, are now in control of the Zambian sys- tem. Its accident rate, immense by Canadian standards, has recently been brought down to less intolerable levels by half-a-dozen senior drivers im- ported from Canada. The first annual report in the seven-year history of Zambia Railways is now being prepared. And trains are running on time. New locomotives and rolling stock have been purchased, and a complete railway headquart- ers is rapidly taking shape at Kabwe, north of the capital city of Lusaka. Training remains Zambia Railway's great e s t need as it suffers from a short- age of skilled men. The CNR estimates that, with the aid of the International Labor Office, it will have trained enough Zambians to run their own railway by 1975, the ori- ginal target date for fte com- pletion of the Zambian Tan- zanian railway line, when its contract expires. But as the Chinese project is almost cer- tain to be completed well ahead of schedule, its operation will come at least indirectly under CNR's responsibility. The Kabwe headquarters in- clude a vast railway training centre with a unique feature: it has no fixed program. Cour- ses are developed as they be- come required at the re- quest of the railway manage- ment which informs the direc- tor of the number of people required with particular skills. The duration of a course can vary for each trainee accord- ing to his knowledge and exper- ience. Training for machinists, for example, extends over two to six weeks. At least five weeks are needed to train a sig- nalman and, for someone with a good technical foundation, a course of about 12 weeks Is re- quired in locomotive main- tenance and overhaul. Canada's financial invest- ment in neutralizing the Chin- ese railway project is minimal by comparison with the con- struction costs: two and a half million dollars for the CNR- Zambia Railway project, million last year to the Tanzan- ian Harbors Corporation, which must also get ready for vastly expanded traffic to be brought by the new communications link, and this year to help Zambia through its lat- est transportation crisis in the wake of the closure of its bor- der with Rhodesia. The first such crisis occurred immed- iately after UDI in 1965, when Britain, the United States and Canada rescued Zambia by mounting an airlift of oil. Anticipating the Phodesian rebellion, China offered to build the Zambia Tanzania railway eight years ago, white Com- monwealth presidents and ministers were meeting in don. Canada has managed to make the West's initial inroad into that hitherto exclusively Chinese prestige project bo cause it stimulates demands for further development for which outside assistance is needed. A far. bigger chance awaits the West at Dar es Sal- aam, where the new railway line will necessitate a further enlarging of the harbor's cargo capacity. L CONGO KwJimouthfc Brazzaville "N-l Ovtlraf t MAP Book Reviews Like salted peanuts "Once Is Not Enough" by Jacqueline Susann (George J. McLeod Limited, 467 pages, Again Jacqueline Susann scores a big hit with "Once Is Not an intense, per- ceptive novel of spiritual and mental incest, daring and pre- cise. The theme of this superb novel is January Wayne, named for her month of birth by Mike Wayne, famous movie and thea- tre producer and haphazard father. Her mother died when January was 7 years old. and Mike enrolled her in a board- ing school. But the weekends they spend together. As a re- sult January turns into a love- starved worshipper of her hero father and falls in love with him. Needless to say, she grows up with only one thought, to take her place be- side her father in his wonder- ful world of limousines, expen- sive hotel suites, and dinners at "21." After a motorcycle accident which claims 3 years of her life in hospitals and rehabili- tation, January at age 20 comes back to New York with no place to go. She enters a world total- ly alien to her, an ingenue NORTH LETHBRIDGE 'YOUR PRO STORE FOR HARD-TO-FIND HARDWARE" 324 13th STREET NORTH PRO Courtesy of your PRO Hardware Store IONA-RE6IKA ELECTRIK BROOM Clean-up fast and easy with an electrik broom. Fea- tures rug pile dial toggle for quick pick-up. Easy to empty dirt cup. Fashionable Mediterranean pattern With harvest gold casing. 34 .95 REGINA CANNISTER VACUUM Powerful vacuum with low slung silhouette. Featur- ing vinyl bumper (eliminates scratched Exclusive Cyclonic Suction (for great cleaning loe-tap on-off control. Rug-pile dial nozzle (for all types of carpeting. Eight of the most used accessories (stored inside Foam green and Mess green combination PHONE 328-4441 POINTS THE WAY TO GREAT SAYINGS ON THESE TIMELY PRICED ITEMS DOOR LOCK SPECIALS Thinking of replacing those worn door locks Here is your chance to make the repairs and make real savings at the same time. LOCK SETS In two popular finishes polished bronze or polished aluminum fimsh. Keyed lock with 236" spring latch with two keys. POLISHED ALUMINUM SET SET POLISHED BRONZE SET SET PRIVACY LOCK SET For the bathroom in two finishes. Bronze and chrome or polished aluminum and chrome. With spring latch. Button latch on M 95 'bathroom side. SET spi 4 PASSAGE SET seeking love and fulfilment in a society where people live and make love by strange standards. Linda Riggs, editor-in-chiqf of a well-established magazine, a self-made woman, one night love affairs notwithstanding; Karla, a 'Garbo' type recluse for whom childhood ran the gamut from peasant hut to nunnery in war-torn Poland; Deirdre Milford Granger, mil- lionairess extra ordinaire to whom buying a husband was second nature; David Milford. cousin to Deirdre, seemingly the right match for January; and Tom Colt, renowned, mid- dle-aged author with whom January is compelled to find some remnant of happiness are all included. Written with a flair only Jac- queline Susann can manage, "Once Is Not Enough" deals with love, the lack of it, the need for it, the insane things done for it. This, her newest and best novel, was years in the writing. Jacqueline is the daughter of a school teacher mother and famous portrait painter father, Robert Susann. She is mar- ried to Irving Mansfield, suc- cessful television producer, who is now managing Jacqueline's business affairs. Her first book, "Every Night written about her poodle, was published in No- vember, 1963. It took nine years to write, and sold copies. Next came "Valley Of The Dolls" which sold 25 million copies, and "Love Machine" which sold 10 million copies and is still going strong. The loSt uOOKS wa6T6 Ilitu movies which did not do justice to Jacqueline's writing. This novel is just Eke a dish of salted peanuts, once you pick it up, you will not be able to put it down until you finish the whole thing! Should be in- teresting to see who gets the choice roles in the movie ver- sion. ANNE SZALAVARY For bedrooms and hall with 2V spring latch. Choose from two finishes. POLISHED BRONZE SET 3M POLISHED ALUMINUM SET 3 Books in brief "I Made It Myself" by M. M. Lanitress (George J. Mc- Leod Limited, 276 pages, A delightully dangerous book about an affable printer cum counterfeiter, Mike Landress. Writing about him- self, the author tells .about the first time he dabbled in t h e 'black arts' when the syndi- cate blackmailed him into turn- ing out Ben Franklins. But then, a drop in business led to monkey business, as Mike soon found out when he started experimenting with funny-money for his own use. His cohorts, 'Spider' Moe Bloom and 'Dr. No' gave him a run for his money. A surprise ending brings to light some very important in- formation by including a fac- tual statistics report on the es- calating crime of counterfeit- ing. Although the secret ser- vice confiscates eight out of nine bills being passed on to the public, there was an alarm- ing increase of nearly 5 mil- lion worth of counterfeit cur- rency distributed in 1971 com- pared to million in 1965. It makes you wonder if the stuff you have in your pocket is real. ANNE SZALAVARY purse tercus the pen By Hal Hoffman, local educator While the news media can take a bow for helping to uncover the Watergate mess, it must also take some of the responsi- bility for the root causes of Watergate. I say this for mainly two reasons; first, the media in general have not been critical enough nor entirely independent of the two most powerful factors in North America, the government and the corporate sector; secondly, the relation of the news media to the electoral process needs to be seriously questioned. On the question of lack of criticism it appears to me that no other issue in recent memory brought this into sharper focus than the exposing of the Pentagon papers. While it is fair to say that the news media helped to expose that issue, they were not tha initiators, though that is a minor point. The Pentagon papers revealed how gov- ernment had for years spoon fed the "right" kind of information, classified or other- wise, to a largely unquestioning group of reporters. It is quite clear that in the ma- jority of cases reporters recognized only too well the game that was being played. They went along with it because of the very real fear of being denied access to the latest government "news scoop." Meanwhile as the media slumbered, Am- erica became more entangled in Vietnam and all of the war's tragic consequences. Somehow or other, in recent times it has become more important for reporters to know the right people rather than to know how and be willing to do the type of investigative type of work neces- sary to dig up the information the general public needs to keep our governments and corporations honest, relevant and respon- sive. If we value democracy then a truly free press is one of the highest priorities. Perhaps John Porter, author of The Verti- cal Mosaic, was right on target when he stated that the unifying value of themes is achieved through the control of the media of communication, and there- fore the structure of the ideological sys- tem becomes articulated with other sys- tems of power (p. 460) Translated into everyday terms this means that it is difficult to criticize a large corporation about pollution practices or shoddy products while at the same time accepting large sums of advertising reven- ue from that same corporation. It is diffi- cult to objectively criticize the government when the ownership of the media lies with the same corporate group that makes large political donations to the governing politi- cal party. Political parties find themselves in ex- actly the same position when a conflict of interest arises between the public good and the desired best interests of a corpor- ation which donated large sums to the last election campaign. Needless to say, most prefer not to chop off their own lifelines. This brings us to the second point re- garding the role of the news media !n the political process. The main point of criticism here lies with the needlessly con- trived expenses involved in modern elec- tions. The news media are the main bene- factor of this windfall and have not seen fit to crusade for electoral reform with any great conviction. The type of advertising that is in general practice does very little to inform people and is now almost down to the ridiculously bland proposition of simply re- peating the candidates name and party in a mindless, mechanized monotone. This, in itself, is unacceptable, but even mora volved, as if to exclude as many people from the political process as possible. It is for reasons such as this that men like Richard Nixon associate with men like Vescoe of IDS and Smith of Westgate, who are both in trouble the U.S. Securi- ties Exchange Commission because of their financial dealings. One can only speculate what concessions they anticipated in re- turn for their very generous election con- tributions. No matter which way you look at it the public good is theJoser. The expensive cam- paign causes the politician to seek heavy financial backers which in turn tends to compromise his future decisions and ob- scure his objectivity. Politics is thus re- duced to a tiger-biting-his-tail type of game in which only the more wealthy can effec- tively compete. The obvious danger of this is heightened by the fact that not all wealth is achieved by legitimate means. In summary, then, it would appear that if we are to avoid future Watergates we need free and independent news media. To be quite fair, some excellent editorials have recently appeared regarding the need for electoral reforms. Members of all par- ties have called for election reforms. But it goes further than that. The news media must take a serious look at its source of financial support. Higher subscription rates and lower dependence on advertising rev- enue might go a long way toward making the news media more free and indepen- dent. There ought to be no objection to this from the general public because they end up paying for the news no matter how indirect the route. The same principle ap- plies to political donations. Similarly, in both cases, the more indirect the route of financial support becomes, the greater the loss of direct public response to these two most vital public institutions. The function of the news media as I see it is to keep us, as a nation, both honest and relevant. In order to fulfill this role the news media, like our political parties, must be supported in such a manner that removes any question of their ability to achieve their publicly stated objectives. In short, the power of the pan, be it poli'cal or journalistic, should take precedence over the power of the purse. ANDY RUSSELL Grass-vital to the West It is frightening to think what would hap- pen if some blight suddenly attacked and wiped out all the grasses of the earth, for grass is the keystone of the food chains of the entire world. Many animals, domestic and wild including meat eaters and grazers would be wiped out or reduced to a mere handful of their former population. The hu- man species be confronted with a cataclysmic famine for all the cereal grains corn, barley, wheat, rye and oats- would be gone. These are all grasses and the mainstay of human existence. All the tame hay would be wiped out with only the various clovers remaining. Grass probably had as much or even more of an influence than gold in tte set- tlement, exploration and history of th? west. It was gold that lured the early settlers of California, Colorado and other portions of western and northern North America but it was the great seas of grass on the plains and in the mountain valleys along with abundantly rich soil that attracted the per- manent settlement. The plains Indians look- ed on grass with reverence, burning cer- tain kinds in religious rituals and knowing it was the support of the great bison herds, the mainstay of their food supplies. When white man showed up and began to plow the prairies turning the rich grass under their furrows, the Indians understandably thought they were crazy. During the Civil War in the United States, the sparse settlement in Texas almost dis- appeared and with the armistice the peo- ple found themselves in deep economic de- pression with no market for their cattle. Thousands of cattle had gone wild and even those that wore brands were worth about a dollar apiece. But with the railroad expan- sion into Kansas, opening a way to mar- kets in the east, the enterprising Texans saw a way to ctire their troubles. Round- ing up great herds of kmghorns they began trailing them north to Abilene, erazine them as they vent on the rich grass of the southern plains so they arrived at the shipping pens fat and ready for market. Sbsers that aad been worth a dollar apiece in Texas were suddenly bringing forty dol- lars per head in Kansas, and for the next few years the whole plains region saw dust banners moving over long trailing herds. Soon the drives were reaching into Wyom- ing and Montana, where new ranching em- pires were founded and then on north into Canada. About the last of the trail drives involved the Matador Ranch cattle which came all the way from Old Mexico to Al- berta about head. My father was a boy when this drive came through about 1895 and recalled the oldtimers telling of the herd that was strung out for miles. This outfit sot up their headquarters in Saskatchewan but wers largely wiped out in the hard winter of along with many other big ranch operations depend- ing on grass for winter feed at that time. Fescue, more commonly known as bunch grass, was the most common grass fifty years ago hers on the western Canadian prairies. Farming and overgrazing have wiped out most of it. but there are still places where it grows thick and rich. All the plains grasses have one very valuable feature; they cure on the stem and retain much food value over the winter, provid- ing excellent forage. In a wild valley in southwestarn Yukon territory, I foiir.d bunch grass growing pro- fusely. Great clumps, two to three feet high, covered the flats among the moun- tains at the junction of the Bates River and Wolverine Creek. Nothing was feed- ing on it there for the moose and scatter- ed caribou of the region forajre mosMy on moss and brouse. But it was interesting to see it there and farther north up a'oag the hillsides sloping into the Pelly, only a oeographic step from Arctic ;