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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - June 21, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THE inHBRIDGt HEfiAlD Jun. 11, 1971---- David Haworth i U.S. and EEC trade relations strained It's ours! Cheering crowds in Baghdad greeted the news tiiat the govern- ment of Iraq had taken over the huge Western owned Iraq Petrole- um Company (IPC) the oldest com- mercial oil company in the Arab world. British Petroleum, Royal Dutch Shell, Compagnie Francaise des Petroles and Standard of New Jersey each owned 23.5 per cent of IPC, with Gulbenkian interest hold- ing the remaining five per cent. The Iraqis say compensation will be paid only after deduction of back taxes, wages, and government claims against the company. These claims will, if past experience of such take- overs is an indication, be totally un- realistic. The Iraqis have offered to ne- gotiate a separate deal with France because of its support of the Arab cause. No one is counting that they won't take advantage of it. IPC has reacted calmly, although it has threatened legal action against possible private buyers, a method which has had success in the past. But the advantages are by no means entirely in the Iraqi camp. It is estimated that about 90 per cent of Iraq's revenue comes from oil. The Soviets and their satellites in Eastern Europe can buy only a frac- tion and will not pay the highest prices for what they do buy. In fact the market for nearly all Middle- East oil is in the highly industrial- ized Western countries and Japan. These countries are also in a posi- tion to provide the huge investments necessary for further development. One Western oil specialist goes so far as to suggest that it might be a good thing if all Middle-East pro- ducers nationalized. The resulting competition among the Arab nations might reduce the price. The Soviets have scored a politi- cal point in their support of Iraq, by supporting Iraq's "anti-imperial- ism." But anti-imperialism does not feed people. The practical economic facts ol life cannot be ignored by the oil producing Arab states or the West either. It's an economic war that really has nothing to do witli Western support of the Israelis. The consumers, the producers and the companies cannot afford to treat one another as enemies. JJRUSSBLS American rep- resentatives end Europe- an Econohuc Community offi- cials here admit that relations between the U.S. and the Com- munity are going through a pe- riod of strain. The American Ambassador himself recently offered tho view that this would be an "unrewarding" year because the Common Market is going through an awkward transitional phase as it makes arrangements for the acces- sion next year of Britain, Ire- land, Denmark and Norway but also as a result of Ameri- can foreign policy difficulties caused by the U.S.'s continuing balance of payments deficit. There are other factors: the general elections due next year in France and Germany, the Presidential election campaign in America and the annoyance America feels about the EEC's proliferating preferential trade agree ments with developing countries, which the U.S. con- siders protectionist and work- Bilingualism in a bind The observation made recently by Alberta MP Stan Schumacher that "bilingualism is hard to sell in Al- berta" is regrettable but true. The farther away provinces are from Que- bec, the less influence the French language and culture have on Anglo- phone Canadians. This of course, is an acceptable and understandable explanation, but it isn't the whole reason for the French fact's shaky position west of Hull. Some of the problem can be attrib- uted to a general resistance in the past on the part of citizens, provincial governments, and educators to accept the two language system. "Why should we learn French" has been a cry for generations from those who, quite reasonably, would prefer to learn TJkranian, German, Gaelic, or whatever is their native origin. It is of little use to point out at this late date that in small European countries, such as Holland, children at the kindergarten level begin learn- ing to read and write in several lang- uages including their own. By the time they are in high school they are admirably fluent in French, German, English, and of course their own tongue. But in Canada we have been too late with too little effort to introducs this educational pattern. Had we dona so at the time of the fall of New France, or even following Confedera- tion, Canadian-born people today might be able to boast of being biling- ual. But French, when included in tha school curriculum has been sketchy at best, usually introduced to students long past the prime time for learn- ing a second language. Indeed, French lessons often hava been a plague, when they should have been a pleasure. The government will likely conlinus its goal towards increased bilingual- ism but it looks as if it's a dead-end street. It can insist on public service employees' (and future MPs too) flu- ency in the two national languages but it can't pressure an entire nation into sharing these goals. The whole issue is a little sad. French is second to English as an in- ternational language. In a global world, to he fluent in both would be an education of inestimable value. But today it will only be achieved by those Canadians who seriously seek it out. ANDY RUSSELL The prickly porcupine ago when I was a very young trapper out catching my pocket mon- ey before and after school the pelts of weasels and mink I began learning something about porcupines. My dog was with me one winter evening and he sudden- ly began barking at something under a little pile of dead brush covered by crusted snow. The crust was heavy enough to carry me and I wafted up on top of the pile to investigate. Without warning the snow sud- denly gave way under my feet and I fell heavily, thrusting my hand down- through the sticks In an effort to catch my balance. It came into contact with a hidden porcu- pine, and when I pulled it free my leather mitt was pinned to my hand by a mass of porcupine quills driven through it into the flesh. Shaking the other mitt off, I began pulling them out. The searing pain of barb- ed points made tears come to my eyes, but I kept at it till they were all out but one. That one was broken off and the point was buried in the cartilage of the knuckle joint of my first finger. I tried to remove it with my teeth but it was impossible. By the time I got home it had worked in deep- er completely out of sight. It was a long way by saddle horse or buggy to a doctor in those days and people did not tend to go unless it was a matter of broken bones or serious illness, so 1 lived with my porucpine quill. It was in my writing hand which made doing my school work a real torture and for a while I could not move my index finger a quarter of an inch without a sharp pain shooting up my arm although there was no infection. About a month later I was eating breakfast ona morning when I noticed a b'ttle black some- thing showing under the skin on the edgo of my palm on the opposite side of thS knuckle. It was the quill point and when I showed it to my father, he prepared to re- move it. Boiling his razor in hot water, he painted my hand with iodine, and then while I gritted my teeth he cut a tiny inci- sion just ahead of the point and squeezed it out. The bit of quill was only a quarter inch long, but I was never so glad to be rid of anything. Tbere U still a tiny scar on my hand to remind me of the painful Incident. The porcupine is a relatively slow mov- ing and dull thinking animal but its ons are fearsome. There are few species of the larger four-footed ones that do not con- tact them at some time or another and in all the years I have hunted, trapped and observed big game and furbearers through the mountains from the International Boun- dary north to the arctic, I have seen evi- dence pointing to this fact. I once skinned a black bear that had hundreds of the hard, insoluble quill points imbedded in scar tis- sue next the bones of his skull, paws and forelegs. At some time in his life he had been hungry enough to tackle a porcupine and must have suffered agony before the quill points became immobilized. These points arc barbed and work their way through living flesh at every movement sometimes reaching vital organs to kill the unfortunate one. Wolverines have been known to fly info a frothing rage when hurt by the quills, tearing the porcupine to shreds, but dying as a result. Another time. Bert Riggall, the famous mountain guide, skinned out a bighorn ram's head to find a lacework of quill points imbedded against the frontal bone of the skull in an almost solid pattern. Years before, the ram had butted a porcupine, probably in play, and collected himself a long lasting headache. I killed a cow elk for meat one fail that had many quills lying against the bones of her front legs. She had had the misfortune to run over one of the quilly animals. An- other time I trappped a big skunk and upon skinning it found a hundred or more quill points and quills in various stages freshness all through it. My curiousity led me back along its trail through the snow to a den in a washout under a willow on the edge of a dry slough where the skunk had made its nest in the middle of a of hair and quills of a dead porcupine a lethal kind of mattress. Tho skunk was just skin and bones and likely would havfe! died from its injuries. The only animal I have never found wearing quills is the beaver. ing against the ambition of world free trade. The last time President Richard Nixon's special trade representative, Mr. William Ebcrle, in Brussels, both! sides radiated friendship and satisfaction after the talks. This cordiality, said Mr. Eberle, contrasted with the "irrita- tibns" which had marked U.S.- EEC trade talks, earlier in the year. But on that occasion the Am- ericans did warn that the Pres- idential election and a. protec- tionist minced Congress could both cause delays in the pro- jected world-wide trade talks which it is hoped will begin early next year. Nonetheless, it was made clear that America's long-term aim was to create a world free trade area which would have the effect of diminishing any consequences arising from ne- gotiations now going on be- tween the EEC and the non- candidate countries in the Eu- ropean Free Trade Association The US. is against such preferential agreements "in principle." The Americans expressed the hope that the discrimination against U.S. goods inherent in these agreements would even- tually be phased out. So far, so good. But immediately after the statements had been made EEC officials were at pains to make clear that such senti- ments were "completely un- In other words, the talks had achieved little except a paper- ing over of disagreements be- tween the U.S. and the Common Market countries. Because there was no fundamental iden- ity of view, it was inevitable lha' sniping between the two would soon break out again. This has now happened with the publication of a Common Market document which re- views current trade and eco- nomic relations between Eu- rope and America and bluntly states that "it is not up to the! U.S.'s t r a d ing partners, t h r o u g h substantial trading deficits, to carry the whole bur- den of the sought adjustment of the American balance of pay- ments." This is regarded here as the most downright statement yet of the European Economic Community's opinion on recent trade dealings with America. It says that although the U.S. Government lias stressed the trade aspects of the U.S. pay- ments deficit "an analysis shows clearly that such an ex- planation provides only a very partial answer." In the EEC's view, much blame for America's present balance of payments difficul- ties "must be found mainly in the continuing large outflows in short- and long-term American capital." Despite last year's enormous trade deficit, the re- port says, America still had an important trade surplus with the Community. Tho EEC statement is an at- tempt to pull together diverse strands of the U.S.-Common "When's the next flight out o'Northern Ireland, Market dialogue which liu taken place since last year's currency crisis not always conducted with good humor and will be seen as a counter- blast to American accusations of Community trade restric- tions and protectionism. It stresses that the amount of U.S. direct Investment In Eu- rope should not be left out of the equation. At the end of last year the book value of di- rect U.S. investment In the six present EEC countries was million. Next year this will increase to million Britain accounting for some million of that to- tal. Since 1958 the book value of American direct investment in the Community has grown six- fold. In the past decade tho Community has been the fast- est growth area for U.S. invest- ment. Investment in the Com- munity in 1858, which was then largely in the petroleum indus- try, comprised only seven per cent of total U.S. investment abroad. By 1970 the Commu- nity proportion had grown to 15 per cent of all American invest- ments. This American direct invest- ment has an impact on Ameri- can exports to Europe, and thus on the American Com- munity balance of Today more and more American products, ranging from com- puters to detergents, aro pro- duced in Europe and are no longer being exported from the United States. In 1968, the last year for which complete figures are available, the sales of Am- erican manufacturing subsid- iaries located in the Common Market totalled million. After such a sharply critical response to U.S. policy the EEC document goes out of its way to stress the opinion that the EEC and the development it has brought to the economies of European countries has also been a considerable advantage to America. "The Commuiiily hao been the most important element in the post-war movement to bring Western Europe togeth- it says. "For the U n i t e d Slates, as this report has shown, the community and the policy it has followed since 1958 have been beneficial to Ameri- can interests whether in trade, monetary relations or in- vestment." That sentiment, at least, has received broad agreement among American representa- tives in the Common Market. (Written for Tlie Herald and The Observer In London) Peter Wilby Studies show learning gap related to poverty T ONBON Hundreds o f British children from poor, working-class homes are al- ready hopelessly backward in educational achievement by the age of seven. This is the conclusion of a startling survey of all children born in Britain in ona week of March 1958 publish- ed this week by the National Children's Bureau, a private organization set up to study child development. It shows that the average gap in read- ing attainment between the children of unskilled manual workers and those from well-to- do middle-class families was well over two years by the age of seven. When other aspects of their background and upbringing are taken into account, such as overcrowding and lack ot basic amenities, the gap be- tween the least advantaged and the 'most advantaged children was on average over four years. The chances of an unskilled worker's child being a non- reader were 15 times greater at seven than those of a profes- sional man's child. The work- ing-class children were dis ad- vantaged on a whole series of other measures. They were smaller, less well-adjusted in Letter to the editor school, and more likely to have squints, speech defects an'd to wet their beds. These results are likely to cause a major controversy among educationalists and pol- iticians. Since 1945, one of the chief aims of British poli- ticians has been to create "equality of opportunity" a situation in .which a working- class child, from a home where money is scarce and books even scarcer, has as much chance of benefiting from edu- cation and ultimately getting a top job (as a lawyer or man- aging director or doctor) as a child from a wealthy, cultured, middle-class home. Governments have attempted to achieve this ideal by ex- panding the number of places in higher education and by en- suring that all children get a good secondary education be- tween the ages of II and 18. But the bureau's new study suggests that, by then, it is al- ready too late for most work- ing-class children. Attempting to provide equality 'of oppor- tunity through secondary edu- cation is, it seems, equivalent to saying that everybody is free to dine at the best hotel in town. The authors go further: "A massive redeployment of resources is called for and the Letter misinterpreted In regard to John Wevers' letter of Wednesday evening, 1 would like to clear up a mis- understanding. In my letter, tire reference to high school rivalry was not in- tended to suggest that WCHS had anything to do with Miss Cookshaw's criticism of Bye, Bye Birdie. What I did mean to point out was that Miss Cook- shaw obviously holds loyalties to her school and perhaps her own feelings had iinsuspcctedly crept in, to bias her review. I meant in no way to smear the name of Winston Churchill High School, or to further LCI- rivalry. My only objec- tive was to criticize Miss Cook- shaw's destructive review of Bye, Bye Birdie. I am sorry my letter was misinterpreted. If I have caus- ed embarrassment or offended the name of Winston Churchill High School, I sincerely apolo- gize. This was not my intent. CHRIS SUMPTION LCI Student Lethbridgo Initiative needed Is much wider and more complex than a nar- rowly educational one." Even more pre-school education may not be enough, they say. "We have to think beyond nursery education and even, beyond education itself. We have to consider the total environment of the According to the study, the two most important deter- minants of educational disad- vantage, after social class, are family size and overcrowded housing conditions. A seven- year-old from a one- or two- child family will have gained in reading age by about 12 months compared with a child from a family of five or more. In 1065, says the study, IS per cent of children were liv- ing in over-crowded conditions. These were defined as house- holds in which there were more than 1.5 persons per room (with a kitchen counted as a room only if it was used for In reading attainment, the effect of overcrowding is equivalent to about nine months' retardation. Overcrowding, large families and social class, along with several other factors, have only a minor influence on ability in arithmetic, however. This con- firms that it is in the develop- ment of language that poor children are most likely to suf- fer. Looking after a large family, In crowded conditions and lack- ing basic amenities, such as. an indoor lavatory, the parents are likely to have little time to talk to their children and even less to read to them. When there is conversation, it is like- ly to take the form of short, sharp commands. Speech is rarely used to explain or de- scribe. The cultural values of the school, which stress per. sonal development and im- provement through a life-long process, of accumulated educa- tion and training, are probably alien to the "live now" phi- losophy of a working-class home. The study shows that, com- pared with tha crippling disad- vantages Imposed by their ba- sic conditions, working class children suffer -hardly at all from having mothers who go out to work or even from being the products of a broken home. To complete the gloomy pic- ture, the study demonstrates conclusively that smaller class- es in school which1 are often proposed as the panacea for educational no difference at all to the at- tainments of the children re- gardless of social class. In fact, the evidence suggested that children in larger classes may do better. The authors surmise that this is because "a large class tends to impose a relatively formal teaching approach and that this may in general be asso- ciated with higher levels of measured attainment at the age of seven." But, as they point out, there is Looking Through The Herald 1022 It is a far cry from Lcthbriclge to Golden Gate yet the radio fans of the city picked up a concert broadcasted by the Fairmont hotel, San Fran- cisco, the other evening, which is one of the best records made in the province to dale. 1932 With the rapid com- pletion of the new Ironside and Park block on sixth street south, building in the city ap- pears to be practically at a standstill. 3942 Sugar rationing is now being put on a coupon basis another possibility. Their def- inition of small classes as con- taining 30 children or less (which, since 58 per cent of the children were In classes of 36 or more, is the only realis- tic definition in present condi- tions In British State schools) "may not have been small enough for beneficial effects to be apparent." Perhaps classes with fewer than 25 or even under 20 chil- dren are necessary before tha benefits of more individual at- tention and a, more flexible timetable are reflected in im- proved attainment. Such an aim indicates once again ths massive redeployment of re- sources that is required, on a scale hardly even considered before, if Britain's children are really to have "equality of op- portunity." (Written for The Herald and The Observer in London) backward by the Wartime Prices and Trade Board. Half a pound of sugar per person per week is the allowance for people ot Canada as it is for the people of Great Britain and Ihe United States. 1932 External Affairs Minister Lester B. Pearson yes- terday said in the Commons that a new approach is being made in the Korean truce talks that may bring an armistice. 1902 The 10-mile wide hail storm which ripped through southern Alberta yesterday, left damage to crops estimated at between 25 and 100 per cent. The Uthbridcje Herald 604 7th St. S., Lethbridge, Alberta LETHBRTTJGE HERAU) 00. LTD., Proprietors and Publisher! Published 1905 -1954, by Hon. W. A. BUCHANAN Second Claw Mall Reglslrallon No. 0012 Member of The Canadian Press and the Canadian Daily publishers' Auociallon and tfte Audit Bureau of CLEO W. MOWERS, Edlror and Publisher THOMAS H. ADAMS, Oeneral Manager DON PIU.IKG WILUIAM HAV Managing Editor Editor ROY F. MILES DOUGLAS K. VWLKER Advertising Manager Editorial Page Editor THE HERAIO SERVES THE SOUTH" ;