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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - June 20, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta Thursday, Junt LETHBRIDGE Heartbreak of "separate development" By David Martin, London Observer commentator V i LONDON If any proof was needed of the inhumanity of South Africa's policy of "separate development" for whites and non-whites it is more than amply provided in a report entitled Uprooting A Nation a study of evictions in South Africa, just released by the Africa Publications Trust. "On September 5, 1973 the village of Makopole Mam- puru, near Groblersdal in the eastern Transvaal, was sur- rounded by South African police who informed the peo- ple that they were being mov- ed to a settlement in the Lebowa Homeland, 40 miles away. "The people, who had been finally informed at the beginning of August that they must move by the end of the month, resisted; so the police moved in, dispersed the crowd with tear gas, broke down the chief's door and arrested him and four others. The villagers were all transported the 40 miles to the Steelport River area of Sekhukuniland in government lorries. "According to the police the BERRY'S WORLD new land was 'lush territory where all the necessary facilities have been laid on The chief and his followers are quite happy now that they have been moved to their new kraal'. "However, the 'chief and his followers' were very far from happy with the 600 tem- porary galvanized shacks, or with the land allocation for 000 people, or with their forc- ed removal and drastic destruction of their former way of life from homes where they had lived for generations." That excerpt from the report illustrates just one ex- ample of the dislocation of traditional ways of life that South Africa's blacks living in designated "whites only" areas are undergoing today. The report of the Africa Publications Trust, establish- ed as a charity to promote the study of African affairs and sponsor research, states: "Separate development, the policy of the ruling Nationalist Party, is designed to meet the two dominant needs of their policy: an ideological demand 1974 by ]nc "Good afternoon! I'm your Avon for race separation to main- tain the status quo of white supremacy; and an economic demand for rapid industrial expansion and future political stability based largely on the use of cheap and plentiful black labor which has been the basis of the country's con- siderable economic growth over the past century." In the past 20 years the mass forced migration or threatened migration of Africans has affected or is likely to affect three million people. And, according to the report, over eight million are living still in the "wrong areas" and are therefore vulnerable. What the South Africans have done is to create at least 10 separate territorial units and into these in ethnic categories the blacks are gradually being forced into 13 per cent of the country's land, while the remaining 87 per cent is reserved for the whites. This is the culmina- tion of a long process. The Land Act of 1913 restricted African land ownership to 000 square miles or only 7.6 per cent of South Africa's total area. The Native Trust and Land Act of 1936 increas- ed this to 12.9 per cent with the rest of the country reserv- ed for white occupation. Gradually the vice" has tightened, reflecting the words of the 1922 Stallard Commission: "The native should only be allowed to enter urban areas, which are essentially the white man's creation, when he is willing to enter and to administer to the needs of the white man and should depart therefrom when he ceases so to minister." There are limitations to the report as it frankly admits, quoting one researcher for Black Sash, a campaigning organization of white South African women: "What one can never do, given all the time in the world is to convey the anguish and horror, the heartbreak the agony and anger, the bitterness and rage that these removals Between 1960 and 1970 well over Africans were pushed out of areas designated for white oc- cupation. In reality what is oc- curring is that migratory work-seeking patterns have been reversed by forced mass removals. Whole families are pushed out of the towns to black townships. The men who are needed are allowed back to work in the white- controlled industries and mines but they cannot take their families with them. Africans are moved to inferior and overcrowded land on the "reserves" where they are not allowed to keep their cattle. In many cases no com- pensation is paid when houses are bulldozed and people forc- ed to moye. At Vulamehlo reserve in Natal the report cites one family with six children, the eldest aged 16. All have tuberculosis, the mother had to work 40 miles away at Glencoe and got home once a month and the father had become a migrant worker in Johannesburg and had not been heard of for some time. In the .nearby reserve of Nqutu unemployed men are forced to register as work- seekers with employers arriv- ing and requisitioning the numbers they require. A sur- vey conducted at a hospital showed that of 517 families, 32 had no income or pension. Of the 464 breadwinners, 310 worked 220 miles away and therefore1 rarely saw their families. The South African government, the report says, operates on the estimate that workers can travel 70 miles each way daily and up to 400 miles a week. Thus, workers commuting to Pretoria from Hamrnanskraal have to leave home at 4 a.m. and elsewhere the story is the same or worse. In Namibia (Southwest a trusteeship over which the World Court has up- held the United Nations ter- mination of mandate and declared Pretoria's rule il- legal, the same pattern of divided families, unhygienic squalid reserves on poor land and virtual forced labor is emerging. About 29 per cent of the African population of Book review. will be forced to move if the plan for ethnic reserves is im- plemented. About 95 per cent of the Damara people and 75 per cent of the Herero live outside their new "designated areas" and the "Damara plan" is to force them into hectares of wasteland. Of the people living there at present, the 10 headmen receive a govern- ment stipend of a month and for the rest there is no economic activity. Their new homeland they describe as a "chicken run" and they add: "We are systematically disinherited and made strangers in our land. We have been deprived of all our human rights and forced to live in a form of slavery." The reserves have become a "dumping ground for the dis- possessed." They cannot sup- port their populations which are growing daily. But, even more important, a South African report argues they cannot be allowed to do so. "In terms of their own policy the proponents of separate development cannot allow the homelands to develop to the stage where they are economically viable in the sense of providing jobs for all their citizens. For if the homelands did develop economically to this stage who would till the fields, mine the gold and man the factories of South Africa's common Thus, today South Africa is working on a policy of keeping the Africans out of sight. But it can never put them from mind. In the reserves, homelands of Bantustans. call them what one will, the blacks are kept in helotry as the labor force for white industry. But those reserves today must also be the shanty towns of seething black hatred which will one day make much more than just a mockery of separate development. Language bill under attack By Louis Burke, local writer MONTREAL Bill 22, the Quebec Languages Act. is up for target practice for the next three weeks. Much, if not all. of the shooting will start in Montreal area, but the echoes will be heard in Quebec city down- river. This bifc, though seemingly in the realm of education, has a very wide range which affects all of Quebec life and without doubt the eddies will wash the shores of every Canadian province in time. Business and industry comes under it; language and culture are involved and so are the lives, futures and education of nearly young people in the Montreal area. To the Francophones. Montreal is the large leak in the Quebec plumbing system. The student population breaks down into some French speaking students and nearly English speaking students. The latter is further subdivided into slightly more than Protestant and almost 35.000 Catholic youngsters. While most of the Protestant body is Anglo Saxon in background, the majority of the Catholics are of Italian origin, some English speaking Italian students. All this makes Montreal battlefield number one. One section of Bill 22 places all responsibility for education in the hands of a civil servant. If this happens people see enormous possibilities for abuse. Another clause states the minister may grant the wishes of parents to have their children instructed through the medium of English where the population density warrants it and the parents desire it. The key word, of course, is and no one these days has much faith in such expressions. Not only, however, is the threat to the English speaking community, but many of the French expect to be seriously hurt by Bill 22. Upper and middle class Quebecers can afford and do send their children to schools where English is taught, and they will continue to do so. But the working class, the majority in fact, see the bill as a trap to ensnare them and ensure perpetual power for those in the classes above. Once English is eliminated, the trapdoor to the vertical movement in commerce and society is slammed tightly shut. This would also have a serious effect on their horizontal mobility to other parts of Canada where English would remain the official language. Yet. the majority, being silent and patient if not confused, has not raised its voice in protest. The bill is open now for a three week debate before it goes to the Assembly. Ultimately, the minority needs the majority support if the act is to be stopped. The question of time is vital, now. But people individually do have opinions in Montreal and are not afraid to express them A public relations officer, Protestant Schoo, Board, Greater Montreal, declares the bill must be withdrawn: no amending coulc possibly rectify it. A couple of Greek: accepted the legislation, however. They considered it part of the stream of political reality. An Irish Presentation Brother, Daniel O'Connell School, declared it to be gross interference with parental rights French, English. Italian and whoever. A French Canadian bus driver believed it was a return to the "Duplessis" era; a new dictatorship. One police officer on St. Catherine Street put it thus: "One language is not right for Montreal. English is business: business is money and money talks And the list of individual, personal expression of opposition goes on. Some French speaking Quebecers do believe in Bill 22. A vice principal claimed the English speaking minority was arrogant. For generations, it had bled the province, scorned the French culture, and spat upon its language. He went on to say if people emigrated to China, they would learn some Chinese. They must do likewise if they wish to remain in Quebec. He echoed the platform of the Parti Quebecois. of course. Many admit, even amongst the English speaking community, there is truth in what he had to say, but attitudes cannot be legislated out of the minds of people. Mr. Robert Bourassa and his cabinet claim the new language bill reflects 90 per cent of the majority's will and he has statistics to prove it. The opposition decries such claims and it puts forth statistical claims, too. Both sets come from the same surveys recently conducted and likely reflect nothing but emotion and confusion. Already 180 briefs have been submitted to various groups against the new act. The Protestant school board, Greater Montreal, has no less than six briefs before government officials: all of them demanding the total withdrawal of Bill 22. Other submissions come from English. Irish.-French. Italian and many other nationalities; they are presented in united opposition by Catholics, Jews. Protestants and pagans alike. It demonstrates just how close people are to each other, and may prove politicians dead wrong once again! Grand ladies of the sea "The Queens by Robert Lacey (Sidgwick and Jackson, distributed by Griffin house, 125 As they skirted flawlessly from country to country, the LITTLE BOW PROVINCIAL PARK IS OPEN ON A LIMITED BASIS The Park can only accommodate 10% of its normal capacity, which means you could be turned away. Due to major renovations Little Bow Provincial Park is not recommended for use. Upon completion LITTLE BOW will be one of Alberta's finest Parks We're sorry for the inconvenience but it's worth the wait. TRY ONE OF THESE PARKS CALGARY KINBROOK ISLAND CHAIN LAKES 1E7HBR1DGE CHAIN LAKES WILLOW CREEK KINBROOK ISLAND ALL FINE PROVINCIAL PARKS IN THE MEANTIME WE SUGGEST: CHAIN LAKES 26 Miles West of Nanton WILLOW CREEK KINBROOK ISLAND -11 Miles West of Stavely Miles South of Brooks Liberia LANDS AND FORESTS Thinking about tomorrow today two gals attracted more than a flirting glance. They had it all culture, social status, warmth and the ability to turn a first visit into a love affair that often led to a life-long romance. Such was the life style of Elizabeth and Mary the toast of the sea for more than 25 years. Thanks to author Robert Lacey the two gallant ladies are brought back to life in a touching recollection of the service they provided to so many, including some of the more notable persons who proudly took advantage of their royal hospitality. Reading The Queens causes one to wish the jet-set had never been allowed to survive long enough to steal the glory away from Elizabeth and Mary. It is likely just as well that they reigned the seas when they did. Most people today couldn't be bothered to take the time to appreciate what the two ladies had to offer. There are memories of the movie stars, world leaders, travelling businessmen and the crews who manned the Queen Elizabeth and Queen Mary across the Atlantic all bound into 325 pages of photos and stories.. Robert Lacey has mastered the rare writing trait of being able to bring history back to life. There was the activity on the deck, in the cabins... and the enormous amount of provisions ranging from 3.000 bottles of champagne to 1.250 Ibs. of tongue that were brought aboard for each voyage. Whether the book is read to bring back memories to those who were fortunate enough to be able to walk the decks of the two vessels or just to obtain an understanding ol ocean (ravel a sentimental sigh will likely be uttered as the final page is turned. JIM GRANT ANDY RUSSELL A matter of modesty WATERTON LAKES A mountain guide ramrodding a 50 horse outfit through the Rockies with all kinds of people as guests has to be a man of many skills. It is of the utmost necessity for him to know how to handle horses and people with patience and diplomacy with the latter standing high on his list of special crafts. Playing host to a of city people unaccustomed to wilderness country in all kinds of weather, moving them safely from one place to another on horses they may or may not know anything about, has it moments fraught with action and drama. Sometimes it takes some doing to convince anxious mothers that their offspring are not nearly so far from the primitive as they may think, and are generally inclined to assimilate to the wilds far faster and more completely than their parents. One time years ago when this mountain man was much younger and working as second guide, horse wrangler and general camp helper on such an outfit: we had a family from Boston on a wilderness trip. The parents were real blue blood society people that had known great wealth for generations, people of wide experience though this was their first packtrain trip in the Rockies. They had two daughters aged 17 and 15. along with a 12 year old son. These were my special charges and it did not take me long to teach them the rudiments of wilderness life, for they took to it like muskrats to water. The girls were particularly attractive for they were a pretty, good natured pair, full of fun and laughter. What one didn't think of by way of having fun. the other did and life was never dull around Uiem. though they were something of a trial to their dignified father who obviously despaired of them ever grow- ing up to be ladies. Late one afternoon on a very hot day. I rode down the valley below camp to drag in a dry log for firewood. The trail look me past a big pool on a bend of the creek, and there to my astonishment were the sisters and their brother swimming. The swimming was nothing new but they were all stripped off to the buff, and it was much too late to retreat when I saw them. Upon spotting me they all took off the bank like diving seals to come up a moment later laughing. Somewhat embarrassed and pretending I had seen nothing. I rode on down the trail and there was their father approaching from downstream carrying his trout rod. Waiting a bit to let things settle down and sort themselves out. I put my lariat on the log and dragged it back to camp. At supper that evening the youngsters were all very quiet and subdued and obviously they had received a strong lecture on the virtues of modesty. Next morning the girls were helping me catch horses, when one of them lost her mount. It proceeded to take advantage by running around carrying its saddle but no bridle. Picking an opportunity I threw a loop over its head, but the lariat caught on the saddlehorn and it promptly took the rope, away from me. The next thing we knew the horse ran under the guy rope of a guest tent and an instant later the whole tent made a great bound and collapsed in a heap yards away. Its sudden exodus revealed a startling sight, for our staid and dignified Bostonian friend was left squatting on the fiat with his shaving brush poised and wearing nothing but the lather on his face. For a while he just sat there like a pale pink Buddah frozen in some ritualistic attitude of benediction. Then he began scrambling for clothes. Meanwhile everyone in sight became very busy not daring to even chuckle under Oie stem eye of the boss. All but the girls, that is. Out of sighl behind the saddle rack, they rolled helplessly on the ground, clinging to each other and enjoying a spell of hysterics. Atrocious grammar By Don Oakley, NEA commentator If we- dfi gel it home. YOU'RE going lo dip it in In all the comment on the White House Watergate tape transcripts, no one has re-marked on another aspect of them, their atrocious grammar No one. that is. except the assistant editor of the Stamford 'Conn. Weekly Mail "Grammar may seem like a minor point at this time." writes Felicity Hoffecker in a letter to the New York times, "but it is some-thing of a shock to realize that a man who not only is a graduate of college and of law school but who has managed to become president of the United States does not know the difference between such verbs as lie and lay (the men were laying in the bushes, he says i. when to use who or whom, like or as. or the tenses of verbs Grammar is important, she avers Its whole point is to make meaning clearer. Perhaps." she suggests, "this as just one more example of how these people became so mixed up Technically, of course. Miss Hoffecker is roTTcd The White House transcripts would rate- a D in any high school English class. quite apart Irom their content She's offbase. however, if she expects Americans to be upset by bad grammar In fact, the case is just the opposite As for communication, the whole point of language as used by everyone from presidents to public relations people is not to inform or "make perfectly clear" but to persuade You can't do that if you don't speak the language of the eommon man If Araenrans wanted a president who could use the king's English correctly, why. they'd have elected a Jung ;