Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - June 19, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta
june IT, ini Peron cult is reborn in Argentina Modifying tradition From the Wall Street Journal By Jamei Neilson, Lojtdva Observer caaunentator BUENOS AIRES Argen- tina's new Peronist government has lost little time in jerking tht country out of the rut in which it hai been caught for seven years. Within hours of Dr. Hector Campora's assump- tion of power all the urban guerrillas jailed by the armed forces during their period in power were released, Cuba was recognized, the Eva Feron Foundation revived and the spiritual leadership of Juan Domingo Peron, who will aooa return home, was ful- aomery acknowledged. release of the "political which followed a large demonstration by mili- tant Peronists outside the coun- try's principal jail, has remov- ed a potentially dangerous is- sue which might have driven a wedge between the new gov- ernment and its impatient left- wing supporters. While the Per- onist leaders thought that those who had fought the mili- tary dictatorship should go free, they did not want to leave the impression that they ap- proved of the kidnapping and murder of foreign business- men. The most notorious example of guerrilla violence spilling over the formal battle lines was provided by the kidnapping and death probably from a police bullet of Fiat's local chair- man, Oberdan Sallustro, late last year. His kidnappers were among those pardoned by Cam- pora, who evidently thought it wiser to appease his own sup- porters than to assure the country's largest foreign inves- tor that law and order were re- turning to Argentina. The Peronist Youth Move- ment was the dynamo behind Campora's election vict o r y. Many of its leaders stand far to the Left of both Campora and Peron, and are pressing for revolution rather than the "national reconstruction" fav- ored by the party chiefs. But while they gave birth to many of the guerrilla bands which undermined military rule, they themselves have been outflank- ed by the most active and ef- fective guerrilla organization of all, the Marxist Ejercito Re- volucionario del Pueblo (ERP) P e o p 1 e's Revolutionary Their working alliance is already coming apart. Just before Campora's inau- guration the ERP extorted one million dollars from the Ford Motor Company through threats to kidnap or murder their rep- resentatives in Argentina. The money was to be shared out among charitable organiza- tions. But the Peronist youth move- ment refused to have anything to do with the affair. Should their differences multiply, the ERP will be forced either to end its truce with the new gov- ernment or to disband. The government, whose intelligence is far superior to anything the military ever enjoyed, is brac- ing for a renewal of hostilities. The government's new pos- ture in international, particu- larly Latin American, affairs, means Argentina will no long- er follow Washington's lead. Latin America's two Marxist presidents, Osvaldo Dorticos of Cuba and Salvador Allende of Chile, were guests at Cam- pora's inauguration and were publicly lionized. Campora pro- mised them his country's soli- darity in their "struggle against imperialism." Despite the strongly anti-American fla- vor of government statements, however, the U.S. secretary of state, William Rogers, who re- presented President Nixon at the ceremonies, was treated with courtesy. The main thrift of Peron- ism's domestic policies is prov- ing to be moderate, and the huge wage increase expected by many did not materialize al- though the labor minister did remark that he thought a month would be a fair mini- mum. Both the new govern- ment and the principal labor unions realize that such a fi- gure is at the moment pure fantasy, and the unions nave promised Campora an extend- ed honeymoon. The new econo- my minister is a millionarire manufacturer, Jose Ber Gel- bard, who is unlikely to at- tempt any dash to socialism. The most curious ment in an otherwise conser- vative cabinet was that of Peron's secretary, Jose Lopes Rega, to the social welfare min- istry. Lopez Rega is a convinc- ed astrologer who likes to res- pond to what he calls the "cosmic forces." He has also put his admiration of Hitler's national socialism on record in the official Peronist magazine. His appointment is regarded with bemusement rather than concern. The spirit of Juan Domingo Perun broods over the new government, and the propagan- dists of his personality cult are working hard. "The Maximum Leader" has travelled a long way from his political origins as an admirer of Mussolini and friend of such retrograde dic- tators as Trujillo Somoza. Since winning power he has passed through phases as a democrat, an enemy of the Roman Catholic Church with which he is now reconciled an economic liberal, to his pre- sent stance as a cautious New Left nationalist. He has al- ways managed to keep in step with the prevailing- political fashion, and now the winds are blowing Left. His short visit to Argentina last year showed him just how much Peronism has evolved since the 1960s. It took him some time to adjust to the new reality and he came near to destroying his personal ap- peal, for the elderly, old-style political boss was a far cry from the glamorous chieftain of legend. Rather than ruin his follow- ers' chances in the election, he slipped out of the country and did not play any part in the campaign, which was won thanks to opposition to the mil- itary regime rather than the ap- peal of Peron or even the new Peronism. Now the new government is frantically building up the Peron legend once again. The very day Campora took office state radio and television an- nouncers began to refer to Peron as "the genius of the Americas" and the "undisput- ed leader of the Latin Ameri- can fatherland." Countless pos- ters showing his features as they were several decades ago have been posted on walls around the country. Memories of his second wife', Evita, for years the driving force behind Peronism, have been resurrect- ed, and she is well on her way to becoming the country's pa- tron saint. Eva Peron Foundation has been revived under Peron's third wife, Isabel, a still-at- tractive woman in early mid- dle age, whom Peron met while she was working in a Panama eftbaret. If the origins! Eva Peron Foundation is any guide, it will soon dispose of more funds than the social welfare ministry, and will play a ma- jor role in spreading the Peron cult into every nook and cranny of the country. Book reviews Hitler's insane Reich Hitler: The Last Ten Days, by Warren Tute. (Fontana Books, 156 pages, illus- Based on the MGM movie of the same name, (starring Alec Guiness, a remarkable look- alike, in the title this paperback offers a fascinating glimpse of the total collapse of the Third Reich. Author Tute takes us into Adolf Hitler's chancellery hunk- er, deep underground Allied- surrounded Berlin, from April 20 to April 30, 1945. They're all here: Hitler, Eva Braun, Josef Goebbels, Her- mann Goering, Martin Bor- mann, Heinrich Himmler, Al- bert Speer the infamous core of madmen dedicated to Hitler almost to his last hours on earth. Some of the highlights? Happy birthday Adolf Hit- Corner 3rd Ave. and 8th St. Phone 327-8548 vacation service special m fires tone Hero's what we do: complete camber, adjust caster, adjust toe-in, adjust toe-out, true-up steering static four wheels brake adjustment front wheel outer bearing repack rotate tires check all under-car parts check all suspension parts check all ride control parts road test your car 88 A little more if your car his torsion ban or air conditioning. ler, April 20, 1945. A proces- sion of Mercedes arrive at the chancellery bunker, all flying the Nazi war pennant, for an immaculate turnout of gen- erals, admirals and cabinet members. It's not much of a party. Hitler breaks down into a crazed rage in the company of his remaining cabinet minis- ters and generals. He denounc- es his array as traitors, imbe- ciles, liars, idiots and cowards! "The motto of the SS is Faithful Unto Death, a motto which brooks no Hitler tells his staff. April 21, 1945. Executions of all persons not unflinching in their obedi- ence to Hitler are ordered by the Fuhrer: "Don't confine yourself to shooting ordinary soldiers. You will need to go higher up, generals if neces- April 22, 1945. Hitler refuses to flee to Berchtesgaden. "I shall stay in Berlin. We stand at the thresh- old of the Fuehrer says. It is April 23, 1945 just seven days until Hitler takes his own life. Hermann Goering is strip- ped of all military and political offices by an enraged Fuehrer. Radio announcements are made that the Reichs marschall has resigned because of ill health. April 24, 1945. More tea, cakes and champagne for bunker guests. "I am a genius, yes. A Mes- siah, no. Do you see me in the role of Hitler asks Eva Braun. April 25, 1945. Hitler entertains at tea. An abundance of cakes, light deli- cacies and pleasant conversa- tion abound. Cups, plates and cake stands rattle constantly because of continuous shelling and bombing outside. April 26, 1945. Hitler looks to his Youth Corps for Germany's salvation: "The valor'of these 15 and 16- year-old boys, dying in their thousands, is the most solid guarantee for Berlin It is April 27, 1945. Hitler hands out Iron Crosses, from a box of dozens, to young boys of the Hitler Youth Corps, April 28, 1945. Hitler marries Eva Braun, April 29, 1945. Wedding party notables include Goebbels and Bormann. Each bunker guest receives a gift from the newly- weds: a silver-framed photo of the Fuehrer and two cyanide capsules. Goebbels asks for six more capsules, one for each of his children. Supply is limited, so the party agrees to allow the children intravenous amounts of morphine. Anyone with an appreciation of history, and those seeking an insight into the sickness of Nazi Germany, shouldn't let this book go by. It's been said before: Read the book, then see the movie. HERB LEGG Having time to wait "Quotations from Premier Chou-En-lai" (Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 101 pages, SS.70, distributed by Fitzhenry and Whiteside, A long time has passed since Foster Dulles, former U.S. for- eign secretary, refused to shake Premier Chou's hand at the Geneva conference. Today, most of us remember only a toast with chairman Nixon. If there remained any bitter- ness (and I can't see there wouldn't) it is certainly not portrayed in this book. It can honestly be described as much biased in Chou's favor as the past was. against him. About abstract art he said once: "If it has no meaning, what value has it for the peo- When the western world de- cides to move Chou into a new- light by favorably quoting him in his old age, while ignoring him in his more vigorous years, it could mean that the abstract has acquired some meaning. An outlaw because of neces- sity has become a friend. Chou stresses China's friend- ship with India and reveals his great admiration of the late Charles de Gaulle and the French people. He maintains that Sino-Soviet differences are natural and that it would be strange and unthinkable to be identical. Chou who express- ed wishes for friendly contact with the U.S. as far back as 1855. considers intellectuals essential for the construction of a society and vast manpower a precious asset. Through all his sayings, his concept of having time to wait shines, with absolute brilliance. The hustle and bustle of the lives of westerners isn't com- patable with the Chinese life of patience and expectant waiting. Great charm, diplomatic skill and moderate behavior have always been the charac- teristics of this rare politician and foremost policy maker in China. A grandson of a Ch'ing Dynasty mandarin, he grew old in struggle and came to power already aged. Educated in Japan, China, and France, one can easily detect his intel- lectual ability. Reading Chou's quotations makes one realize that he is not only old, but the very old, wise man of China. HANS SCHAUFL Work: the how and why "The Social Psychology of Work" by Michael Argle (Al- len Lane The Penguin Press, distributed by Longman Can- ada Ltd., In this scholarly book on so- cial behavior and factors af- fecting people at work, the au- thor attempts to evaluate the theories and training methods of the behavioral scientists and consultants of several countries. The effect on the working pop- ulation of technology, working groups, leadership, and social skills, etc. are all discussed at length. The younger generation will be interested in the social psy- chologists' coverage of the fu- ture of work. They point out that in the observation of some cases, those who do not work and have no organized leisure activities become depressed be- cause they have lost their sense of identity and purpose in life. The author believes that work must be made more interest- ing and that the constructive use of leisure time must be taught. The points brought out by the author should prove to be a meeting ground for old and new ideas and give insight into work; the how and why. Tf we can absorb all the ideas, this book could give us all something to think about. DOUG GRIGG Some years ago the charge that so-called progressive teaching techniques were during a crop of inferior readers cawed widespread concern among parents and ed- ucators. Now it would appear, from what educators recently told a Journal reporter, that the new math is producing a crop of students who can't add, subtract, multiply or divide. Actually, a good many students could read very well back in the days when it was said Johnny couldn't read. But it seems pretty clear that some of the more fanci- ful theories, which defenders and critics alike improperly attributed to the inno- vative philosopher John Dewey, sacrificed intellectual substance for pedagogical frills. Although some of the better pro- gressive theories have endured, public pressure largely forced a return to phonics (which stresses the phonetic value of let- ters and letter A good many Joteinys are also master- ing mathetmatics under new math instruc- tion, as well as acquiring a better under- standing of methematical theory. Overall, however, as the Journal article noted, test scores of arithmetic students are worsen- ing. Consequently, pressures are building for a return to such elements of old math as mulitiplication tables and drills. Like sartorial fashions, educational fa- shions come and go. Last year's frill be- comes this year's basic learning tool, and vice versa. Success is never assured un- der any method. Despite the widespread re- turn to phonics hi beginning reading dur- ing the past 15 years, in 1969, then-U.S. Commissioner of Education James Allen, Jr. called for a nationwide attack on what he described ss a serious national reading problem. Furthermore, while reading lev- els are high in suburban schools, reading of innar city students continue to sink to new lows, in defiance of ilmott every teaching method. There is probably no surefire way to teach math or reading although there is no lack of plausible theories suggesting otherwise. And because there is not, it is important that education not fall into the hands of an educational establishment that does profess to have all the answers. Precisely to prevent that possbih'ty, a growing number of educators and par- ents are looking to plans which arm ents with vouchers and let them select their child's school, thus giving them a choice of different educational philosoph- ies, faculties and physical plants. Vouch- ers are strongly opposed by the major ed- ucational associatons, whose objections ap- pear to derive largely from self-interest. Of course, there may be something to the fears that vouchers will lead to huckster- ism and perhaps even racial, social and intellectual segregation. But a recent Jour- nal article strongly suggests that the ed voucher program in force in the Alum Rock Union School District in San Jose, Calif., has been successful so far. We'll undoubtedly know more about the er concept if and when the two-year vouch- er experimeLt in New Hampshire is ap- proved. Still, even before all the results are in, it's difficult not to believe that educational compstition will prevent conformity and will bring about greater accountability. It may be true that this type of competition is alien to the American public educational tradition, but perhaps it's time to modify an obviously inadequate tradition in favor of providing the best education for Johnny that our generous financial outlays can buy. Balanced transport policy From The Great Falls Tribune The railroad should occupy a central position in any rational transportation policy, declares educator Lewis Mumford, author of numerous treatises on various aspects of the city. Convenience, comfort, safety and a minimum waste of land and energy resources are more important than speed or financial profit, he contends. Writing under the heading, "We've got to get working on the Mumford makes these telling points which should be considered in developing z. balanced trans- portation system national, regional, and local: 1. Halt further highway construction be- fore any more urban neighborhoods are depopulated and spoiled for family resi- dence by nigh-rise buildings, and before any more valuable agricultural land is cov- ered with carpets of concrete. 2. Restore as many passenger trains as were available in 1950, by providing at least minimal trains of two or three coaches, newly designed, with full provision for bag- gage and manned by skeleton crews. 3. Banish trucks and trailers of freight- car dimensions from the highway. This would shift much long-distance freight to smaller vehicles usable for movement pig- gy-back fashion by rail. 4. Reduce the number of traffic fatalities and injuries by lessening needless motor travel, such as long-distance commuting and cross-country haulage. This could be done by restoring the railroad's attrac- tions of comfort, safety and reduction of fatigue over long distances. 5. Restore human legs as a means of travel. In other words, start walking. The most useful contribution to over- coming urban congestion and pollution lies in the provision of walkways and malls, not moving sidewalks or automated ve- hicles, Mumford believes. To bring more of the necessary goods within walking dis- tance was the original contribution of city, he points out. Report to readers Doug Walker Pleasing the readers Early this year I got a phone call from a man who was disappointed that his fav- orite feature Looking Backward was missing from tha editorial page. He said he liked to be reminded of things that had happened on the same day at 10 year In- tervals. This kind of feature once appeared in almost all newspapers but is seldom found anymore. The reason is that surveys have shown it to be one of the least read things in a newspaper. I learned this at the American Press In- stitute seminar I attended in New York last fall. The API is a North American in- stitution whose findings and recommenda- tions apply equally to Canada and the Unit- ed States. No newspaper has to slavishly follow the practices of other papers. The Herald could have continued publishing Looking Back- ward despite the indication that few peo- ple elsewhere read such a feature. But the preparation of this feature was a burden on the library staff, requiring about a day a week of one person's time to scan the microfilm, select the items, and type them. If few people read the items it would be difficult to justify the time and expense in- volved. We decided to drop the feature for a trial, period. It was at least three months before I got my one and only phone call asking for an explanation. I suspect there are even some people on The Herald staff who will only become aware that Looking Backward is missing when they read this column if they read this. Yet there may well have been quite a large number of faithful read- ers who just didn't bother to protest when the feature stopped appearing. Very few comments come my way to indicate what readers like or dislike on the editorial pages. I have little reason to be- lieve it is any different with respect to the other pages. There is only one exception I have heard about: if the crosswsrd puz- zle doesn't appear (sometimes it doesn't arrive on time) there are a half dozen devotees who call to complain. But even that doesn't tell us much; those six people may be the only ones who do the cross- word puzzles. Some papers regularly sample their readers to find out what is or is not being read. The Herald has sampled its readers in the past but not in the last five years since I have been on the staff. Unfortunate-" ly even the results of earlier samplings do not seem, to be available. A recent column in The Ottawa Citizen reported some figures regarding letters to the editor. They came from a study by the American Newspaper Publishers' Associa- tion which showed "letters rate just as highly with readers as reports of accidents, disasters and major crime news. They are also read almost as widely by the young as by the old members of society, and even more avidly by women than men. Not surprisingly, they far outpull editorials, and often personal columns as well. They draw more then twice as many male read- ers as do the crossword puzzle or horo- scope, and mere than five times the ber of female readers who turn to the sports pages. "Even among the teens-to-24 age group, letters are read more widely than the en- tertainment section, and place a close third to the comics and news of accidents and disasters. Readership climbs with advanc- ing age, it seems. Some 37 per cent of all readers between 35 and 49 scan the letters and the figure rises to 42 per cent among those over the age of 50." That kind of information relative to all Hie regular aspects of the newspaper would be very valuable to those of us with sponsibility for choosing material to set before the public. Small readership would not necessarily dictate the elimination of some features since there is justification in catering to specialist groups in some tilings, But when there is such a wealth and variety of material competing for space it would be sad if we were larly publishing things which practically no- body reads. Maybe when we get over the hurdle of switching to photoelectric ccmpcs'tion it will be passible to make some kind of sur- vey of reader response to our offerings in the paper. Our librarian and assistant li- brarian might even be able to compile results in the time being saved by not hav- ing to prepare Looking Backward.