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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - June 19, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta Friday, June 19, WO THE LETHBRIDGE HERAID 21 Agro Out look i By Sieve INURING the next 10 years we will need about 30 to 35 per cent more beef cattle in Canada to meet the present rate of increasing demand. These figures, estimated by Dr. W. J. Pigden, co-ordinator for animal nutrition research with Canada Department of Agriculture, show definite changes in cattle feeding and man- agement are bound to occur. A review of the beef grading system is now under way. It appears likely that tliu industry will try for a new grading system, placing more emphasis on lean meat, with fat con- tent reduced to a minimum. There are also sigas the processing industry will be in- volved in several major changes during the next decade. Expensive storage and cooling space may be replaced by other methods for tenderizing beef and carcass packaging may be done in the processing plant rather than at the retail level. It is also probable there will be changes in the type of animals raised for beef, with more emphasis on large, lean and late-maturing cattle. Changes will be evident in animal nutrition as well, in an effort to produce cattle at heavier weights that aren't too fat. All indications show the business of raising livestock for meat will become mere exacting in the future and more con- trol will be needed in producing the type of animals we want. Why all the fuss about protein grading, and why change a system which has served Prairie farmers so well for nearly 60 years? The answer in large measure, is the Chorleywood Baking Process, first developed by British researchers in I960. This process permits bakers to use a flour with a relatively low protein content without sacrificing bread quality. The British milling industry, like that of other wheat im- porting countries, has long bean accustomed to blending hard (high proteint) and soft (low protein) wheats for their grists. However before the new baking process came into use, bakers required a high percentage of hard wheat, mostly Canadian, to maintain their bread quality. Now, however, with the Chorleywood process, bakers have realized the advantages of using soft British grown wheat. Under this method, bakers and millers can use up to 75 per cent soft wheat, where before the Chorleywood process, they could only use up to 40 per cent. The new process may have proven costly to Canada, in current grain sales, but more and more bakers and millers are realizing the higher quality characteristic of high protein grain. By controlled protein grading, Canada hopes' to be able K better qontrol the quality of grain exported, and give buyers what they want and heed. Calendar Of Farm Events June 20 Hillspring Mountain View Beef Breed Tour (British Breeds, New Import Breeds and Crosses) June 20 Vulcan 4-H Beef Show and Sale June 24 Champion Tillage Field Day June 23 Cardston Farmstead Fly Control Demonstration June 23 Glenwood Farmstead Fly Control Demonstration June 26 Taber Sprinkler Irrigation Field Day (Wheel move systems) June 29 Vulcan Haying Field Day June 30 Coaldale Haying Field Day July 34 Brooks 4-H Beef Show and Sale July 5-9 Ottawa Annual Convention Agric. Inst. of Canada July 7-8 Vauxhall Taber M.D. 4-H Beef Show and Sale Calgary 10-11 Calgary World Charolais Show and Sale July 10-12 London, Ontario Annual Convention Cana- dian Seed Growers Association July 13-21 Pesticides Institute (In- ternational) July 16-18 Lethbridge Lethbridge and District 4-H Show and Sale July 19-23 Southern Alberta Ontario Beef Association Tour July 19-25 Goldeye Lake Junior F.U.A. Youth Seminar (For southern Alberta districts) baefUJ 4-H WINNERS A calf owned by Cheri Hirsche of Eizikom, took first place honors at the recent Hoping Shortgrass 4-H and Foremost 4-H Pronghorn Achievement Day and Calf Sale hsld at Foremost. Sharon Wesley right, also of Etzikom, won the Reserve Grand Champion award with her calf. Cross Breeding Beneficial Data from a co-operative re- search project involving a local rancher indicates that signifi- cant gains can be achieved by cross breeding dairy and beef cattle. Twenty-seven crosses, in- volving nine breeds, wort! com- pared with straight bred ani- mals at the Three Walking Sticks Ranch of Bryce Stnng- ham of Duchess, Alta. The five-year project in- cluded Hereford, Angus, Short- horn, Charolais, Beef Master, Brahma, HoLstein, Jersey and Brown Swiss breeds. Results indicate that average birth, weaning and yearling weights of progeny can be in- creased by cross breeding. The only exception was crosses in- volving the small Jersey breed. There were also excellent gains in the feedlot. Some crosses gained at rates of three pounds a day compared to straight bred gains of 2.5 pounds a day. The research indicates that dairy-type breeds such as the Holstein and Brown Swiss and the newer breeds, such as Sim- mental and Charolais, offer sig- nificant cross breeding poten- tial. There also appears to be a significant difference in the performance of females in dif- ferent breeds and crosses, par- ticularly under range condi- tions. This indicates a need for dif- ferent feeding and manage- ment techniques for each parti- cular breeding group, a factor that requires more investiga- tion to gain information on the general management require- ments of breeding groups. Saline Soil Management By H. W. CHRISTIE Soils ami Drainage Agrologist Water Resources Division In the past year or so, sev- eral articles dealing with soi salinity (alkali) have appeared on these pages and it may be felt by some that undue stress is being placed on this subject. However, soil salinity is prob- ably the most important soil conservation problem facing iarmers and agriculturists in southern Alberta and adjacent prairie areas at the present iime. It has been an expanding problem affecting increasing acreages of dryland and irri- ;ated areas in recent years. These soils require special xeatment and management to reclaim, arrest their expan- sion, or make the most produc- ive use of affected areas. iOURCE OF SALTS The salts responsible for ihe jrobiem are natural constitu- ents of the mineral material, or are formed by the weathering of these materials. However, hey rarely become a problem until they are transported by moving water (either surface or subsurface) and are concen- rated on the soil surface wherever there is sufficient evaporation, utilize as much of Think a bit about Alberta. Thinkabitabpiit'BIue; Hndsniile. eVopUI aUUli ui ii wstsr. water as possible, reduce Although this is a simplification of the problem, it is not intended to deal with the or prevent additional soil salinization and minimize the effects of the salts present. ious conditions responsible the formation of these soils. the excess water re- does point up the fact; that for the problem can clamation and some eliminated by one or more ment practices are dependent en control of the water the first three methods, the land can usually be reclaimed sible for their formation leaching out the excess practical. This may involve: prevention of seepage from irrigation works, where this is the This frequently necessitates ihe construction of artifical drains or improvement in na- drainage to remove drainage. On irrigated cess surface water, lower this leaching can be ac- water table, or intercept by the application water before it comes sufficient irrigation water. enough to the soil surface dryland areas, it will be de- result in the deposition of on natural precipita- in the plant root although it may be pos- proper management of irrigation water to prevent excess over irrigation yet provide sufficient water to leach in some areas to hasten this process by the construction of works to pond or trap as much of the precipitation as the salts contained in the irrigation on the affected areas. The length of time required management to reclaim affected areas will CUUUUHim A tETHBRIDGE RESEARCH Sheep Business 3. A. techniques. We Animal Geneticist recently met with several who planned to The sheep business has a sheep operation. They its 'ups and downs' calculated their potential its history in Canada. in terms of two lamb the peak years most sheep in a year with at least Western Canada were lambs per ewe per breed- trated on the prairies in artificial rearing of lambs, of from one to two thousand head. Lack of qualified weaning, and shipping lambs to market at 100 days of herders, attacks by predators, high lamb mortality, and It is very encouraging to see their enthusiasm and will- price fluctuations have to apply these new many owners of these However, it it our flocks to change to beef to warn them that many these advancements are still Today our sheep the experimental stage and seems to be on the be economically disas- again. While sheep have if applied too rapidly. For disappearing from the inducing estrus with small flocks are being for out-of-s e a s o n lished on many farms as is still uneconomical means of diversification. two injections of PMS present change from grain mare serum) are forage crops should also per ewe. The efficiency celerate this these dmgs must be im- This is a 'boom' time for and their cost reduced sheen industry; the the sheepmen can afford price for a young breeding ewe is about Many farmers use them. Olher means of improving sheep production trying to get into sheep production but there is a be applied successfully but only by experienced sheepmen shortage of breeding well organized operations. During the last few investment of SGOO in a ram several new techniques be successful only if the sheep production have been developed and more are in knows his enterprise and calculates realistically h o w offing. These should additional return the tionize the industry and give can give him. a new image. maintain this promising rearing, multiple births using hormones, artificial rearing in the sheep industry and to reduce the number of fail- lambs, and out-of-season emphasis should be still ing are some of the on obtaining one 'good' ments being investigated crop per year. Manage- various research must fit conditions; inno- ments. Sheepmen should be cautioned against over-optimism must be adopted carefully to avoid a sudden disas- using these new breeding depend on the degree of salini- ty, type of salts present, the texture and structure of the soil, and the management prac- tices used. It will normally take several years. CROPPING METHODS During the reclamation pro- cess or on lands that are im- practical or non-economic to dram, crop production may be improved and the effects mini- mized by various management practices. Probably the most important of these is the use of crops tolerant to the level of salinity occurring in the soil. As crops vary widely in their tolerance to salinity, the choice of crops should be based on a soil analy- sis. The main effect of high salt concentrations on plants is to reduce the uptake of water. Thus crops that are tolerant to drought are frequently also tol- erant to salinity. In general, forage crops are more tolerant than most cereal crops. They also tend to shade the ground more and utilize more mois- ture, tending to reduce the salt buildup at the soil surface. As crops are normally more sen- sitive to soil salinity during the germination- stage they should be seeded when moisture con- ditions are most favorable. This is probably more impor- tant in dryland areas where forage corps should be seeded in late fall to take advantage of early spring moisture. In irrigated areas frequent light irrigations can be applied to keep the plants adequately supplied with readily available moisture. Ridging of the soil and planting of the crop at the base of the ridge may also be used to reduce the sale concen- tration adjacent to the seed. The salts migrate to the top of the ridge leaving an area of lower salt concentration at the base that is more favorable to plant germination. CULTURAL METHODS Summerfallowing should be avoided as this tends to bring more salts to the surface ac- centuating the problem. The primary purpose of summer- fallowing in this area is for moisture conservation but this can result in a rise in water table and a consequent expan- sion of the area involved. Sa- line soils should be cropped continuously or seeded to long- term forage as much of possible. The application of barnyard manure or the plowing down of green manure crops such as alfalfa or sweet clover in- creases the water holding capa- city of (he soil and thus helps to alleviate the salt affects. Land levelling to reduce waterlogging of low areas and provide more even application of irrigation water is a recog- nized means of preventing and aiding in reclaiming saline soils in irrigated areas. "Now that we have read the story the teacher said to seven-year-old Tommy, "do you know why Robin Hood stole only from the rich? Tom- my answered readily ably because he knew the poor didn't have any crops to utilize the moisture as Best Buys For Your Picnic! Prices effective until closing, Saturday, Juno 2Wh TABLE RITE RED BRAND THE KING OF STEAKS Ib. 79' Peas or Corn ,2. X 5 99' Fruit Cocktail 3 Brown Beans 3 NABOB COFFIE 5c OFF 1-LB. BAG Jello varieliei 3-ci. pkgs. CATELLI MACARONI DINNERS 714-01. PKGS. Lunch Meat nn, 2 79" Inst Coffee Nab.b.... 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