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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - June 18, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THE I.ETHORIDGE HERALD Thursday, Juno 18, W70 Joseph Kraft Allegiance To The Queen The oath of allegiance lo the Queen is an archaic rilual that ought to be abolished, especially for the people's elected representatives. Five members of the Parti Quc- becois, duly elected to the Quebec legislature a few weeks ago, have refused to lake the oatli and there- fore have not been permitted lo take their seats. Their party's announced purpose is to separate from Canada and to abol- ish the monarchy so far as Quebec is concerned. Whether one agrees with them or not, it ought to be ad- mitted that theirs is an honest, honor- able position, one which in a democ- racy they are quite entitled to take. I low. then, can they conscientiously take the oath? They could, of course, be hypocriti- cal about it, overlook their con- sciences and purely as meaningless ritual swear allegiance lo the Queen. But why should they be forced to do that, in order to perform the duties they were duly elected to perform? To insist on the ritual is simply to play into the bands of the separatists. It docs nothing to strengthen the monarchy, or lo build Canadian unity. Reform Or Nightmare The re-election of smooth-talking patent-haired George Wallace to the governorship of Alabama, has sent shudders anxiety through the sup- porters of electoral reform in the U.S. Time is of the essence, The Senate must act prior to the meetings of 46 out of the 50 state legislatures next year The switch of votes in three states in the 1968 presidential elec- tion would have thrown the choice of president on the bargaining table of the House of Representatives. Under the prevailing electoral college sys- tem Wallace supporters would have been in a bargaining position with both parties, to force concessions from them in order that the presi- dent of their choice would lake of- fice. But a constitutional amendment which would provide for direct voting for President of the United States, Involves a very long, difficult, com- plicated procedure to become the law of the land. Although constitu- tional amendment, electoral reform bill passed the House by 339 to 70, has been approved by the conserva- tive minded Senate Judiciary Com- mittee, 11 to 6, has the support of in- fluential national organizations like the Chamber of Commerce, the AFL- CIO, the League of Women Voters and President Nixon himself, it must be given Senate approval. This takes a two-thirds majority for passage. Then it must go to the State legis- latures, three-quarters of which must give it approval. The prospect of a third political party in the U.S. rising from the deep division among the electorate over the racial issue, is no chimera. It is close to certainty. This would reduce the possibility of any party gelling an absolute majority in the Electoral College, and imperil the election of a president who is, in fact, the true choice of the people. It has happened before and it could happen again in 1972. This is why the method of chosing the U.S. president, has become a vital issue, why supporters of reform are growing desperate in their ef- forts to get the amendment before the Senate before it is too late. The wheels of reform must be put into motion before they can be- gin the slow and grinding route to their destination One can only hope that pressure groups like the Ameri- can Bar Association which has called the electoral college system, "ar- chaic, undemocratic, complex, ambi- guous, indirect and will build up public pressure for intro- duction of the Amendment to the Senate. The possibility that George Wallace could be in a powerful posi- tion to influence the choice of U.S. president in 1972 is a nightmare. We did not become a great nation simply by looking after Number One Quintin Hogg, British MP. If we followed opinion polls we might just as well abolish Parliament set up a computer in the Palace of Westminster and let, it work out opin- ion polls and grind out at the back Bills and Harold Wil- Canadian 'Warmth9 In Korea By Dr. Lotta Hitsclimanova, Executive Director Untiarian Service Committee SEOUL I have just returned from a hurried field trip to Mokpo, at the most southerly tip of the lam} Our Mokpo Social Service Centre, built for the USC by City Hall, is an extremely busy place from early morning until deep Into the night. Our team consists of four social workers, a clerk and a janitor. Two days ago I watched a distribution of Cana- dian barley and Canadian clothing to al- most 60 families, and once again I was profoundly impressed by the need as well as the great dignity of our recipients. How I wished our hardworking, tireless volunteers back home could, just for once, be present at a clothing distribution and see the results of their labors of love! Alas, I am a very poor interpreter of the many "lhank-you's" that I was asked to carry back to Canada. Only on the spot do you truly understand how precious a coat, a blanket, warm children's clothing still are. I arc convinced mat the greatest treasure we can send from home, besides money, is Canadian barley. It is the staple food for millions in Korea and an absolute neces- sity, to keep alive. In the morning women of the lowest income groups make a flour paste, drop it into boiling water and soya sauce; this soup is their breakfast. At noon they prepare a bowl of barley, simply boiled in salted water, am! they serve it together with a little the Korean national dish, consisting of ferm- ented vegetables ar.d soya sauce. Or they may eat some greens with the grains or a few tiny bits of fish which are extremely cheap. Tins is their daily fare. No wonder the children arc undernourished and their health is not good. Canadian barley is used in many ima- ginative ways by our USC social workers in Korea. About half of the almost one million pounds of barley shipped during the past 12 months and mainly made possi- ble by special "Barley for Korea" cam- paigns conducted by the Calgary "Alher- tan" and the Winnipeg "Free is used for relief and rehabilitation of the poorest. Much of this Prairie life-giving staple food was distributed in the district of Daesan Myun in Kyungsangnamdo Prov- ince where the damage cf unprecedented floods last foil has been Ihe most drama- tic. Over 20 inches of rain fell in one day, flooding out villages with over O.fiOO people, mainly farmers .ir.d laborers. Their entire crops were ruined, the people in utter despair and the Ministry of Health ar.d Social Affairs appealed lo the USC for assistance. In complete co-ordination with local gov- ernment officials well planned relief oper- ations began as quickly as possible and will continue ur.til next June 30th under the supervision of one of our USC social work- ers. We are providing 15 Ibs. of barley per pel-son per month about half his needs, while the rest of the food flour re- ceived from abroad, comes from Govern- ment sources. Canadian milk, raised through Christmas campaigns in The Ottawa Journal, The Victoria Times and The Lethbridge Her- ald, also is being used in many urgent ways. The ill in institutions, tubercular patients in hospitals and at home, under- nourished children in orphanages of course receive their share. Milk in liquid form is distributed in USC night schools, and surely this is where its use has touched me most this year. About a month ago our night school for children below 12 began in Mokpo, when our survey among 350 poor families revealed that 91 children be- tween.? and 16 were not attending school, mainly because of poverty. The too Dong Chiefs were informed that the USC was opening a night school on April 14 and our team expected about 10 children to come the first day. Do you know how many there were? 113! Now 120 children are en- rolled and because our Social Service Cen- tre just does not have enough space to seat them all, the oldest meet in a church hall, readily offered by a generous minister. When I thanked him for his co-operation, he looked at me and simply said: "These are our children. It is late, very late tonight and I must close. Thanks to fiterally thousands of con- tributors, we have been able to accom- plish an important job in Korea. We are feeding the hungry, providing "Canadian Warmth1' to those in great need or faced by emergencies such as fire and floods. Students' can study because of USC scholar- ships and evening schools in Inchon and Mokpo teach hundreds of eager children who have .so far been denied the joy of learning. I'SC-sponsorcd orphanages caro for over -100 boys and girls under our Pos- ter Parent Scheme and the Ram Yook Disabled Children's Home is still the only rehabilitation centre in the land. Aban- doned babies are being reunited with (heir parents or, if this is impossible, adoption1! are arranged. Our five social teams' are constantly experimenting wilh new meth- ods to (ind truly Korean solutions lo ur- gent social problems. Humbly, I believe, thr.t nowhere heller Hum in this country is the USC fulfilling the ideal pin-pose 01 a voluntary agency: to act as a catalyst and leader in the great .search for a better and happier tomorrow. JUIXOM PENH What docs it profit? is the question raised back in the United Stales about the Cambodian interven- tion. But tie question that arises on the spot here in Cani- bodia is: was it avoidable? The most likely answer is that only highly imaginative in- ternational leadership could have beaded off American in- tervention in this country. There was required far more imagina- tive leadership than exists in the world today. What made it hard lo fend off intervention lies chiefly in the nature of the former ruler of this country, Prince Norodom Sihanouk. He treated Cambodia as a personal fief, intervening almost by caprice in the small- est details of public and private business. These high-handed ways did not pose much of a problem with the basic peasant popula- 1 lion of this country. Kural folk still seem to regard Sihanouk as a kind of royal rainmaker. But it was different with the civil servants, the Buddhist re- ligious leaders, and the young people. These, having gained independence from France in the Indochina settlement of 1954, wanted a role in running their country. Sihanouk was able lo keep them in town only by coming on as Ihe indispens- able bulwark of Cambodian in- dependence. But fssuring Cambodian inde- pendence involved Sihanouk in one of Ihe world's most far-out diplomatic balancing acts. The greatest threat to Cambodia came from her closest neighbor Vietnam. So against Saigon, Sihanouk balanced North Vietnam and the Viet Cong. Hence the Communist sanctuaries on the border and the supply line through the port of Sihanoiikvillc. But Hanoi Was also a threat, so Sihanouk turned lo the Chi- nese. And against the Chinese, he called in Ihe Russians. And as counlerweighl lo the Rus- sians, ho looked to the United Stales. And to avoid becoming dependent upon Washington, he flirted with Paris. This tangled skein of mutually exclusive connections was spun out for a long lime. Ay late as last March, Sihanouk was writ- ing for Ilic French magazine Preuvcs an article calling for a Communist takeover in South Vietnam wilh a neutralist Cam- bodia aided by the United States. When trouble came, it camo here at home. Fed up with per- sonal rule, the administrators, religious leaders, and young people of (he capital turned on Sihanouk. They applied pressure to a relatively pro- o Sihanouk cabinet under leader Prime Minister Lou Nol. Under llieir pressure, the Lou Nol cabinet gave way. On March 18 a new, Republican govern- ment was formed, with Ian Nol continuing as prime minister and Sirik Matak, an anti-Sihan- ouk member of the royal fam- ily, as deputy prime minister. With Sihanouk out, his sys- tem collapsed. The new rulers in Phnom Penh preferred lo substitute for his deal with Hanoi their own deal with Washington and Saigon. As a Frenchman long resident here put it: "They knew that Laos had received million hi Ameri- can aid for only two million people. With seven million peo- ple they thought they could do much better. In fact, Sihanouk had been telling them just that for months." That is how the new government, in its very CIRCA WTO "First there were rotating strikes, then one thing just led to another first ad, closed down the Com- munist supply lines through Sih- anoukvilk'. The Vietnamese Communists were not much more faithful to the old bargain. They wrote off the new government here in rimom Penh as very weak. Per- haps wrongly. Hanoi thought of Sihanouk as' the real power in (his country. Thei'c were a few days of negotiations between the Vietnamese Communists and the new government in Phnom Penh. But on March 26, couple of days after Sihanouk came over to their side, the Communists broke off the nego- tiations and set in motion ef- forts to overthrow the republi- can regime here. Diplomacy in the fashion of, say, Bismarck, could perhaps have put together some re- placement for the Sihanouk sys- tem. The French had a stab at it with their proposal, early in April, for a new conference on all of Indochina. The Russians were interested, as witness the curious statement of support for the French proposal by their U.S. Ambassador Jacob Malik. And President Nixon expressed his interest to Ihe Russians. But these efforts were ob- scure in their bearing and hard to fathom the work of sleep- walkers. They lacked the com- pelling force necessary to hold together what was coming asun- der; The rupture sought by both Phnom Penh and Hanoi took place. With the Communists on the move against Plrnom Penh, with Phnom Penh calling for help and Saigon redoubling the pleas, it would have been a mir- acle of self-denial for Washing- ton to resist long. In fact, Pres- ident Nixon did wait for several things for Cambodia to give a gt'een light to intervention, for the Saigon regime to prove itself in border forays against the Communist sanctuaries on March 20 and April 14, for American public opinion to be tested in his own speech of April 20. By the time he moved, the conclusion was already fore- gone. The entry of South Viet- namese and American troops into Cambodia was hi my judg- ment and I say this as some- one who urged preventive mea- sures against intervention from the moment of the fall of Si- hanouk inevitable. That does not mean, of course, that intervention neces- sarily pays off. The moving finger of inexorable fate writes some bad scripts. And the real value cf the invasion can only be determined by a careful weighing of military gains against political losses. But one thing is clear even granted that the intervention was inevitable. The fact that obscure events in tills remote country could entail a major military move by American forces is yet another indication of how far overccmmitted the United States is in Southeast Asia. (Field Enterprises, Tne.) Charles Foley A Matter Of Life And Death In California T OS ANGELES The 80 residents of California's "Death Row" may breathe again. The case of William Maxwell, on which their imme- diate fate depends, has been postponed once more and with it a decision in America's anguished debale ever the abol- ilicn of capital punishment. It is now three years since an execution took place in the United Stales, and jails across the country have filled with more than 500 condemned men. The largest number in any one prison waits in San Quentin. a dour brown fortress that juts cut hii'o San Francisco Bay. Here one of the- nation's most famous criminal cases ended ten years ago, when Caryl Chessman died in the apple- green gas chamber alter win- ning a dozen stays of execu- tion. William L. Maxwell, a black sentenced to death for the rape of a white w o m a n in Hot Springs. Arkansas, has gradu- ally taken on the mantle cf Chessman in the new struggle against capital punishment. Maxwell has sat for eight years in Death Row cells. In 1909, his lawyers won a stay of execu- tion only hours before sentence was due to be carried out. New hearings followed, but the courts were divided over reversal of the verdict. So Maxwell, and all the others, waited. That in itself was a small victory for the young civil rights lawyers of the Na- tional Association for the Ad- vancement of Colored Peoples, which is playing a key role in contesting the death penalty. Thirty law students, headed by Mr. Anthony Amsterdam, of California's Stanford Univer- sity, loured soulhera States in- vestigating rape cases. Their analysis of incidents, said the NAACP snowed that "if the defendant was Negro and the victim was white, the chance of a death penalty prov- ed high; in all other rape cases, the chance cf a death penalty was remote." Mr. Amsterdam represented the NAACP's legal defence fund in Ihe Maxwell case before the Supreme Court. There, two vi- tal points were raised: Was Maxwell denied due pro- cess because his jury had no legal guide lines in passing a death sentence, and therefore made an arbitrary decision? Was Maxwell denied due pro- cess because the same jury at the same time handed down LOOKING BACKWARD THKOUUII Till; IIERAU) 1020 Hon. A. Meighcn, min- ister of Ihe interior, promised federal financial aid for the south Alberta irrigation project, to be put into action shortly. Dominion govcrn- nicnl will pay 30 cents per ton (if the freight rates on all Sas- katchewan lignite coal shipped into Manitoba during the next year according to an Order-in- made to-.iay. 1910 The Earl ol Allilono and his wife, Princess Alice arrived in Canada early today where the earl will become Can- ada's new governor-general. General Chen Yi, the firsl posl-war governor of For- mosa was executed Itxlay for aiding the Chinese Communisls. UlliO South Dakota dele- gates lo Ihe national republican convention have endorsed Vice- president Nixon as their choice for the GOP presidential candidacy. the sentence and determined his guilt? These questions still hang in the balance. For California, which has entered the case as a friend of the court, the first is all important. If fhe Su- preme Court decides that Ihe verdict be put aside because the jury had "no guidelines or every death pen- alty in the State would be vi- tiated. But should Ihe Sup r e m c Court quasi] tbs Maxwell ver- dict because determinations of guilt and punishment were si- multaneously made by the same jury, then Ihe men in San Qtienthvs death row could go to'the gas chambers. Under Californian law, guilt and sen- tencing arc already determined al separate jury sessions: the procedure would be unchanged. Mr. Amsterdam sums up Ihe situation: "Of the 500 dcalh sentences, all hut a handful- five or six would be annulled if the Supreme Cnurl decides the issue in Maxwell's favor. These involve crimes carrying tha mandatory death penally. The 'single verdict' issue might affect 250 cases. The NAACP is only one arm of a broad movement current- ly challenging the constitution, alily of capital punishment. The Senator Rsbcrl Ken- nedy was one of its figure- heads, and his brother. Edward has asked clemency for Ihe condemned Sirhan Sirhan on ihe grounds lhat Ihe murdered man "would not want his death to he Ihe cause for the laldng of another life." In Calitornia, several at- lempls have been made lo ab- olish the death penalty, the tesl Iwo months ago when n hill prescnled by De m o e r a I Alan Sicrot.y of Beverly Mills was killed by a Stale Assem- bly committee. Mr. Sicr.V.y pleaded lhal 70 nations, includ- ing all of Western Europe ex- cept France, had now scrapped capital punishment. So had 11 U.S. States, while some opinion polls show lhat a national ma- jority favour abolition. (Others don't, but the margin is only a few per A galaxy of experts spoke in favor cf the bill. San Francis- co's most famous End flamboy- ant attorney, Melvin Belli, said that if executions began again he'd be in favor of "lining up Ihe people in Dealh Raw and shooting them. At least it would end Ihe cruel delays they now suffer and dramatize the barbarity of capital punishment fcr the public." Dr. William Graves, former physician at San Quentin, spoke cf his pers o n a I experiences wilh Dealh Row prisoners and said he believed life imprison- ment was the greater deter- rent. George Slaff, of the Ameri- can Civil Liberties Union, im- plored the committee to put the issue to a public vote and painted cut, presumably for tho bsncfil of Republicans who dcminaled Ihe group, ihat capital punishment remained legal "in every Communist country around the world." If the Supreme Court upheld the dcalh penally for William MoXwcll, would fhe U.S. as one attorney put il "just open the gas chambers and march 500 or more guys in Legal experts think ra- ther that there might be a score cf executions before they could halt Ihe flow with new court stoppages. A hopeful sign is that Max- well's next hearing in October will centre on whether foes of capital punishment were un- ccrstitulionally kept off 'nis jury. Since his first trial in 1962, courts have ruled that they should be automatically excluded because Ihcy are abol- itionists. And there are grounds for believing thai at leasl sev- en jurors were barred for that reason. One vital argument not rais- ed in Maxwell's case is that capital punishment violates the eighth Amendment's ban on "cruel and unusual" pun i s h- ments. Other trials will press that claim. Lawyers will argue the cruelly of electric chairs, gas chambers, gallows and fir- ing squads (seven Stales use hanging, and Utah offers a choice between the rcpe and Ihe And they will point out lhat wilh the passage o[ years the death penalty has al- ready become "unusual" in tho United Slates. (Written fur The Hcndd and TIic Observer. London) The lethbtidge Herald 50-i 7th St. S., Lethtyidge, Alberta LETHRRIDGE HERALD CO. LTD., Proprietors and Publishers Published 1305 1954, by Hon. W. A. BUCHANAN Second Class Mart Recistralion M timber P012 Mrmhcr ff Tho Canadian Press and Cr.n.iuinn N'cwspupw I'ublitlicrs' AESdciation and tlic Audit I'urcaii of Circolnlions CLtO W. MOWERS, Editor srnJ publiflicr THUMXS U. ADAMS, Manager JOE BALLA WILLIAM HAY Managing Editor Associate Editor ROY F. MILKS DOUCfl.AS K Advcnisiiic MonnKW Editorial Pajtc Editor "THE HERALD SERVES THE SOUTH" ;