Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - June 14, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta
Thunday, 14, 1973 ink UIHMIIBBI HERALD Chinese continue education experiments By CARL MOLLINS SHANGHAI (CP) -Four years after the great proleta- rian cultural revolution shook higher education to a still, the schools of China are groping their way back into operation by trial and error. Few college and university graduates have been turned out since the school-centred upheaval of 196649. That rev- olution was designed to de- stroy the development of a new middle class and put the Chinese revolution back on the classless path. Now the higher schools are operating of them just ap- parently with fewer students than before the cultural revo- lution. Enrolment procedures and the curriculum; have been some cases perhaps too drastically, Chinese authorities concede. At the Second Shanghai Medical College, a school in- herited from French mis- sionaries which had stu- dents in various stages of a six-year course in 1955, a number of abbreviated courses have been tried with a few hundred students in the last three years. Cramming fails Longer sessions of 3Va years are being introduced after ap- parent failure of crani courses lasting two years or less. A visiting Canadian petro- leum technician who had talks with Chinese counter- parts said he found that engi- reers who had graduated within the last few years lacked depth of knowledge. Chinese authorities are the first to recognize short- comings generated by the revoliHon in education. "The revolution in educa- tion was one of the major rev- olutions in our said a Shanghai professor. "But we have to sum up our ex- perience since than because we are still experimenting." The universities were the first battlegrounds of the 1960s revolution that spread to involve the whole society and then turned back to concen- trate on schooling because it was the crucial process in moulding a new society. Today, representatives of workers, peasants, toe Com- munist party and the as well as students and fac- involved in student selection and curriculums as members of administrative revolutionary committees. Army role The People's Liberation Army, the in the cul- tural revolution and from its beginnings a prime agent of social and political education, plays a prominent role in the revolutionary committees ad- ministering all China's in- stitutions. The philosophy governing the society in Chairman Mao Tse-tung's dictum that "the intellectuals will accomplish nothing if they fail to in- tegrate themselves with the workers and peasants. A true revolutionary must be one who is willing to integrate actually does so." Tlrl fuidance has special relevance in a country where the intellectuals, the educated mandarin class, formed the ruling group for centuries and developed an immunity to China's true problems by an i v o r y-tower preoccupation with the niceties of academic fine points. In prastice, the revolution in education has meant an ef- fort to eliminate development of an elitism whereby univer- sity students typically were sons and daughters of the old urban middle class and of prominent party activists who were beginning to display up- per-crust attitudes. Worker link Now, officials say, a candi- date for higher education must either be a member of the worker-peasant classes or display in practice a read- iness to work with the masses before, during and after uni- versity. The new system is appar- ently no one-shot venture into this social relationship, such as a stint in a youth project, a spell as a university student overseas or some similar Indian tribe protests movie By RAM SUNDAR Canadian Press Correspondent BOMBAY (CP) A popular romantic film has been banned in northeastern India following vigorous protests by several tribal communities. Members of the Naga and other tribes told the Indian gov- ernment that the Gul- istan Hamara or This is Our them in an in- gerior light and showed a pa- tronizing attitude towards them. Most people were surprised by the tribal protest since the film was produced with the in- tention of promoting greater un- RC priest makes last appearance DETROIT (AP) More than people crowded into St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church here for what Rev. Charles E. Coughlin says was his last public appearance. Father Coughlin, the con- troversial "radio priest" of the 1930s, told the jammed church: "I'm too old. I haven't too long to go and I know it." The 82-year-old priest called for a battle against the new devil, which he said was "the international industrialization with its whole materialstc con- cept of lie.' Father Coughlin said: "Save the rich class from paying tax- ation is its philosophy. It has its own philosophy of lust instead of purity, sex instead of soul." He said the United States must revive its devotion to God and fight continuously against the new "anti-Christ." Father Coughlin drew an au- dience of millions before the Second World War with his ag- gressive radio broadcasts at- tacking the New Deal and Pres- ident Franklin D. Roosevelt, communism, "international bankers" and Jews. Social Justice, a magazine he founded in 1935, was banned by the government in 1942 for al- lcredly mirroring the Axis. He retired in 1966 as pastor of the Shrine of the Little Flower in nearby Royal Oak. derstanding between the hill tribes and plainsmen. Its theme is sentimentally love of a city doctor for a Naga tribal girl and the many sacri- fices they make for each other. REGARDFD AS INSULT But some Naga leaders com- plained to the government that the film created the impression that Naga girls were "cheap" and "ran after men not belong- ing to their own community.' In some northeastern towns including Shillong, Naga youths paraded the streets shouting slo- gans such as "Stop This Insult to Naga Culture' and "Naga Women's Honor in Peril." The youths laid siege to a movie theatre screening the film and left only when it was withdrawn. A Naga student leader said in Shillong: "India has thrown out the British colonialists. But let us not introduce native colonial- ism in the garb of cultural inte- gration." The vehemence of the ttbal protest against a simple roman- tic film which has captured mil- lions of hearts in Asia and the Middle East has not, however, come as a shock to social work- ers and anthropologists operat- ing in tribal areas. FEAR FOR CULTURE These knowledgeable people note that while tribes such as the Nagas, Mizos, Warlis and Murias are as patriotic as the more advanced communities like Hindus and Moslems, they do not wish to lose their own distinctive cultures. The Dev Anand film, in their view, roused tribal fears of the possibility of what one expert called "a marital invasion of tribal communities by plains- men." "The tribal protest is no doubt the expert contin- ued. "But it has dramatized the problems of national integra- tion. Urban people must first understand the tribal mind.' Social workers reject the view expressed by some observers that the film protest was mas- terminded by separatist ele- ments among the northeastern tribes. Government officials have swung to the view that by mak- ing the romantic film their tar- get the tribes are only letting others know that they cannot be taken for granted. passing attachment with a so- cial organization. Systems vary throughout China, but typically there are four phases in selection of university per- sonal application, review and recommendation by a com- mittee of the candidate's local community, a similar review by a regional committee and, finally, by a university com- ic -itteJ. Frequently, a college stu- dent from the city has spent at least two years laboring in factory, farm or mine after leaving the equivalent of high school. In a Shanghai college, of about 30 hcitrs a week in for- mal classes roughly five are spent studying politics. There are frequent spells back on tha factory floor or in the farm field. After graduation, the educated are expected to return to work in their home commune or factory unless assigned elsewhere. Practice Education is geared to learning by practice, even at the expense cf theory. For example, biology stu- dents at Chong San University in Canton go out to leara by trying to discover controls for insects that atta'ek rice crops. Literature students spend time working on communes, then write about it as an ex- ercise. The emphasis on practical results has already caused some problems. "Some students have a lower cultural level than oth- a Shanghai professor said delicately, an indication that a lack of training in the- ory tended to limit their ca- pacity to deal with unfamiliar problems in their specialties. new approach to educa- tion M a means to serve the people rather than the Indi- vidual has the effect of Impos- ing a stringent life on some, a Eose-to-the-grindstone attitude among those accepted in schools of higher education and some discontent among graduates assigned to remote communities. The actual and potential discontent is acknowledged in- directly by articles in Chinese journals dealing with the ex- periences of students uprooted from relatively comfortable city living to work in remote 'integrating with workers and peasants." Set example Liu Li, 23, daughter of par- ents who both are prominent public servants in the steel centre of Anshan, was fea- tured in one such story. She is working in a commune, living in a dormitory, in northeast China. "When she was still a schoolgirl, she cherished many 'fine' be a famous teacher, a good doc- tor, a geologist Instead, she answered the call to go to the countryside and work with the people on a cotton-growing commune. At first, she found the physical labor in tha fields agonizing and prayed for rain and re- lief. Disclosing her feelings to an old peasant, the response was that "if it rains, some of the cotton would be damaged and that means less output and the production team sells less cctton to the state." That night she read again Chairman Mao's teachings about educated youth needing re-education by working with the peasants. "She came to understand more deeply the political sig- nificance of educated youth going to the countryside medicine Patients with various rheumatic problems undergo "moxibustion" at Shanghai hospital for traditional medicine. The process uses acupuncture needles that in- clude a burning herbal material inserted in the back of the neck and head. It is claimed to bring relief. Education is geared to learning by practice, even at the expense of theory. AT DUNLOP FORD.. STOCK NO. 591 1973 LTD BROUGHAM 4 door hardtop, 429 4V engine, auto., P.S., P.B., AM radio, automatic air conditioning, ginger-glow in color with brown vinyl roof power windows, power seat, radial tires. MAKE YOUR OFFER! STOCK NO. 774 1973 PINTO SQUIRE WAGON 200 cc engine, 4 speed trans., value option package, AM radio, H.D. battery, luggage rack. STOCK NO. 922A 1969 BARRACULA 2-DOOR HARDTOP FASTBACK. 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