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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - June 12, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THf IETHBR10CE HERALD Tuesday, June 12, What do we know about making peace? A cure for disputes Fishing rights disputes have gone on for centuries. The one between Iceland and Britain has smouldered for at least 500 years. A temporary suspension has been realized in the recent wrangling between Canada and the United States but more of the same is expected elsewhere. The dis- putes reveal a growing struggle to control scarce fish resources in areas where international law and practice are ill-defined. It is expected to inten- sify as the expanding population de- mands increasing food and raw ma- terials. Nations used to claim a three-mile coastal limit, subject only to certain international traffic agreements. But since the Second World War nations have been trying to extend their sea sovereignty as far as fishing is concerned to 50 miles in the case of Iceland and 200 miles off Chile and Peru. Canada recognized a 12 mile limit' but Fisheries Minister Jack Davis has announced this to be ex- tended to 200. Under a new Canada U.S. recip- rocal agreement, effective June 15, U.S. trollers will be prohibited from fishing off the west coast of Van- couver Inland except for a small area at the entrance to Juan de Fuca Strait and Canadian trollers, which perviously fished down the Washing- ton coast to the Columbia River mouth, will now have to stop at Car- rol Island close to the 49th parallel. The agreement, which expires next April 24, was hammered out May 25 in Ottawa at the third round of U.S.- Canada talks on an equitable salmon division between the two countries with the next meeting slated for Oc- tober. Homer Stevens of the United Fishermen and Allied Workers Union claims the new agreement is another example of Canada backing down to the U.S. policy of taking more than it gives and will result in a loss to Cana- dians of 12 million pounds of salmon or annually for the next 20 years. While politicians and fishermen rage in the Canada United States salmon war scientists in both coun- tries are trying to develop a new breed of patriotic supersalrhon cap- able of avoiding being caught by the other country. The Washington state fisheries department trying to develop a left-turning salmon complain that salmon migrating seaward from Puget Sound are behaving as if there is a right-turn-only sign posted at Cape Flattery." Instead of turning northward the Americans want to sea the young salmon turn south. Meanwhile Canadian researchers are looking at ways of keeping Cana- dian-bred fish from going out to sea at all. Experiments indicate that the longer fish are kept in hatcheries the less likely they are to stray. If Cana- dian fish could be kept within Georgia Strait fishing could become a year long occupation and if both experi- ments prove successful neither Amer- ican or Canadian fishermen will be hauling in his neighbor's produce. Guarantees mean little The government of Ontario is plan- ning legislation to deal with warran- ties on automobiles and home appli- ances. It will introduce some pro- posals later this year, and after as- sessing manufacturers' and dealers' reactions, present firm legislation in the spring of 1975. This should be welcome news, as a high proportion of the cars and appli- ances sold locally are manufactured in Ontario, and anything that en- hances the effectiveness of a war- ranty should have a salutary effect on quality. More than that, if effec- tive rules for policing warranties on cars and appliances can be devel- oped, something similar should be possible for other commodities. Certainly the whole field needs at- tention. It is increasingly clear that terms like warranty and guarantee, originally an assurance of quality, are frequently little more than pro- motional rhetoric. As merchandising is carried on today, many guarantees are not worth the paper they're writ- ten on, and even the best of them mean no more than the issuing party wants them to mean. If a customer buys a pen, for ex- ample, that is "absolutely guaran- that is exactly what he gets an article that is "absolutely guar- anteed" to be a pen. Not a particu- lar kind or quality of pen, not a dur- able pen, not necessarily a good pen; simply a pen. If it does what a pen is supposed to do, regardless of how well or badly or for how long, it ful- fils the terms of that particular guar- antee. Adding a glittering certificate say- ing the guarantee "covers" materials and workmanship, or that stipulates a time during which it is effective, does little to strengthen the custom- er's protection, unless clear and pre- cise detail is specified. The term "lifetime for instance, is so vague as to be virtually meaning- less. If the lifetime referred to is that of the article being guaranteed, it means that the article will last as long as it lasts, a pointless statement if ever there was one. It can hardly mean anything so indeterminable as the lifetime of the purchaser, who might be anywhere from six to 60, and who might live six days or 60 years after making the purchase. Pens, tires, batteries, clocks, and most other manufactured articles don't and aren't intended or expected to last a normal human lifetime, or anything like it. But "lifetime guar- antee" sure sounds good. "Guaranteed against defects of material or workmanship" has a nice, authentic ring to it, and perhaps an intelligible meaning, but as most people are all too well aware, in op- eration it adds no more customer protection than the manufacturer or his agent chooses to provide. Some firms back their goods 100 per cent, and honestly mean it when they say the goods must be satisfactory or they'll refund the purchase price. Far, far more firms don't mean anything of the kind. They answer complaints by claiming misuse, tampering or some fault on the part of the cus- tomer, or blandly say "Sorry, that (whatever "that" may be) Isn't cov- ered by warranty." A dissatisfied customer who is lucky enough to have the time and determination to spend the necessary weeks and months pursuing the matter, may eventually obtain a grudging refund or far more likely what is called "an adjustment." Most people give up long before they get anything more than a feeling of frustration, a far cry from the impression they got and were intended to get before making the purchase. The casserole There was a time, not too long ago, when a boot sole three or four inches thick was a mark of misfortune; it was a prosthetic device to help someone with one leg mark- edly shorter than the other. Those who recall when that was the case will sym- pathize with the confused observer who, when seeing the ridiculous heights to which platform soles have grown, wondered what it must be like to have both legs shorter than the other. A sad little news item has come in from Athens, concerning the erstwhile Chinese ambassador to Greece. It seems Mr. CIiou Po-ping got a bit confused recently; invit- ed to the embassy of Kuwait, for some routine function, he took a wrong turn and ended up at an Israeli diplomatic recep- tion marking the 25th anniversary of the state of Israel. Mixing up Arabs and Is- raelis would be bad enough, but China doesn't even recognize that the state of Israel exists. Needless to say, perhaps, Mr. Chou Po- ping has left Athens, en route home to Pe- king. their economic arrangements seem to be. Within the past year the Australian government has abolished special tax con- cessions to mining and prospecting com- panies, forbidden proposed foreign take- overs of a major investment corporation and two mining enterprises, raised general wage levels, kept consumer prices reason- ably in line, and at the same time seen unemployment levels fall to the lowest in years, a matter of only for the whole country. In Canada, we are told, such things are quite impossible. People on the 'under' side of the world eren't upsids-down, oE course, but some of With the Wankel engine achieving com- mercial success, naturally there will be imitations, and quite possibly some im- provements. One that may be both has been announced by Professor Franz Huf of the Constance Engineering College in Germany. According to its inventor, the Huf engine is better than the Wankel be- cause of its trochoidal piston; a trochoid, he explains, is "the path in a fixed plane of any point in a moving coincident plane when a given curve in the latter plane rolls without sliding on a straight line of an arc or circle in the former plane." Now why didn't we think of (hat? By Normal Cousins, Los Angeles Times commentator The difficulties in enforcing the peace terms in Vietnam point to a terrifying fact about human society. Men know far less about the making of peace than about the making of war. They maintain academies to teach war strategy and tactics. They carry out far-flung pro- grams to train soldiers to fight. They spend hundreds of billions of dollars on weapons and bombs. They require young men to give a year or more of their lives in compulsory mili- tary service. What about peace? No one is compelled to study peace or to work for peace. There are no government peace academies for educating people in the difficult arts of peace- making and peace-keeping. In terms of human thought, action or commitment, the sad truth is that peace has never been as important as war. The United Nations is a dra- matic example of the second- ary role of peace in human af- fairs. The United Nations was founded in 1945 for the purpose of eradicating the "scourge of war" in the words of the preamble to the U.N. Charter. Yet the world organization was never given the means to fulfil that purpose. The statesmen, especially from the major na- tions, make all sorts of grand- "You're right, the boys should prepare for future security let's register them in hockey Selective export controls necessary By Maurice Western, Herald Ottawa OTTAWA For all the talk of an industrial strategy or strategies, the federal Govern- ment seems strangely reluctant to coordinate existing industrial policies already repre- sent a considerable investment of funds and energy. It has been the burden of many reports and speeches that strategy ought to be directed to the goal of processing more of our materials in Canada. This is, of course, the intent of John Turner's corporate tax reduc- tion, now virtually assured of passage through the House of Commons. It has also been the clear intent of many of the pro- grams sponsored by the depart- ment of Industry and of the gen- erous subsidies paid out to many "firms by the department of regional expansion. But much i: plainly at risk because the Government, wor- ried about inflation but even more terrified of controls, will not take even the first steps to- wards the development o f in- telligible supply policies. The point is particularly well illustrated by current protests of the Quebec furniture manu- facturing industry as expressed very lucidly by Rene Cimon, president of the association, in a long interview published by the Gazette of Montreal. It is to be noted, by way of introduction, that the depart- ment of industry, especially during the term of Jean-Luc Pe- pin, took much pride in the achievements of the furniture manufacturers. Various exhibi- tions were arranged to interest buyers in Canadian designs and there were gratifying sales, no- tably in the United States. The industry has a high labor con- tent and is now ranked as the third or fourth employer in the province of Quebec. But there is now an acute supply problem; a shortage of lumber and particularly of hardwood. According to Mr. Ci- mon, the cost of lumber has risen between 50 and 100 per cent over the past 18 months. Furniture prices have increased less sharply but are expected to rise from 8 to 20 per cent by August. What results are anticipated? It is very simple. To quote Mr. Cimon again: "People aren't going to pay the increased prices. They'll pass them up and make do with what they've got, which puts people out of work." But the Government, as the author of these expensive pro- grams, keeps pressing the in- dustry to produce more for ex- port. Without lumber, there is an obvious difficulty. Mr. Ci- mon compares it to the problem of "hanging a picture without a nail." Bottlenecks go with inflation. There is a similar situation in the housing industry. As with furniture, the lumber is being drawn off to the United States. Home prices in this country are soaring ever higher; well be- yond the reach of the unsubsi- dized who have little to expect of the new programs currently under study by Parliament. While there are many factors in this situation, it is certainly being aggravated by advancing materials costs. In such circumstances, the Saving Baltic Avenue By Don Oakley, NEA service It was a refreshing departure from the usual dismal fare that makes up so much of daily newspaper reaaduig the hull- abaloo stirred up by the "plot" o" the Atlantic City Commission to change the names of Baltic and Mediterranean Avenues, which, along with other of the city's streets, have been im- mortalized on the Monopoly board. The story is now history: How fans around the country rushed to the defense of lowly Baltic and Mediterranean, some collecting Monopoly money to finance the cause; the eloquent plea by Edward P. Parker, president of Parker Brothers, manufacturers of the game, comparing the two streets to "such thoroughfares as Broad- way, Trafalgar Square and the Champs Elysees" the stir- ring rally cry of Princeton Uni. versity student Robert Baker, who organized "Students to save Baltic and Meterranean" and proclaimed that the strug- gle "represented the last resort of the underdog to hold out against the oppressive forces of Boardwalk and Park Place power mongers." And while it lasted it was a punster's dream. There were threats of sending the com- missioners to "jail, directly to jail." "We have turned the said one observer after the commission backed down. A bit of Americana has been saved and it is now "Go" in the larg- er struggle to preserve other threatened American values and traditions. Well, it was all in fun, but ttiere just could be more truth than jest in tbe last sentiment. case for selective export con- trols appears self-evident. But the only member to urge this course on the government, in a series of reasoned interventions, has been Alvin Hamilton, the former Conservative Minister. Mr. Hamilton, it is worth ob- serving, is no enemy of the lumbering industry; on the con- trary he was much concerned with fostering it in his days in government. The government's general ob- jections to controls are well known. One serious one is the constitutional problem and the difficulty, said to have been ex- posed recently of obtaining coorfcsr3tion in s field of divided jurisdiction. But ex- port controls cannot be rejected on that ground since the federal government unquestionably is the master as regards inter- national trade. It is obvious that such con- trols would involve dis- crimination. At the same time they would not be arbitrary if invoked solely (as in the past) to break supply bottlenecks which impose particular hard- ships on certain industries. They should have considerable appeal for a Government which seldom tires of exalting the vir- tues of flexibility. The criticism which may rea- sonably be brought against many proposals for encouraging processing industries (such as Mr. Cimon's) is that they are protectionist and likely to bring reprisals from other countries. But a nation suffering from shortages is not open to rebuke for safeguarding its own sup- plies. The Canadian govern- ment does not object when Ja- pan imposes export limits on its textiles; on the contrary, we have been forcing "voluntary" controls on our Asian trade partners for many years. It should also be clear that such controls would bear only on industries which may be said at the moment to be the benefi- ciaries of excessive foreign de- mand. Their sole purpose would be to divert a relatively small percentage of supplies from for- eign markets to the domestic market which is the point of must therefore be reasonably lucr- ative. Why the government, in a time of serious inflation, should draw back from such marginal measures (at obvious cost to its other industrial policies) is any- thing but clear. For in fact, on rather rare occasions, export controls have been used protect supplies. Indeed, Donald Mac- donald lias assured Tommy Douglas that the government is prepared for such action, if necessary, to safeguard gasoline supplies. The government has also tried to ease our situation by other forms of supply policy, such as Mr. Timer's tariff cuts. But these have been timid, re- luctant steps. There is nothing timid about price inflation. If wage price controls are ruled out, as seems to be the case, the government should at least ad- dress itself m-re seriously and systematically to the elimination of those bottlenecks which unnec- essarily aggravate the inflation. Export controls, admittedly, would be only a partial answer to our complex general problem but they would be effective in particular cases and almost anything might appear sn im- provement on the immobility which now passes for policy in Ottawa. BERRY'S WORLD km speeches about import- ance of the United but they carefully deprive the Unit- ed Nations of the authority for carrying out its mandate. The result is that the United Na- tions as a world organization has no lawmaking or law-en- forcing powers. It is severely limited in its ability to deal with world anarchy. The financial support given to the United Nations by its members is an all-too-accurate reflection of the value they at- tach to a peace-keeping roach- anism. The United States the highest dues by far of any of the members of the United Nations. Yet the United States has spent more for an average single day of warfare In Viet- nam than its full-year meat to the United Nations. We get what we pay lor in peace as in everything else. President Nixon, like Presi- dents Johnson, Kennedy and Eisenhower before him, has said that tbe eradication of war is the most vital business on earth. Yet he has slashed our payment .to-the United Nations and has cut to ribbons the bud- get for the only agency inside the U.S. government specifical- ly charged with the respon- sibility for finding ways to bring about effective arms con- trol and disarmament in the world. Meanwhile, the presi- dent has increased the U.S. military budget despite the end of the war effort in Viet- nam and the detente with the Chinese and the Russians, in which he himself played tht major role. It is not just national govern- ments that give far more at- tention to warmaking than peacemaking. Peace is the most neglected subject in the Am- erican educational curriculum. Perhaps not more than a dozen American colleges and univer- sities have instituted systemat- ic world peace studies. Man- hattan College, Duke Uni- versity, the University of Michi- gan aid Colgate University are among the pioneers hi Am- erican higher education that recognize the fact that people must be educated in the na- ture and management of peace if peace is to become a reality. Perhaps the most imaginative effort of all in this direction is the proposal for an Biter- national Peace Academy. It was conceived by a Philadelphia woman, Mrs. Ruth Young, and is now well on the way toward becoming a reality. The Inter- national Peace Academy would train people to become interna- tional civil servants, especially in complicated matters of peace-keeping as in the present Vietnamese situation. War need not be inevitable, but it will not go away by itself. When enough people come to understand that peace is a science, and are pre- pared to meet its stern de- mands, there is a good chance that war can be abolished. Un- til then, it is difficult for the human race to regard itself as truly civilized. fcy NIA, Inc. ''let me astun you, Mr. Wozney, you ore Damef Ellsberg, and no one is going to burgloriie my of tor your tile." The Lethbridge Herald 904 7th St. S., UHMwMge, Alberta UETHBRIDGE HERALD CO. LTD., Proprietors and PubUsbM Published 1905-1964, by Hon. W. A. BUCHANAN Second Claw Mai Ragwrottan No. Monitor if Tlw Canadian and the Canadian Dally Nowipopor PvtXMian' AiMelotlon and tha Audit ClrmlotltM CLCO W MOWERS, Editor and PuMMwr THOMAS R ADAMS, Oonerai Mtnogw DON PILLINS WILLIAM HAY Managing Editor AuocUM Editor ROY F. POU6LA8 K. WALKER flMlflQ flAMMyVr rclftt BWMT HHAI0 9MVB 1W SOVTrT ;