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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - June 1, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta Thursday, 1, 1972 THE IITHMIDGE HERAID 9 Marc Baudouin Internationa! development perspectives Marc Baudouin Is vice-presi- dent of the Canadian Interna- tional Development Agency. This U a condensed text ot a speech given to the Canadian Save the Children Fund annual meeting In Banff, May 14, 1072. IT HAS become popular within the last few years to say that the "Development Decade" ol the 60' s has a total failure and that we are now in the process of trying to unravel our mistakes. This is a kind of total view that suggests a new typo ot ap- ocalypse wilich aWElils Us an. It suggests that have ex- ported our technology to create rising expectations that can never be achieved. It means that we have begun to destroy ancient customs, tribal or na- tional that might have been better lett alone; that we cre- ated problems in poor nations that we have not solved at home, sucli as creation of slums, anil proper care of the aged, orphans and the poor who can't make it, and caused the alienation of youth who rejecl a consumer society. At the extreme end of the spectrum is the ecological night- mare of the selfish use of nat- ural resources by the Western World coupled with a rising population that will result in three quarters of the people of the poor world practically standing one atop the other in 28 years. There are, of course, numer- ous examples of the mistakes made in the great rush into doing something at an early stage after the Second World War, rather than leaving tha Russians do it. It is also true that though tha first development decade pro- duced a 5 per cent increase in the gross national product in some countries of the third world, it was done at a high social price. A turning point In this aware- ness came in December of 1970 when the 25th General Assem- bly of the United Nations passed a resolution calling for a deter- mined search for an alternative strategy of planned develop- ment that would avoid regional disparities and would not cause unemployment as a result of technological change. So looking back over the past decade with all its failures and disappointments, can it be real- ly said that it was a total fail- ure? Let us say that we bava learned much from that period. All of us, the wealthy and the poor nations. We have a new awareness that is of a much higher order than the sum of our good, even self-righteous in- tentions 10 or 15 years ago. This is progress, as a result of ex- perience, in a rather brief time frame. To think of attitudes to- wards the undeveloped nations, say 20 or 25 years ago, does not require much imagination. Too few of us had attitudes or real concern at all in those days. In fact, nobody, with the possible exception of missionaries, knew anything about if. Seen from that angle, there is progress. At least now, we are aware of the fact that there is a problem, in fact many problems. Unem- ployment is one of facets of which are familiar to us. For the world's workers, tha economic slowdown in 1971 meant spreading unemployment and an Increase in consumer prices. The trend was noted in varying degrees both in the in- dustrialized countries and in the developing regions, which were already suffering from unem- ployment and under employ- ment of a chronic type. Abbas Ammar, associate di- rector of the International Labor Office, predicts that 300 million new jobs will have to be created on a world basis within the next eight years. To him "it Is the great- est challenge of our times." He predicts that the potential labor force in the third world alone will reach million persons by 1930, a figure which compares to the total world labor force in 1960. Technological change and re- sulting unemployment is hardly new to the industrialized world wliich has been wealthy enough to absorb it, but it will be criti- cal in the third world. As one of its challenges in Iho second decade of development, the 1LO has embarked on an in- ternational program to direct economic planning into m o r o labor intensive activities. This is based on what is now well known that economic growth or gross national pro- duct does not solve the un- employment problem. This pro- gram is only at the study research stage because too little is known about some of the ob- stacles economic, political, social and others that vary from country to country. Another problem Is the one of Population Explosion. In mid-1970, the population of the world was 3.6 billion, the rate of growth was two per cent; this means, assuming that this rate remains constant, the population of the world will double in 35 years or by the year 2005. The population will then be in the order of 7.2 bil- lion human beings. By the year 2040, 35 years after, the world's population will again double and reach 14.5 billion or four times that of the present with a similar demand upon the per- formance of the world's econ- omy; in other words, the world production will have to quad- ruple in 70 years if we want the standard of living simply to remain the same as it is today. To this point I have not talked about the distribution of econo- mic benefits in the world, but have spoken as though there were an amorphus gross world product that is more or less evenly distributed. Of course this is not the case; instead, we have a situation in which one third of the world's people control between 85 and 90 per cent of the total world GNP. Not only thai, but the popula- tion increase in the so-called de- veloped world is consistently below the world average wlu'lo the lesser developed countries are consistently above it. For Instance, India, which has ona ot the oldest and most agres- sive family planning programs in Asia, lias a growth rate p! 2.6 per cent (wliich adds a mil- b'on people to her population every month and will double her population in 27 years) while the conlincnt of Europe has an aggregate growth rato of 0.8 per cent. Other develop- ing countries have growth rales of three or lour per cent. Such population increases in the economically weak coun- tries ol the world present in- credible difficulties for the gov- ernments of these nations since they are. then forced to divert revenues from developmental sectors to basic social service areas such as education at the primary levels, medical ser- vices, simple feeding programs, lo name only a few. This means, of course, that a size- able proportion of very limited resources must be committed to areas which will not streng- then her economic position in the world and, consequently, will not increase the standard of living of her population. Thus it can be seen that one of the major factors holding back development is the sheer weight of numbers of the popu- lations in the under developed world and, unless this problem is confronted and overcome, there seems to be little likeli- hood of significant advancement being made in lessening the gap between the rich and the poor nations. Furthermore, unless population is controlled, there seems to be little possiblity for a stable internal, and ultimate- ly external, political situation in the developing world. The trouble is lhat present methods of family planning simply don't work in many countries. New methods will have to be found. Population explosion, as a re- sult of the spread of medical advances, began in the jioorer countries between 15 and 20 years ago. Consequently, since ihe primary need for life is food and given the then current levels of food production, as lit- tle as 10 to 15 years ago, mas- Make painting easy for yourself. Ask your Pittsburgh Paints Dealer! Your Pillsburgti Painls Dealer has the righl interior pain! for every area in your home...even (he difficult ones, He can also give you important advice on surface preparation and application so you'll get Ihe most out o( your paint. For example in kitchens...steam, grease and grime all give walls a hard time. And that's why you need a pain! that can sland up to lough treatment. Planning lo paint? See your Pittsburgh Paints Dealer, He's pot everything you need to do a great righl painls, the right ihe right colours in the Custom Colour Collection, and good advice, too. Ask for his special free booklet o! palming lips that will help you do the job right, lirst lime. Pittsburgh Satinhide Lo-lustre Enamel has a hard-wearing finish idea! for kitchens, bathrooms, and simitar areas. For other rooms, Pittsburgh Wallhide inferior latex paint, its attractive Hat finish, is recommended tor its outstanding properties of hiding power and ease of application. Do It right. Talk to your Pittsburgh Paints Dealer. ACE BUILDING SUPPLIES 433 24 St. North PHONE 328-7084 CANADIAN PITTSBURGH INDUSTRIES LTD. MINT and GIASS RETAIL CENTRE 252 12 St. North Phone 327-1SOB sive famine was predicted for Asia in the 1970s and for Latin America in the 1980s. Indeed after two successive crop fail- ures in the Indian subcontinent in the mid-1960s, it appeared that we were witnessing the re- alization ot these grim fore- casts. Between then and now the picture has completely altered; Pakistan changed from one of the largest recipients of world food aid in 1967 to self suffi- ciency in cereal crops and a net exporter of rice In 1970; India expects to be self-suffi- cient this year. This incredible reversal of trends is due to technological break throughs in the last five years. Probably the most dramatic of all was the development of so called "Miracle rice" or, as it is for- mally known, IR-8 by the Inter- national Bice Research Insti- tute in the Philippines. This in- stitute in five short years had developed IR-3, a Ugh yield highly adaptable strain of rice wliich has proved easily capable of doubling the yield of most of the local rices of Asia. Coupled with tills was the earlier devel- opment of high yield dwarf wheats by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre located in Mexico. Insofar as development theory Is concerned, the Green Revolu- tion has removed the food-popu- I a t i o n question temporarily from its former position of pri- macy. But green revolutions don't happen all the time, while populations grow regu- larly. AnoUier problem is that ot Technology. In the developed world, when we think of technology, we view it as a labor saving device. This, unfortunately, is a most inappropriate way of conceiv- ing technology as it applies lo the developing world; indeed, I would even suggest that it is a disastrous way. We can expect lo have ever increasing num- bers ol young people entering the labor force for at least the next fifteen years and, unless jobs can be found for them, Uio political situation in these coun- tries will be extremely unstable. Thus the current primary prob- lem is now, employment pop- ulation. Technology, them, must be used in such a way as to Increase the demand for labor rather than save it. Linked to the population ex- plosion is the threat of the wid- ening gap between rich and poor countries. Barring unforeseen factors, projections for the industrial- ized world the U.S., Russia, Europe and Japan in year 2000 will have one billion and a half people each of whom will con- sume between and 000 worth of goods and ser- vices. This compares to a four and a half billion people in the third world each of whom will con- sume about worth of goods and services a year. Another failure has been in pinning all hopes of developing the third world on the cduca- tion model of the Western and European socieities. The result, as Ivan Illich, the c o n t r o versial Monsignor of Cuernavaca, Mexico, has point- ed out has been to widen tha gap between rich and poor In poor nations. The educational system that seems to have worked well for the industrial- ized countries in the past cen- tury although there are many who even dispute can be a disaster in third world countries which need more skilled farmers, mechanics, etc., rather than white collar workers who tend to expand govern ment bureaucracy or costly military systems. The picture I have been try- ing to draw is one of a develop- ment world where things are far from perfect and where new answers to new problems have to be found. This picture would not be complete if I would not mention the problems of de- clining prices of raw material as compared to 'he constantly rising prices of finis hed goods and unfortunately, the devel- oping countries export the form- er and import the latter. And there is the problem of access to markets, of preferential treatment, of the cost of money and of tied aid and there does not seem lo be any satisfactory solution emerging. Well, all 1 want to say really, and it's nothing new, is that the challenge of development is greater than ever, that the problem is urgenl, that it con- cerns all of us. In fact, the ques- tion is so serious lhat it is not enough for all of us here to de- vote our time and energies to this great task. We must .do more, we must become mili- tants, we must enlist the active support and participation of others, reach new sectors of the population so that development docs not remain a matter for government officials and a hand- ful of devoted volunteers, but becomes the concern of as many Canadians as possible. Montana natural gas boom The Great Falls Tribune A WAVE of drilling in north cenrlal Montana is certain to develop now that the federal agencies in Canada and the United States have approved piping Montana gas across Canada to Minnesota for use in the Midwest. A decision announced recently by the Federal Power Commission in Washing- ton, D.C., was the last roadblock to an application by Northern Natural Gas to transport up to 150 million cubic feet of gas per day of Montana natural gas across Canada. The ruling followed a favorable one by the Canadian National Energy Board May 5. Construction by Northern Natural is ex- pected to start almost immediately on a 46-mile pipeline Irom the Tiger Ridge field in Hill and Elaine Counties to the Montana- Saskatchewan border. From that point, Consolidated Pipe Lines Co. of Calgary will construct a 110-mile pipeline to connect with existing lines of TransCanada Pipe Lines Co. in Saskatchewan. The gas then will be relayed by Great Lakes Pipe Lines Co. to Northern's system at Chart'on, Minn. Approval of tha gas Import-export pro- gram by the Canadian Energy Board and the FCC represents a significant victory by Northern Natural because the plan has been opposed by the Montana Power Co. The Montana Power Co., which success- fully fought the proposal two years ago, contended the Montana gas should be dedi- cated to use by Montanans. The fight lo use the Montana gas has been going on ever since Iligti Crest Oils ot Canada opened up the Tiger Ridge field about four years ago. The scarcity of natural gas in Midwest- ern states will encourage rapid develop- ment of gas fields in Montana. Another vital factor is a Federal Power Commis- sion proposal to allow a widespread round of price increases on natural gas in order to encourage exploralion and development of new gas fields. Since Northern Natural plans lo have the gas flowing through the new lines be- fore the end of this year, nortlicentral Mon- tana undoubtedly will be the focus of a tremendous drilling campaign this sum- mer. The Caldivell caper fJY the time this appears in print, I suspect many of you will have read and heard about all you want lo of re- porter Ron Caldwcll's recent series of ar- ticles on the university's enrolment pros- pects. It would be silly, though, for me to pretend not to be interested, and I do have this space. In the past few days, In addition to hay- ing read whatever was carried in this paper on the topic, I've listened to quite a Dumber of people on the subject, people Tve counted among (he university's staunches! supporters. I find it both sur- prising and distressing that these articles have engendered the response they have. To me it is really surprising that people can still take seriously predictions by anyone of student enrolment, and even mora so that anyone can get worked up over what a few high school students say (or are reported as having said) about what they are likely to be doing next week, let alone several months from now. And I find it truly distressing that so many people, especially those you'd thought be- lieved most strongly in the university, have such fragile confidence in the institution as Iheir reactions (no over-reactions, of course) would seem to indicate. I don't know how far back your mem- ories go, but in the early fifties, when en- rolment at the University of Alberta was around the mark, that institution was offered a large tract of land, adjacent to its campus and ideal for future expansion, for After considering all the data, including enrolment projections, it was de- cided the extra land wasn't needed. Ac- cordingly, it was developed as residential property. Less than ten years later, a fund of twenty million was encumbered to pur- chase a smaller area of far less desirable land because it was obvious, from the data including enrolment projections, that cam- pus expansion was unavoidable. A couple of years ago, there wasn't a university in the country that wasn't mad- ly planning expansion. Departments ol ed- ucation, boards, special committees, and even the omniscient Economic Council of Canada, all flourished unassailable proof lhat the ever mounting press of expand- ing student populations would continue. Lo- cally, we bought the whole idea, and I can remember listening to people worry not about how soon we'd get to an enrolment of but how we could keep the student population down to that figure. As for student notions, I can recall quite vividly a wrangle between a father acd daughter over which university she would attend. He being a typically parsimon- ious parent wished her to attend the local institution; she would have rone of "that crummy place." She, together with a half- dozen fellow members of whatever kind of club girls have at high school, would live co-operatively in a luxurious apart- ment while attending the "real" university in the capital city a couple of hundred miles away, and they would cut an im- pressive academic and social swathe across the campus in the process. The battle had not been finally decided when matricula- tion results were received, and it turned out that the daughter was the only mem- ber of the club to achieve university en- trance standing. So forgive me, please, if I still managa to sleep nights. On the use of words Theodora Bernstein OABTING Is such sweet blah blah. Away back the word was farewell (a contraction of fare you which co- existed with good-by (a contraction of God be with It's a safe bet that 'he person uttering those words had little concern about whether the listener fared well or had God wilh him; the words were just words. Next goody-by was shortened to by-by and then to by, with the more recent variation by now. Then came the informal so long (no one knows the derivation of that one and the guesses range from the Arabic salaam and the Hebrew shalora, meaning through "Good luck for so long as we are parted and until we see one another again" to this writer's wild guess that maybe it comes from "So I'll be gelling More recently the part- ing people have been saying take care; take it easy; hurry back now, hcah; be a good girl (or be good; I'll be see- ing you; be seeing you, and see you. As far as any meaning behind the phrases concerned, the parting people could just as well say, blah-blah. And that's just what will be said here. Blah-blah. Affect, effect. As verbs, these nonidentl- cal twins are often confused. Affect means to influence or have a bearing on affecls the farmer's whereas effect means to bring about, to accomplish, to execute (Congress is trying to effect a program that will help the Here's an aid to memory; When you want the word that means execute, think of the twin that, like execute, begins with an Youth-yak. First it was get oula here, then it was get going, then it was beat it, then it was take a walk, then it was scram, then it was stove off, then it was cop a walk and now it is flake off. At least it was five minutes ago. But you never can tell about slang, Wrong number. Do spectators at a thrill- ing auto race hold their breaths or their breath? Do Japanese students live in counlry to complete their educations or their education? Logically, since the spec- tators and the students have Individual noses, shirts and friends, you'd expect them hold their breaths or complete their edu- cations. That's the logic of it, but it's not the idiom of it. Idiomatically the noun ap- plying to more than one person remains in the singular when (a) it represents a qual- ity or thing possessed in common audience's curiosity was or (b) it is an abstraction judges applied their reason to the or (c) it is a figurative word three children had a sweet Occasionally there is a choice of a singular or a plural noun: "The men were held prisoner" (abstract) or "as prisoners" But that kind of choice is an exception to the Word oddities. A reader in Arkansas is puzzled by the words explore and Implore, wh'ch derive from the same root but are so widely dissimilar in meaning. How come? hs asks in effect, Tlie basis of the two words is the Latin plorare, to cry out or wail. It's easy enough lo trace Implore to that root since implore means to suppli- cate, beseech. But how about explore? Well the supposition is that explorare, the Latin root with a prefix, was originally a hunting term, meaning either the hunters' cry on spotting game or the cries of tha beaters trying to search out game. Ths word then became a general term for searching out or examining and the first thing you know it took on the idea of explore, which means to search out or ex- amine. Words do tend to stray from their roots, and that is all to the good; it en- riches the language and makes it more flexible. (New York Times) ;