Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - July 31, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta
THI UTHMIDOI HIRAID Decentralization of federal bureaucracy FI VI By Anthony Westell, Toronto Stir commentator VANCOUVER The man who was talking fast and guasively into the floor phone at the Liberal confer- ence on western objectives was young, with a shock of blond hair, dark glasses and a bright tartan jacket. As a graduate student in the United States, be helped to found the Students for a Democratic Society be- fore it became a portable volution. In Ottawa, he was an assistant to several ministers. He's a PhD who runs an in- stitute of urban studies in Win- nipeg, and he has just got elected as a Liberal member of the Legislature in Manitoba, one of the few. Bis name is Lloyd Axworthy. He's educated, experienced and articulate, and he was talking about administrative federal- ism and the West. It sounds for- midable but it is the thread of a new argument which ran through the entire conference in which western Libtrals tried to tell Prime Minister Pierre Trodeau why they lost votes and seats in the West in the October election, and how to get them back. Axworthy explains the case for administrative federalism, or decentralization of the fed- eral bureaucracy, better than anybody else. Listening to him carefuQy was a tall gray man. with gray hair, gray suit and the gray expression of an Ot- tawa mandarin. This is C. M. (Bod) Drury, president of the treasury board back in Ottawa, one of the least known and most influential of Trudeau's ministers. Once a civil servant, Drury went into politics but has be- come over the years a sort of general manager for the gov- ernment. He runs the public service, controls the spending program, oversees the admin- istration. When the cabinet de- cides the civil service should be bilingual, Drury makes it work. When the cabinet decid- ed after the October election that the civil service should be decentralized as far as possi- ble, Drury took on the task of Implementing the theory. He's an easterner, an English Montrealer from Westmount. He came to Vancouver to lis- ten to the western Liberals, rather than to talk. But after he heard Axworthy talk he went to the microphone. That makes sense, he says quietly. I agree with that approach. Well try that. And when Bud Drury says that, you know he means it and has the power to make it happen. What Axworthy said was this: "Canadians increasingly live in an administered Where at one time decisions were made by individuals oper- ating within a relatively free market, (he power of the indi- vidual to make decisions ulti- mately affecting one's way of Itfp are now made by large or- ganizations. Many of these or- ganizations are 'public' insti- tutions presumably responsible to political control and direc- tion. "They include government departments, regulatory agencies, crown corporations and various forms of intergov- ernmental groups and gather- ings of officials. They make de- cisions on every facet of exist- ence, from what we eat, to where we work, to how we tra- vel and what we wear. "The central importance of this administrative network is often overlooked in discussion on how to make Canadian eration work better." Axworthy's Liberal leader in Manitoba, I. H. Asper, devoted his main effort at the confer- ence to pushing through a re- solution demanding wholesale change in the parliamentary system to give better represen- tation to the West. It may be logical, but it won't happen. It reminds one of the constitution- al arguments put forward by Quebec 10 years ago, which so much of our poli- tical energy and in the end pro- duced so little. Axworthy and those who think like him were more mo- dest. Let's look at the CBC, they said: It was set up as an instrument of national unity, when unify meant centralized institutions providing uniform service to the entire country. But today the easy way to evoke a chorus of boos at the western Liberal conference was to mention the CBC, because it is regarded as a Toronto-or Ottawa-based institution unres- ponsive to western culture. Or let's look at Air Canada. It was set up to provide some sort of public service. But what? If it is just supposed to provide ah- service at a profit, free enterprise could do it, and the West would probably pre- fer CP Air, which is based in Vancouver. If it is supposed to serve the national interest first and make profits second, why was the main overhaul base shifted from Winnipeg which desperately need secon- dary industry, to Montreal, which is already a metropolis? So let's look at the charters of crown corporations and re- define the national unity they are supposed to serve and en- hance, say the decentralists. Let's look at all those federal departments crammed into Ot- tawa and see what job oppor- tunities and payrolls and pro- curement can be shifted to the West and the other regions of Canada. This is the approach which Drury was endorsing. He was not promising an instant, mas- sive movement of men, money or jobs out of Ottawa. He was saying he saw sense in care- full reviewing tiie roles, objec- tives and operations of each federal department and agen- cy to see what can be achieved. Of course, a good deal is al- ready being done. The depart- ment of regional economic ex- pansion is promising to shift the bulk of its operations to the regions and provinces. The In- dustrial Development Bank is being taken from under the wing of the Bank of Canada, given responsibility for federal management and engineering advice to small business, and being established across Can- ada as a regional financial in- stitution. This is what administrative federalism is all about. And it is becoming the new ortho- doxy, what constitutional re- form used to he to Quebec, and offering westerners access to the civil service in the way that bilingualism offers access to French Canadians. Prime Minister Trudeau is all for it. It is part of his res- sponse to western alienation and the threat it presents to national unity. But he sees also that administrative decentrali- zation can be dangerous if it weakens ties with the central government. And of course be is right. De- centralization is a further ero- sion of federal power. The pro- vinces have annexed all tiie legislative powers they can rea- sonably claim. There is no real prospect of constitution- al reform to transfer further jurisdiction from Ottawa. So now the demand is made for administrative authority. It makes sense, but it must reduce the national power resi- dent in Ottawa. HISTORY OF TIffi INDUSTRIAL AGE CARN-ACE Do values count in liberal education? By Father Theodore M. Hesbnrga, president of the University Notre Dame Somewhere, m mat vague morass of rhetoric ttrt has al- ways I'toi descriptions of liberal education, one al- ways finds a mention of values. The true purists insist on intel- lectual values, but there have always been educators, parti- ADOOQfi of small Kberal arts colleges in the nineteenth century, who likewise stressed moral values as one of the finest fruits of their educational piocess, es- pecially if their colleges wen A t-J Vy IwBJDQIaD 1 befieve it to be a fairly obvious fact tint we have come fall circle in our secularized times. Today, one bears all too fiifle of intellectual values, and moral values seem to have be- come a lost cause in the edu- cational uroQUK. I kuuw educa- tors of some ivuuwu who in ef- feet tea their students, "we oon't care wU. yon do around here as long as you do it quiet- ly, avoid blatant scandal, and don't give the institution a bad deavor, if indppd they can be taught anyway. Moral abdication or swuifc to have become a sign of the times. One might wefl describe tfae iDness of modern society and its school- ing as aoomie, a rootlessness. Do values realty count in a liberal education? They have to count if you take the word "lib- eral" at its face value. To be liberal, an education must Book Review somehow liberate a person to be what every person potential- ly is: free. Free to be and free to do what? Excuse me for making a fist, but it is important The first fruit of a liberal education is to free a person from ignorance fundamentally means freedom to think, clearly and logically. Moreover, allied with this release from 0on4hinking or is (he freedom to communicate one's thoughts, hopefully with clarity, style, and grace, more than tfae uuauoerthal grunt A liberal education should also enable a person to judge, which in itself presupposes the ability to evaluate: to prefer this to that, to say this is good and that bad, or at least mis is bet- ter than that To evaluate is to prefer, to discriminate, to Is population control necessary? Part of this attitude is an overreadaon to "in loco paren- which goes from eschew- ing responsibility for students' fives to just not caring bow they live. It is assumed that how students five has no rela- tion to their education which is, in this view, solely an in- teftectoal process. Those who espouse this view would not necessarily deny that values are impoitarjl in life, they just do not think tint they form of the higher education en- "Population Control: For and Against" edited by Har- old H. Hart (Hart Pnbfish- ing Company. pages, pap- erback, distributed by George J. McLeod, Only two of the 12 contribu- tors to tins discussion do not think there is any reason to be alarmed by the rapid growth in the population of the world and are therefore opposed to trying to control it. The rest express varying degrees of alarm at the prospects of over- crowding, depletion of resour- ces, and decline in quality of Me Milton Himmelfarb, a Jew, thinks tVHCtaii about over-pop- ulation is merely faddishness. H may be even a cloak for hedonism fun without the responsibility of having to rear children. He is especially con- cerned that Jews not tower their birth rate because they have some catching up to do following the genocide practis- ed by Hitler and his gang. British agricultural econo- mist Colin Grant dark writes an almost incredibly optimistic piece favoring unlimited growth. "So far from being threatened wilh famine, are threatened with an embarrassing over- abundance of he says. He seems to thmk that be- cause Malthas1 gloomy predic- tion faued to come to pass ear- lier it will not happen later. By contrast to Hunmelfarb, another Jew, Arthur Lelveld, supports population control ef- forts. An obligation exists, he thinks, to limit population in order to properly take care of existing human bcmgs "There can be no 'santfificaiion of life' in the suicide of the human race." Dr. Preston Cloud, professor of biogeology at the University of California, doesn't share the optimism of Cpfin Clark. He be- lieves population must be con- trolled and that there are rights superseding individual rights to do as one warns. He points out that it is not a large step from regulating the number of wives or husbands a person may have to regulating the number of children, and a great deal more is at stake. Other well known persons such as Margaret Mead, Julian Hax- ley and Max Lemer make in- teresting conUftmUoits to tins timely discussion. As with other books in this series some of which have previously been re- viewed in The Herald this is worth reading and ponder- ing. DOUG choose, and each of these ac- tions presupposes a sense of values. liberal education should also enable a person to situate him- self or herself within a given culture, reKgwo, race, sex, and, hopefully, to appreciate what is valuable in tiie given situation, even as simple an evaluation as "black is beauti- ful This, too, is a value judg- ment and a liberation from valuelessDess, insecurity, and dtbpav, at tames. liberal education, by all of these value laden processes, should confer a sense of peace, confidence, and assurance on tiie person thus educated and liberate him or her from the edriftness that characterizes so many in an age of anoone. Lastly, a liberal education should enaWe a person to hum- anize everything that he or she touches in life, which is to say thai one is enabled not only to evaluate what one is or does, brft that, in addition, one adds value consciously to relation- ships that might otherwise he banal or superficial or mean- ingless- relations to God, to one's f eOow men. to one's -wife or husband or children, to one's associates, one's cro's country and world. In this way, the fist ef what one expects of liberal educa- tion is really a fist of the very real values that atone can lib- erate a person from very real evils or non-values stupJdOy, meaningtessness. inhumanity. (New York Taaee) Parkinson's law in action By E. George Mardot., U of L protester It is just 100 years since Prince Edward Island joined the Canadian confederation. Centennial are in full swing. But possibly this would be the right time for the province to examine its political position and request to rejoin Nova Scotia, to which it was joined seme ZOO yean ago. This, of course, would take govern- mental actioc. It is the smallest of the 10 provinces, having a population of only 000 persons. By law it is entitled to send four members to the House of Commons. Many federal ridings have close to mis number of voters within their boundaries. If this was to happen, it would merely reverse the unwise decision of tiie British government in 1769 when the island, then called Saint John's, was separated from the neighboring mainland of Nova Scotia, and set up as a separate administrative unit under its own governor. Previously during the golden days of New island, knowD as He Saint Jean, was a fisheries concession to French colonial enterprisers and an outpost for the fort at Louisburg. So there is a historical argument in favor of disestablishing the province which is the most overgoverned area of tiie nation. Besides sending four members to the fed- eral parliament in Ottawa, Prince Edward Island has a 32-member legislature. The Liberals under Premier Alex Campbell, the son of Thane Campbell, a former premier and chief justice of the province, holds 24 seats. In 1966 Campbell, who was then a 32-year-old Summerside lawyer, defeated the Progressive Conservatives. He has since increased his majority in tiie legisla- ture. Even though the Liberals hold such a commanding majority in the provincial house, in last October's federal contest, three Conservatives were elected while only one Liberal was sent to Ottawa. The popular vote in the last provincial election held in 1970 was 58 per cent in favor of Liberal candidates with no third parties running. This percentage dropped to 44 per cent in last year's federal general election. Meanwhile the Conservative vote increased from 42 per cent to Si per cent. The NDP obtained the remaining four per cent in the federal contest. Earlier this year the Progressive Con- servatives chose Kelvin McQuad as .their new leader. He is a flO-year-old lawyer from Souris and a former member of parlia- ment. There appears to be a Tory tradi- tion in choosing elderly leaden: Walter Shaw was 69 years of age wbeo.be was elected the Conservative leader in 1957. Two years later he led his party to vic- tory at the polls and was the premier for eight years. It will be interesting to see how the Conservatives fare under new leader. The island suffered from absentee land- lords during the 18th century, and the ques- tion of foreign ownership is again in the news. Premier Campbell appointed a royal commission on land use and ownership. In its interim report, the commission, headed by Charles Raymond, recommends the province increase the taxes of non-res- idents and limit corporate holdings. By the end of last year, acres, or 6.5 per cent of the province, was owned by for- eigners or Canadians living on tiie main- land. Raymond estimates if nothing is done that 40 per cent of the province will be owned by noo-residents by the end of this century. The cabinet usually consists of 10, close to one third of the elected members of the legislature. The justification for a govern- ment of this size to govern such a small area is questionable. The growth of cabi- nets, both federal and provincial, In Can- ada, is a characteristic of the 30th cen- tury. The reason is the operation of Parkin- sons' Law. Work, ParJrinsoa said, expands in importance and complexity, not with its real sigmfigance, but with the time to be spent, and the number of officials are not related to the quantity of the work. The Prince Edward Island administra- tion is possibly tiie best example in Can- ada of Parkinson's Law in action. Is not it about time that we saw reason and tempted to control mis phenomenon? j Report to readers Doug Walker Tired of Watergate? My sons have expressed annoyance oc- casionally tins summer over the pre-empt- ing of TV programs in order to give cover- age to tiie U.S. Senate Watergate hearings. They undoubtedly have some sympathizers among adults as well as their peers. Jim Berry, the NEA cartoonist, recently cap- tured their mood by depicting a man at a travel agency desk saying, "Give me a ticket to someplace where I won't have to bear about There have been some accusations mat the news media have blown this thing up out of all proportion to its importance. Some have even suggested that it is an invention of the news media to provide copy during tiie slack summer season. But the troth is that the investigtaiott into the Watergate affair is proving to be of utmost significance and couldn't be kept out of tfaa paper and off the screen without editors being gouty of irresponsmflity in tfae hand- ling of news. Those who think that is an extreme state- ment obviously bavent been reading the commentary or haven't had access enough of it. This latter possibility troubles me. Mindful of the danger that people can get weary of a subject and ever conscious of criticisms that there is too much U.S. commentary on my pages, I have been careful to ration references to Watergate. Some good perhaps essential com- ment has finis been laid aside. In case anyone has the impression that Watergate has dominated the editorial pages it might be useful to review the content of the pages during July. Five out of 60 locally written editorials dealt with Water- gate; six out of 43 cartoons touched on Watergate; seven out of 59 articles dealt- with Watergate; eight out of 57 special columns dealt with Watergate (this in- cludes three of Art BochwaM's That wou3d be excessive on most themes probably but in relation to how it has dom- inated the news (there has been a front page story practically every day) it is surety not out of proportion. The fact is that I have been deluged by material on Watergate. All the American commentators, with the exception of C. L. SjlKberger, bate been absorbed by the issues of Watergate. The London Observer's rcan m Washington and our man there naturally take an interest in the bearings also. Even commentators in Canada let their minds stray to the subject ly. Some idea of how much commentary on Watergate has been set aside can be gauged from the regular flow of pieces; three a week each from Kraft and Rowan; one a week from Cousins; two a day from The New York Times; occasional Water- gate comment in the daily batches from The London Observer and the twice weekly packages from Tfae Christian Science Moni- tor. BuchwaW, who is in a class by hhnseU and who has been having a field day with Watergate, writes three times a week also. The New York Times' commentators alone could keep The Herald's page four fitted. I don't have any mechanical rule for deciding how much to run on Watergate. I have been partial to pieces that deal with the larger issues and readily reject such things as speculation on how long Metem Laird will remain a presidential adviser. Where I gel into difficuHy is in deciding whether a piece on the history of "execu- tive privilege" ought to be included or excluded. Is such a topic exclusively of American interest or should U be included as a necessity for understanding the con- stitutional confrontation that has 'de- veloped? And what about pieces on people such as Senator Sam Ervin or President Richard Nixon "tfae dangling as William Shannon calls him? These are full of human interest and sometimes touch on the deep dimensions of Watergate. The only sure thing I can promise the readers of the editorial pages is that will be more on Watergate. I do not know if the amount of material wil increase or de- crease but the matter has not been settled >r toe fall ramifications explored yet so there is bound to be more commentary. Some of it will be such flat it should not be ignored. Attention to the Watergate bearings on (be part of Canadians is surely warranted to some degree. The United States is a major world power as well as a next-door neighbor. The Watergate scandal is threat- ening to destroy the nation, in the judg- ment of many serious thinkers, which would be a tragedy for the Americans, for us. and for tfae world. Common failing By Drag Walker We spent part of our holidays this year loafing about the house and yard of absent relatives m Sardis, B.C. The Philip; have four horses in a dock adjooBBg the yard. Almost always when we looked out the window at meal time the horses were engaged in cropping grass "Don't horses ever get tired of asfced Keith one day. J- "Do returned las mother.'