Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - July 24, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta
14, 1t7J 1M HIMIUDOI HKA10 Sentencing offenders to be pioneers Education in Northern Ireland By Look Bute, freelance writer Morris C, Shumiatcher, Regioa lawyer Weighing heavily in the minds of those attending the Canadian Congress on Crimi- nology and Corrections in Re- gina recently was the public's concern that government pol- icy has grown soft on crimi- nals but hard on victims. The public, it was said, wants heavier jail sentences as a de- terrent from crime. Penolo- gists and the parole board point oat that Canada sends more people to jail for longer terms than any other country in the free world. Prison sentences and death penalties do nothing to restore to a victim of crime the loss be suffered. It returns no prop- erty and it restores no life. In recent years some govern- ments have established crime compensation tr ib un als to award damages payable out of the public purse to those who have suffered personal in- jury as a result of crime. These tribunals are institu- tions interposed between the wrongdoer and the victim. They insulate one from the other and do nothing to bring home to the malefactor the gravity of his offence. In ef- fect, they relieve the criminal of his personal responsibility for the consequences of his act. Thus, they are simply an-' other expression of the erron- eous concept Chat society and not the individual is respon- sible for his deeds be they benign or evil Wherever pos- sible, responsibility for wrong- doing should be brought to rest at the source of the wrongful act, which is the individual. It is he, and not society, who must foot tiie bill. There are cases where di- rect restitution cannot or win not be made by an offender to bis victim. And there are those criminals who know no re- morse and are incapable cl doing penance for their crimes. Ate institutions not necessary for these? In my view, it is only in the rarest of cases that modern prisons and penitentiaries are necessary, and then only be- cause our ingenuity has failed us. Two examples of ancient punishment might again be considered as useful to offend- ers and victims alike. Banishment was a favorite sentence pronounced in an- cient times. It relieved the city of the burden of supporting a malefactor in irons, and at the same time afforded him an op- portunity to redeem himself in a fresh and distant environ- ment. The policy >as cheap; and it was also humane. Li England, less than 150 years ago, transportation to the colonies, particularly to Australia, was a frequently in- voked sentence. In an age when 150 crimes were punish- able by death, the sentence of transportation was a welcome reprieve from a rendezvous with tee rope at Tyburn. In the result, the great empty spaces of a new continent were populated by Englishmen whose felonious history was no bar to the propagation of a highly intelligent, industrious and peace loving population that never would have seen the light of day bad their ante- cedents been consigned to the processes of the institutions of their age. Free to develop their owa capacities, but bur- dened by the necessity of fend- ing for themselves and sur- viving, they lived and flour- ished. Though (hey might have been pickpockets to Brighton they became patricians in Brisbane; and the mugger of Margate had a very good chance of being elected mayor of Melbourne. The business' men, the professionals and the working jnen "of Eneland all taxpayers, incidentally, were also relieved of a heavy burden; and they too flourish- ed. Hhe Czars of Russia in the 19th century were mindful of the same considerations. They, too, were loath to maintain their convicted felons in dun- geons in St. Petersburg and Moscow at great public ex- pense. Instead, they trundled them off to Siberia. There, like the Australian immigrants, they were free to build their own villages and find their own livelihood in what, it is true, then seemed a cold and unfriendly state of exile. They settled in villages which (thanks to the repressive poli- cies of the Imperial Romanoffs and the yet more savage de- crees of the Soviets who followed them) rapidly grew in numbers and importance. Minerals were discovered; new species of crops came to fruition. A whole new world opened up to those for whom death had seemed a certainty. Out of these policies, harsh though they may have been, there emerged new genera- tions of Russian citizens who, when death stared them in the face ki Kiev and Odessa, found a new life in Vorkuta and Norilsk. It is no accident that the de- velopment of the Soviet Arctic today has advanced far be- yond Canada's plans or dreams for tomorrow. The open spaces of the world are fewer now. But Canada's empty spaces are among the most spectacular, and they are about to become an embarass- ment to her. Nature abhors a vacuum. If we do not fill these spaces and determine how they are to be used, others will at- tempt to do so for us. What great opportunkws ex- ist, then, for those who are confined in penal institutions, to become free. Free to find a new life in the Canadian north. Free to build a home, to create a town, to found a province. Free, also, to fail. But free, also, to succeed. Theirs could be the alternative that is not open to prisoners living within the physical and spiritual con- fines of a prison. There, failure is the rule, success the excep- tion. To move prisoners to the Ca- nadian northland and allow them to grow into the role of pioneers wfll require imagina- tion on the part of bureau- crats, a quality in short ply. It wiH demand the support of (foe public for a bold experi- ment rooted in the kind of faith that every man must have in his fellow man if he is to have faith in himself. Most important of all, the successful exodus from institu- tionalization will depend upon tiie confidence that those pris- oners now sitting behind iron bars in Canadian lock-ups, can summon in their own capacity to rise from their haunches and stand erect and proclaim that henceforth they will live tike men. It will be a great day when they turn their backs on the welfare ridden jails they now occupy, and make a genuine attempt to find their own way in a free society. Like the Aus- tralians, they may have within them, the seeds of a remark- ably vigorous and independent people. Since we who live outside prison walls do not seem to have courage enough to spurn the allures of the welfare state, perhaps those who have become thoroughly fed up with them in our jails, wfll be the first to reject and abandon them. Israel's agricultural development By Eva Brewster, freelance writer SARID, Israel since the establishment of the Jewish state 25 years ago, many thous- ands of new immigrants have been settled on the land hi com- munal or co-operative farming communities. In most cases they were transferred straight from ship or airport to new vil- lages. This basic setUeiuent ap- proach is still common practice but it has been realized that, for the sake of technological advance, it would have been better to concentrate on es- tablishing larger estates and fewer villages. However, since this advice, given by experts more than 20 years ago, was not originally accepted for many valid reasons, different methods are now being applied to deal with resulting structur- al problems. The original dream of produc- ing all food necessary for the people did not materialize. With rapid growth and large scale immigration, there simply wasn't enough land and water available for the local produc- tion of all basic commodities such as wheat, barley, oats, oil, sugar, and beef. Israel's fanners therefore concentrated on growing crops for export, mainly fruit, flowers, vege- tables, cotton and peanuts. This export of fresh and farm produce in 1972 brought in according to a ministry of agriculture report about million which is precisely the sum spent on imports of food and raw materials for Israel's agricultural production. says Mr Maas, special adviser to the minister of agriculture, "we have achieved agricultaral indepen- dence." This kind of indepen- dence is, as far as I can see, Ire only one possible in a small country with limited re- resources. After all, worth of flowers can be grown in a small area of hot-bouses with a fraction of the land and water required to grow 75 tons wheat, far example, which is exactly what win buy. This trade balance has been achieved within the last year or so, due to an unusuaBy good wheat harvest and vastly in- creased cotton production. In 1971 the volume of domestic agricultural production covered only 75 per cent of total dom- estic demand. Yet production is stin rising hi spite of reduc- ed agricultural manpower or perhaps because of it. This continuing improvement is largely due to the unique sys- tem of cooperation among Is- raeli fanners which has been developed in so many different forms that it is almost impos- sible to explain all types of or- ganization; but all have com- bined to supply a marketing, servicing and production sys- tem so comprehensive and ba- sically simple it is almost in- conceivable that ft could fafl. However, many obstacles would stin have to be- overcome be- fore it could become a truly "perfect rural society." Having achieved this highly sophisticated method of coop- eration, the main goal of One rural population BOW seems to be a living standard equal to urban society's while retaining the fiamwork of village life. Within the existing raral frame- work, therefore, new plans are being suggested and already tried oat in many areas to pro- vide maximum employment and Income to members of rand settlements which win benefit the national economy as a whole. The process of urban- rural levelling has already been going on in many communal farm for some yows and has proved to be very successful in- deed. The standard of living in some kJbbtttxim may even have outpaced that of the counUy as whole. Rapid gtuvilli, mechanization, and economic efficiency quick- ly reduced the demand for ag- ricultural labor while produc- tion steadily increased soi it was therefore essential to pro- vide new employment openings for the rising population as well as profitable occupations for elderly members now redun- dant on the land. The answer, of course, was industrialization. Industrial enterprises now exist in two out of every three com- munal settlements and then- gross income from industry grew to about 40 per cent of total production. In many such settlements industry now pro- vides more than half of their income. hi any society where the very existence of villages and small towns is threatened whether by farm mechaniza- tion, low pi ices or competition from large corporations the possibility of combining agri- cultural with industrial enter- prises is interesting. In Israel, employment opportunities sup- plementary to agriculture were certainly necessary to the mo- dernization of villages and small towns. They prevented a possible de-population of cer- tain areas and resulted hi very lively, productive communities. As in most worthwhile enter- prises, the kibbutz movement pioneered innovations and the government new offers appre- ciable incentives for industrial investment in branches, prod- ucts, or regions that it wishes to encourage. H we want to learn from Israel's methods of keeping the farmer on the land, we would have to take a clos- er look at the multitude of small but tremendously pro- ductive and profitable indus- tries established here. How- ever, we could team as much or more from Israel's mistakes as from her successes. Parcels of land, too smafl to be profitable in the long run, were not the worst of errors. Over enthusiasm combined with lack of knowledge and ex- perience led to mistakes much harder to correct which could be avoided in a developed coun- mr ftfltt Mart, tartua (I quote here from the spring newsletter 1973 of Israel agri- culture by Drs. Pohorytes and "1948 1958, govern- ment policy called for maxi- mum development and maxi- mum expansion in agriculture in an attempt to counterbal- ance an unstable market equili- brium that was due to excess of demand. This chapter ended early in the second decade of independence, as a consequence of overabundant agricultural supply for the local market and an accelerated national growth of industry and services, along with a rapidly rising standard of living." "The second (chapter) was an extreme negation of the established system, and ttw upshot was a marked disequili- brium at the other extreme excess of supply. Certain limits were set on production, with the twofold intent of avoiding surpluses and of adaptation to larger export potentialities. There also developed a system of subsidies and< supports which, parallel to its positive purpose of establishing a fair- ly low consumer price level and a decent farm income, in- troduced significant distortions in the complex of economic re- lations between agricultural sector and the national econo- my." This distortion is being grad- ually overcome. In the 1972-73 budget, agriculture and water So They Say The future is not represented in government, the nonexistent has no lobby and the unborn are powerless. Jonas, professor of the- ology at the New School for Sociai Research in New York, on the new ethical responsi- bilities imposed by noden combined amount to only 1.6 per cent of the total state ex- penditure. However, intensive agriculture combined with rural industries requires a very high investment rate which so far mainly provided by the state is now being passed on to the private sector to a large extent, resulting in a sharp rise in interest paid on free market credit. Not a very happy prognosis for a foresee- able growing dependence of the agricultural sector on capi- tal. Having, come to the conclu- sion that'planning of the agri- cultural sector has been thor- oughly exhausted, the authors of the spring newsletter have decided that "hi order to ad- vance the village there must be a transition towards an in- tegral region which comprises within its scope the entire eco- nomic activities. The course that should be followed is con- ceivable by planninga the var- ious aggregates which operate within the region (i.e. the set- tlement followed by transition towards regional-ag- gregate planning." This seems to me a useful hint on bow to avoid mistakes in the establishment of struc- tural planning with the goal of providing maximum income sad employment within the existing rural framework any- where, if one can take it for granted that the national eco- nomy would benefit from the rural potential of villages and small towns alike Combined agricultural and industrial de- velopment is an inevitable pro- cess in modern society. If car- ried out under an ever-all plan it may save a great deal of expense, effort and disappoint- ment on the national as well as the community level. A spon- taneous, disorganized develop- ment would result in the same difficulties and problems of reform and adaptions Isreal has yet to face up to ia many BELFAST It is basic that education in toto is fundamental to the nation's health and wealth. Education in toto means, of course, all the instruments of education such as the home, the church, the school, the mass media both electronic and print, the government and a variety of other agencies, not the least of which is the or- dinary, simple individual in the street. If any one component in education is mal- functioning, there is trouble for the whole of society. In Northern Ireland, society is not only in trouble, it is really sick: violently so. Yet the school system appears healthy enough. In fact, observers in recent months have said that the school is the only place which approaches normality in the We of a child. It is only while in school he can forget the horrors and terrors of the day- to-day world around him. Officially, the school system is part of the United Kingdom, but a separate entity as in Scotland, and the England Wales combination. The aims of the system state that every child should receive an educa- tion suitable to "his age, ability, and apti- tude" in order to help him contribute to- wards "the spiritual, moral, mental and physical development of the community." These aims, on paper, are undoubtedly of a high standard and very correct. However, ft is obvious a great number of people here in the Six Counties never heard of them, in the past, and I hesitate to predict about the future. On the other hand, quite a few actually did hear about them as was evident when so many Protes- tants helped to clean up and restore a Cath- olic church bombed-out and burned. More- over, one must not forget the other agen- cies in education which may not have done their parts sufficiently well hi the not- too-distant past. Education rests with the minister of edu- cation who is responsible to the Stormont government only. Recently H has all been in the hands of Mr. W. WMtelaw, except when certain large organizations decided to wrest ft from bun as they did awhile ago by ordering schools to.shutter up for a day of revolution their-style. Somehow or other, the common people never seem to have any say in education or the stuff it is made of. Schooling breaks down into six parts in the Six Counties: nursery, primary or ele- mentary; a transition to secondary from 10 years to 12 during which the Eleven Plus Examination must be hurdled; secondary, and upper secondary from 16 to 18. After that the third stages takes over for uni. versity and technical training. Examinations include the dreaded Eleven Plus which is being phased out, the Gen- eral Certificate of Education (GCE) and the new Secondary Certificate of Education The last named is suspect because there is no examination attached to it and it is awarded after the student has spent five years in a secondary school. People here are examination conscious and believe in the importance of a high level of achievement and to a degree they are correct, but there is more to education than achievement and examination. Indeed, this could be part of their problem. They have spent 50 years on good schooling, but have come to this stage poorly educated in the essentials for living as neighbors with neighbors. Schools in Northern Ireland are inspect- ed by a corps of highly trained personnel called HMTs Her Majesty's Inspectors. These number 55 and are part of a larger corps for the United Kingdom. They in- spect all schools; Protestant and Roman Catholic, private and public. Certainly education and schools here do not lack money. Over million is spent upon 200 thousand primary pupils, 100 thousand secondary students and SO thou- sand third level students. There is ample wealth in the area, but better ways must be found for it to contribute to the health of this community. Report to readers Doug Walker Giving credit Almost everything that appears in a newspaper carries some kind of credit no- tation. Anything that doesn't can usually be assumed to have been written by a member of the paper's staff. Most of the time, in the case of news stories, the credit notation is found in brackets following the dateline (the place where the story News stones not locally written come mainly from Ca- nadian Press Canadian Press is a co-operative news gathering agency which has staff stationed at strategic points and to which all member newspapers contri- bute their local stories. Canadian Press also picks up stories, by contract arrangement, from other news gathering agencies such as Associated Press (AP) and Reuter. This enables Ca- nadian Press to provide full U.S. and in- ternational news coverage without having to maintain a multitude of bureaus outside Canada. Several large and influential newspapers market their material (news, pictures, commentary, cartoons, features, and art work) on their own. The Herald subscribes to four such suppliers. It receives material from The London Observer, The New York Times, Newspaper Enterprise'Asso- ciation (a subsidiary of the Scripps organ- ization in and, just recently, The Christian Science Monitor. Material used from these sources is usually identi- fied hi a byline but may be given a credit line in brackets at the end of toe piece. UsuaOy only The New York Times ma- terial makes The Herald front page. This is not because it is necessarily superior to what comes from The Christian Science Monitor or The London Observer but Be- cause it comes on a direct wire while the other material comes later by air mail. We use the air mail material for supple- mental news and backgrounders mainly. A number of syndicated columns and feature., are bought individually from agencies: Art Buchwald, Ann Landers, Lawrence Lamb, and Jeane Dixon to name a few. Sometimes these columns do not. carry any credit one. This is because ft would not be enlightening to readers and might even be confusing. Art Buch- wald, who writes from Washington, is dis- tributed in Canada by The Toronto' Sun. In that instance a U.S. dateline would be followed by a Canadian credit line would certainly be misleading. Ordinarily it is considered unethical for a newspaper to print material which ft has not paid for. Occasionally we print material directly from other newspapers' on the editorial pages. Mostly this is signed or unsigned editorial comment by staff members of the other newspapers. Titis is reprinted to let readers see what other papers are saying. Editorial comment is sometimes sent across the Canadian Press wire (in Western Canada we are regularly supplied with such comment from French- language newspapers in the Although theoretically all published ma- terial is protected by copyright there never is any question about the propriety of reprinting editorial comment. It is a common practice and most writers are flattered to have their work drawn to the attention of a wider public. Reprinted ma- terial of this kind always carries the name of the paper it appeared in originally and includes the name of the writer if it is known. News stories written locally often carry the notation "staff" which means it was written by someone employed by The Her- ald; sometimes stories are credited "HNS" (for. Herald News Service) usually indi- cating that district correspondents are re- sponsible; and sometimes the notation "special" accompanies a story Indicating that a second correspondent has supplied the information. Names are more and more appearing with material in newspapers. Almost all the stories from The New York Times, The Christian Science Monitor, The London Observer and NEA carry bylines. Whether readers appreciate such accred- itation is not known but editors obviously feel that it makes for a better accounting. Theodore No negative carryover. Here is a sen- tence that exposes a fairly usual error: "No hunting is allowed in the demilitarized zone, or can unauthorized persons enter if The or should be changed to nor. The reason is that the negative idea in the first part of the sentence is complete in that part and cut off from the second part, which therefore needs a negative of its own. On the other hand, the sentences could be rephrased so that the negative idea applied to both parts, thus: "Persons are not allowed to bunt in the demilitarized zone or to enter it without authorization." In that construction the w is perfectly No Hke The subject before the house is the use of like as a conjunction as in, "Wintbrops taste good Eke a pszza pie should." There are no logical or historical reasons why fike should not be used that way to introduce a contamtag wrb. Stifl for generations grammarians have outlawed that use and the taboo is a force ia the farce mat a care- ful writer defies at a peril of benmg classed as illiterate or semifiterate. The taboo ap- plies not only to fike instead of as (as ia the sentence quoted but also to Hke in place of as if, as in, "He works head off Bkc there was no tomorrow." H does not apply, however, when Mke pre- cedes a noun that is not followed by a verb is, when the fflte does not introduce a complete clause. Thus it is proper to "He runs flkc a or, "Nothing de- velops muscles Hke swimming." There can be no doubt that what is considered the improper use of Hke is slowly but steadily gaining spoken language at least-and the guess here is that in another couple of generaUons the taboo wfll tape.