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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - July 24, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta Ask Andy Floods Andy sends a complete 20- set of the Merit Stu- dents Encyclopedia to Debbie Gottraux, 13, of Fredericton, N.B., for her question: What causes floods? The past year bas drenched us with more than our share of deluging floods. They were started by major storms that dumped record-breaking rain- fall. However, other factors helped to gather and sweep these mighty downpours over fields and populated places. Some of these disastrous floods occurred because the natural runoff system could not cope with the sudden, excessive rain- fall. Some of the damage, let's face it, might have been avert- ed by better man-made flooc control systems. Every year the sky sheds about cubic miles of water onto the land. The world- wide yearly average is 40 inches of precipitation. However, no spot on earth can count on this yearly quota. It varies with the weather. During any sea- son, almost any place may be parched with drought or delug- ed with floods. This has been going on since time began. Meantime the earth has used its gravity and the erosion of running water in constructing defenses to cope with the seasonal downpours. A map of any region reveals a natural network of streams, pa tiently dug to drain the runoff down the slopes to the sea. What the map doesn't show is a natural backup system that stores reservoirs of ground- water below the surface. In unpopulated areas, most rivers are bordered with dense vegetation. The roots of trees and even grasses help to con- trol floods by absorbing tons of water from the rain-soak- ed soil. Along some mighty riv- ers, there are lakes that belp to contain surplus water dur- ing the rainy seasons. But sometimes a series of major storms, or an unexpected hur- ricane, proves too much for drainage systems, unavoidable fl o o d nature's Then an occurs. In populated areas, much of the landscape has been remod- eled. In the past, earth's na- tural drainage systems were ignored or even demolished. Vegetation was stripped from along the rivers and stream banks were eroded. Such a river could no longer carry away the normal rainfall, and every spring the surrounding farms and cities were deluged with floods. IB modem times, land engin-1 bave found ways to con- struct man-made flood con- trols. Usually the banks of a flood-prone river are rebuilt and reinforced with high, dur- able levees. The banks, the sur- rounding borders and the far- away bills of the drainage sys- tem are planted with grasses and other well rooted vegeta- tion. These steps may be enough to contain the average runoff; plus most major storms. However, some mighty rivers flood every year even when surrounded by miles of forest. These call for major engin- eering projects. One method is to construct dams along the course of the river so that sur- plus water is held back and stored in reservoirs. This idea is borrowed from nature's lakes but we make it do more than control floods. Our man-made reservoirs store surplus rains to supply cities and to irrigate surrounding farmlands. And the man-made dams are gear- ed to turn turbines that sup- ply electric power for miles and miles around. Someday, perhaps, our busy world will find time to construct all the flood controls needed to contain all the seasonal rains, plus a series of major storms or a sudden, unexpected hurricane. Andy sends a seven-volume set of-The Chronicles of Nar- nia to Brigitte Vadorin, age 7, of Calgary, for her ques- tion: Which is the smallest mam- tal? The tiniest mammal is the pygmy shrew When fully grown, he is three and a half inches long and weighs about two grams. On a pan- of measuring scales, he equals the weight of one penny or two aspirins. You might mis- take the furry little fellow for a mouse, but mice and shrews are not related. Many other shrews scuttle around our woods and gardens. The biggest one has 'a long sharp nose and a long skinny and measures six inches. Like all his cousins, he is al- ways famished. He spends the whole night hunting for worms, insects and other things to eat. A shrew may look like a timid ittle mouse, but looks can :ool you. He happens to be a lerce character, always ready o pick a fight. And a shrew MS very nasty teeth. When he bites, he poisons the wound. Questions asked by children of Herald readers should be mailed to Ask Andy, P.O. 713. HuDtiKgtOB Beach, California 92Ctt. (Copyright Chronicle Publishing Co. 1973) Your horoscope By JEANE DIXON TuMday, July 74, 1979 THI UTHMIDCi HIRAL0 if WEDNESDAY, JULY 25 Your birthday today: Self- interest requires more thought and there is little belp from outside. "Luck" has to be largely your own doing. Prayer for guidance becomes a regular routine. Relationships drift, require extra care. Today's natives tend to confirm old teach- ings, may bring them up to date with great rewards ARIES (March 21 April Good news, friendly conver- sations color the day's varied round. Routines are pleasantly upset, restored quickly. TAURUS (April 20 May Drop the subject of money, and all goes batter. Romance and entertainment come together, even under quiet circum- stances GEMINI (May 21 June Appearing at your best is ap- propriate, inspires somebody to help with tedious chores or even to take them off your hands, CANCER (June 21 July Be open-hearted, willing to ac- cept people as they are, but be less eager to scatter your material resources among them. LEO (July 23 Aug. Important business details should be recorded as they develop to avoid confusion and possible loss. i VIRGO (Aug. 23 Sept. home life separated from business or commercial activi- ty. Current inconvenience is ne- cessary for future benefits. LIBRA (Sept. 23 Oct. Social whirls catch you up. Use every chance to find out what makes others tick you will need the information. SCORPIO (Oct. 23 Nov. Benefits come from cross-cur- rents in today's events, accord- ing to what you do to protect your own interests. Express deep feelings. SAGITTARIUS (Nov. 22-Dec. Do something that your mate enjoys, take time to lis- ten to younger people. A career change is at hand. CAPRICORN (Dec. 22 Jan. It's your turn to speak up, explain the ideas you've devel- oped, but bs sure they're gen- uinely helpful to those near you. AQUARIUS (Jan. 20 Feb. Overcome laziness to get something useful done. Leave no chore out of its proper se- quence PISCES (Feb. 19 March Your most charming side shines brightly, if you will but let it. Minor conflicts pass rather quickly (1973, The Chicago Tribune) ANX05-DHAVE UOW5T0CK56E JWNEU RACKET.. TUMBLEWEEDS-By Tom K. Ryan HILPE6ARP HAMHOCKEfUETGrO 0'THATTAU.' POfr POOP PRICES BLONDIE-By Chic Young LAWRENCE E. LAMB, M. D. X-ray after positive test Dear Dr. Lamb I work for and you're otherwise healthy, I BOOKS ABOLJ- HALF THIS TMICK ILL NEVER FINISH THIS BOOK BEETLE BAIlEY-By Mort Walker the university so I, had to take a skin test for tuberculosis. When I went back for the read- ing the nurse told me mat I had been exposed to it. She told me not to worry, that she would get in touch with me for an x- ray. That was over a month ago. I wonder if I- should go and get an x-ray on my own, or could tonic for you me. been small. Dear Reader recommend a I have always The skin tst for tuberculosis is not specific. To properly judge the signifi- cance of your skin test it would be necessary to know what strength of tuberculin skin GOREN ON BRIDGE BY CHARLES H. GOREN tm, m CMOH fritm Both vulnerable. South deals. NORTH A Q It 8 3 0 WEST AJ74Z EAST AKS OK7S3 0 Q10S4 2 SOUTH A J19 2 The bidding: Couth West North 1 Piss 1 2 Pass 2 NT 3 Pass 3 NT 4 V Pass Pass East Pass Pass Past Opening kad: Deuce of When a survey of the situ- ation shows that desperate measures are called for, a defender should not worry about the fact that possibly he might be presenting de- clarer an overtrick. Any straw should he grasped that might lead to a con- tract's defeat. South painted an accurate picture of his hand by open- ing his longer suit and then bidding his second suit twice. He elected to remove three no Jnimp to four hearts because both his suits broken, and he felt that the defenders might be able to get one of their soils going before North could set up berth of Sooth's tails. la tins analysis he was pletely correct West fed his fourth-best spade, and one look at dum- my made it painfully obvi- ous to East that, except for one or two tricks in spades, the defenders were not going to get any tricks in the side suits. South had shown at least eleven cards in his two suits. Thus, it was impossi- ble that the defenders could get a diamond trick, and the king-queen of clubs in dum- my made it virtually certain that declarer had no club losers. By a process of elimi- nation, if the contract was to be defeated the defenders had to score at least tm trump tricks. To accomplish that, a trump promotion was probably necessary. Accord- ingly, East won the first trick with the king of spades and ted the ace. Prospects improved slightly when South followed to the second spade. In keeping with his origi- nal plan. East continued with a third spade into dum- queen-ten tenace. De- clarer could not afford more than one trump loser, so he took advantage of being in dummy to lead a tramp, fi- nessing the ten. West took his king and, cooperating excellently with his partner, he returned his fourth spade. East raffed dummy's trick with the queen of hearts used as a major tounst j tction and promotion ve- j hick. A good portion of the i ship's time wiH foe spent in that you have been exposed to tuberculosis in the past and a chest x-ray would certainly be Halifax where it will be avail- indicated. If the x-ray shows no j sole for harbor cruises and spe- evidence of active tuberculosis cial charters HAGAR the HORRIBlE-By Dilc Brawrw J'M 15MT U WTICEP THA" WITCH 05? MOMN TO Y1ELP THE IVV-7 ASTBOMOMERS SETORTTWFWSSNA; BUGS BUNNY UTS SEE WHAT 60TII t-CMK ear ow so ;