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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - July 24, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta -Saturday, July 24, 1971 THE LETHBRIDGE HERAID 5 Tom Saunders That hardy best-seller: the Bible JOHN Richard Green in his Short History of the En- glish People, relates that when Queen Elizabeth I came to the throne a courtier brought her a remarkable petition. Then, as now. it was the custom to re- lease a number of prisoners at the time of a coronation, and this courtier set forth in his pe- tition the fact that there were five persons unjustly detained behind prison walls. The five, he said, were Matthew, Mark, Luke, John and Paul. These men, be declared, had long been imprisoned in an unknown tongue and were unable to con- verse with the people. The historian goes on to say: "It was the great distinction of Elizabeth's reign that she re- leased the Bible to her people and that in consequence En- gland became the people of a book the Bible. The whole temper of the nation was changed. A new conception of life and man superseded the old. A new moral and religious impulse spread through every class. The nation became in fact a Church." Allowing for the hyperbole in this statement, it still contains a large element of truth. The English Bible, which was fi- nally released in the reign of King James, has been a best- seller in the English-speaking world from that day to this. Today, in its various ver- sions, it still heads the best- seller list, though it has long since ceased to be the main reading of the mass of the peo- ple. It is hard to explain the continued sale of the Bible to- day when it faces so many competitors, but it is obvious that many Bibles are acquired and not read. Can anyone guess the num- ber of white Bibles sold to brides every year for example? Or how many go as gifts to graduating seminarians and first-year ministers? Thou- sands of young men are honor- ed annually at their Bar Mitz- vah by receiving a Bible along with other gifts. Hundreds of thousands of servicemen get a New Testament before heading overseas; and Bibles are stan- dard equipment in every hotel room on this continent. But these, numerous as they are, cannot explain sales that go into the millions. The fact is that more a wider selection of Biblei are sold today than ever before. The New English Bible, published only last year, has been selling at a rate of over seven million copies a week; the New Testa- ment portion of the same Bible, available since 1962, has sold over seven million copies; and the American Bible Society's Good News for Modern Man (the New Testament in modern speech) has racked up sales in excess of 20 million. Nor is this all. In addition to large and continuing sales of the King James Bible and the Revised Standard Version (not io mention the works of indivi- dual tranlators such as J. B. the recently publish- ed New American Bible (a Ro- man Catholic product) is also selling well. What makes these sales all the more amazing is that they come at a time when religious organizations are in sharp de- cline and the institutional church is in its most serious disarray since the 16th cen- tury. Is it possible that these de- velopments, instead of hurting. Bible sales, have really helped them? There is some sugges- tion that they have. David Pol- ing, president of the Christian Herald is among those who believe this. He writes: "There is a great desire, a yearning to get at the source of things to work out. one's sal- vation without coaching or su- pervision. The repeat-after- me school of religious instruc- tion is against the wall." Peo- ple, in a word, are turning to the Bible on their own. He sees Vatican II also as having influenced Bible sales. It was during Vatican II that the Roman Catholic Church dis- covered the "paper Pope" and the role it could play in the lives of pople. "The striking change (in our writes Mr. Poling, "is in the Catholic community where the Scrip- hires are being studied and dis- cussed by the laity with an en- thusiasm thai makes Southern Baptists blush." But It is not only the faithful who are turning to the Bible today. Bibles arc cropping up in increasing numbers among young men and women in sweat shirls and sandals. Anti- establishment and searching for a new meaning in life, (hey, like their fathers before them, are "searching the Scriptures." Typical of this movement is nn underground group on 'he American west const the Jc- sns People who are putting out one of tho fnslcsl-growing papers in cnuntry. Stnrlcd a year ago, The 'Hollywood Freo Paper has today a circu- lation of In it, much space is devoted to the mean- ing of change and meaning- ful change for those locked into the drug-acid scene, and en- tire pages are given over to ad- vertising the location of Bible rap sessions. More than 50 such sessions are held in Los An- geles alone every week and you must have a Bible to be with it, man. This may not be exactly the type of thing referred to by J. R. Green in his description of England as "the people of a book" in the days of good Queen Bees, but it is part of today's picture part of the explanation of the continuing phenomenon of fantastic Bible sales. The Bible for many may be still little more than an ornament, but there are indica- tions from various quarters that it still speaks to people to- day. (The Winnipeg Free Press) Unexpected beauty hy Elwood Ferguson Book Reviews The rebel heroes of the movie world "Retels" by Joe Morella and Edward Z. Epstein (George McLeod Ltd., 210 pages, S12.50.) so-called "rebel hero" in films gets the mul'.i- photographed expensive treat- ment in this somewhat preten- tious, at times erroneous trea- tise by two Hollywood resi- dents. Joe Morella is a freelance writer and has held positions wi'.h Esquire, Variety and Uni- versal Pictures. Edward Z. Ep- stein, a student of music and communication arts, has been wilh Universal for 10 years. Co-authors of Judy: The Films and Career of Judy Gar- land, the two have glommed onto some of the most exciting stars of yesteryear, plus new- comer members to the small rebel fraternity. The line runs from John Garfield in Four Daughters, to Peter Fonda in Easy Rider and Dustin Hoff- man in The Graduate. They make the case for those strange, attractive loners, the dropped out, inarticulate in- dividualists, as portrayed by Marlon Brando in The Wild One and James Dean in East of Eden. According to, the authors, and critic Judith Crist in the intro- duction, movies have had three types of heros. The traditional hero, such as Alinsky short-changes altruism "Rules For Radicals" hy Saul Alinsky (Random House, 196 pages, S8.95) AMERICAN 'radical Saul Alinsky calls his approach to community organizing "the low road to Essentially, this means ignor- ing high-minded principle and middle-class concepts of "fair and persuading people to do "the right tiling for the wrong by almost any means that will work. Alinsky believes people are motivated almost entirely by self-interest, so he appeals to in- dividual self-interest in organiz- ing a community for radical ac- tion, and once the battle has be- gun, he appeals to corporate self-interest to achieve his goals. He is a radical who has been fighting for urban minority in- terests for more than 30 years, but he differs from young re- volutinaries like Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman in at least two fundamental respects: he works inside the system, and he is effective. Despite his professed belief that morality is completely re- A creative journal "Wlielslone Spring 1971" (The University of Lctli- bridge, remarkable thing about this first edition of a new university creative journal is its variety. Clearly the editors have tried to make Whetstone more than just another collec- tion oi self-induJgent verse. There are three drawings, all effective but very different in- terpretations of man through his physical form. Art Nishi- mura's study of ancient concen- tration, and Cathy Redfcrn's expression of technological tan- gle are evocative photographs. The journal's centrepiece, R. R. Rmgland's "Reflection No. 2" Canon in Variations for Oboe, Violin and Piano, while eso- teric in its appeal is exactly the sort of thing one looks for and seldom finds in such a modest publication. On the literary side Whet- stone is just as diverse. A lo- cally relevant but too obvious parable is (lie opening piece. Of Iho throe short stories, Wendy Nishimura's "Smote a delicate rendering of the perceptions of a young Chi- nese firl, is best. Some two dozen poems round out the col- umn. They range from Ihe brm- al to the visceral; from the compression of Paul Upton's verbal wit to tho expnnsivencss of Fomek's Whitman-like line; from Ihe imngos of John Johnnscn's Si- belius" in Nedra William's ci. periment in parodying John Skelton. I hope this is the first of many numbers of an attractive and worthwhile journal. What- ever its shortcomings, its suc- cesses bode well for the future. The evidence is here of a sur- prisingly large, competent and dedicated community of artists at the University of Lethbridge. LAURIE RICOU, DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH THE UNIVERSITY OF LETHBRIDUE. lative, he is deeply committed to social justice and equality. In Rules For Radicals, Alinsky sums up his philosophy and elaborates on the keys to his success as an organizer. In s. ort, success in fighting the entrenched corporate pow- ers consists in knowing your enemy's strengths and weak- nesses (and, obviously, attack- ing the weakest of ra- pidly assessing a changing, fluid situation, and of experi- menting with new tactics to meet new situations. Alinsky is tough, imaginative, pragmatic, and above all, real- istic. But he overstates the point that people are selfish and motivated only by sett-in- terest. He admits altruism oc- casionally acts as a motivating force, but dismisses it (in one paragraph) as insignificant in altering the status quo. Al- truism undoubtedly takes sec- ond place to self-interest as a force in human affairs, but it cannot be discounted so lightly. Still, Rules For Radicals is an entertaining and enlighten- ing book, which ends on a hope- ful note for those seriously concerned with social issues, and is well worth reading. MYRON JOHNSON. Books iii brief "Voices of Sport" by Maury Allen (Grossct and Dlinlap, 1971, 239 pages, 56.75, distri- buted by GcroRc J. McLcod CPOHTS lovers will enjoy re-living some of the really memorable events rc-crealed by Ihe sportscaslcrs who first described them. Here is Ihe no- hit baseball game pitched by Don Larson as lold by Bob Wolff; Don Dunphy's account of (he knockout of Billy Gonn by Joe Louis; the upset of the Bal- timore Colls by Joe Namath and his New York Jets narrat- ed by Jim Simpson. A major surprise in Ihe book is to have the baseball Game of tho Week announcer Curt Gowdy doing story on a fishing competition in Argentina. Canada's lone re- reseniiilive, Dan Kelly, goes over the winning of the Stanley Cup by Bobby Orr and the Bos- ton Bruins. This hockey story contains a big boob on page 175 where Rick Smith is ci edited with scoring on Chccvers bis own goalie. The majority of Ihe 21 sports events are memorable bill the feelings of the sports- casters gelling ready to an- nounce them are not. "llnn't M n v c! Rcnovnto Vour House and Make Social Contacts" by Eric Nieol (Mr- Clellitnd nnd Stewart, 109 pages, IJNHANDYMEN like me can laugh with Eric Nicol over his trials in having his house renovated; the other ilk will laugh at him. Here is a whole book of material in Ihe same style as Ihe Nicol col- umns that, appear on Hie Her- ald's editorial page. All fans will want a copy. Focus on the University By J. W. FISHBOURNE 6My soil) the other day, I was chatting with the mother of a young man who is a stu- dent at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, and she was quite annoyed. Speaking to a friend or acquaintance for the first time in a year or so, and na- turaliy reviewing the vital statistics as women do, she mentioned that her son was attending NATT. The other woman's imme- diate reaction was "What a pity he couldn't get into That is what annoyed my friend, for two reasons: First, it was not true; little Joe or whatever his name is had com- pleted all the requirements for university entrance, but simply found a program at NATT that fitted his future plans better than a university degree. The second rea- son for her annoyance was the automatic assumption on the part of her friend that people only go to college or institutions of technology if they can't get into university. That doesn't happen to be true, either. I can understand her annoyance, and sympathize with it completely, although I must admit that her son's attitude, while sensible, is a bit unusual. It is an unfor- tunate fact that .most young people oper- ate under the delusion that universities are intrinsically superior to any other form of post secondary education, for any purpose whatsoever. This is not true, of course. What universities do they probably do better than any other institution could, but exactly the same can be said for any post secondary institution, whether it be a university, a community college, a school of nursing, an institute of technology or whatever. The fact that each has a partic- ular specialty, or range of specialities, does not make one better than another. Nor are their products (if I may use the term) distinguishable on any merit basis, as far as I can see. Naturally, I want my doctor or dentist or lawyer to know what he is doing, and for this would prefer he acquire the sort of training that is only available at a university. But there are a few other people who need to know what they are doing, too; such people as Errol Flynn and Gary Cooper, seen his duty and done it. White was white was the good guy; black TIBS black was the villian. The conflict never reached the inner man who, along wi'h the audience, could readily spot the right and wrong of a situation. The anti-hero or non-hero, represented by Humphrey Bo- gart, was cynical, had no abso- lute ideals, but did maintain a personal code of ethics wlu'ch forced him to take action. As for the traditional hero, con- flict was largely external. The rebel hero, on the other hand, might have been the cata- lyst for dramatic events, but he never actively got his hand in. Beset by knowledge of his own insufficiencies and willing to buck but not to lash out, he suffered in glorious silence. Garfield in his role as a down- and-out musician in Four Daughters is viewed as the first true rebel hero. Amid the corn of the plot a middle-class confection of domestic prob- was the eternal outsider, a vagabond who blamed "them" for his misery. Montgomery Clift, the post- war successor to Garfield, was a sensitive, noble Prewitt in From Here to Eternity, but his individualistic pride would not allow him to fight the army 9 harsh code and he was destroy- ed by it. The greatest rebel of them all, Brando in The Wild One, lived by the credo, "Once trouble was on the way, 1 just went along with it." Where the book fails is i'.s mishmashing of support for its rebel theory and lengthy, irrele- vant biographies of the stars. The stars simply do not always fit the rebel mold. The reader has the impression the authors pushed the biographies in order to hinge the book on the actors' popularity. The complexity of main pro- tagonists in movies today hard- ly allows for rigid definitions. Rebel Paul Newman is viewed, in Hud, to be "not a hero and not a rebel hero." But of course Newman is a hero, as is Warren Beatly in Bonnie and Clyde. No matter what their character's morality, the actors are given the lion's share of the film lime., are Ihe focus of attention and attract by the sheer mag- netism. Rather than spend time on the non-rebel relcs of Brando and Clift (and wasting space to make the ludicrous suggestion that Joe Namath nnd James Taylor might turn into rebel Iho authors might have looked farther afield for relwls: Aton Bales in The Fix- er. Jack Nicholson in Easy Rider. Elliott Gould nnd Don- ald Sutherland in M-A'S'H. JOAN BOWMAN. the man who pilots the airplane I ride in, the person who cooks my food, the mech- anic who keeps my car running safely, and a few others. These last individuals must be trained somewhere, and it certainly isn't at a university. Really, the young man mentioned above has a lot more sense than many of his friends. Evidentally he decided fairly early in the game what it was he wanted to do with his life, and then sought an institution that could provide the necessary training. For those who can make their decisions early, this approach is greatly preferable to choosing your Institution first, and then figuring out what you are going to do. Unfortunately, many youngsters do it the latter way; conditioned to believe that all non-university institutions are second rate, they and their parents drive them- selves along the matriculation trail, totally oblivious to the possibility that they might be far better off elsewhere. This, I do not particularly mind; one of the few rights we are still allowed to "enjoy is the right to make our own mistakes. What irritates me is the assumption that, because a cer- tain type of nit-wit breaks his neck to get to university, therefore anything other than university or anyone in or from an in- stitution that is not a university is somehow inferior. This, to me, says that certain people are supsrior to others, or can become superior by virtue of having studied certain subjects, a proposition as absurd as it is wrong. And what is even more irritating !s close parrallel between this snobbery, and the social kind. The excuse for re- garding academic endeavors as superior to vocational ones seems to rest on the du- bious bases of higher pay (for profession- als, at any rate) and cleaner hands, surely snobbery of the worst sort. Incidentally, I don't blame the students too much. It is the system that has exalted the 'pure' approach to learning, and gulliblo parents who have eagerly espoused "My son, the University student" notion. A plague on both of them. The Voice Of One -By DR. FRANK S. MORIEY Crime and punishment __British Columbia public was as- tonished to discover that Miss Ann Spiller, a bank teller who stole sentenced to three years and on ap- peal by the Crown had Ihe sentence doubled to six years, had been released on parole less than two weeks later. Long before that, however, she had been allowed out to take a course in social work at Queen's University. Does this parole sys- tem make a judge's sentence almost mean- ingless? Does it take the deterrent factor from punishment? Undoubtedly it does point up a radically new attitude to crime and punishment. A lead for this comes from the minister of justice, John Turner, who holds that the law "should be more than just an agency for social control." It should "adopt a crea- tive and even revolutionary role in the building and restructuring of a new so- ciety' and articulate the values by which men seek to live." He also talks of sub- jecting Hie greater discipline and redress the plight of the poor in obtaining bail. The history of punishment for crime shows a continuous and quickening shift from severe punishment to humanity. At one time almost every crime in Britain was punishable by the death penalty. Thieves were commonly branded with the letter "T" on Ihe forehead and criminals might have ears, nose, or hands cut off, while the lash until recently was used with extreme brutality. During the nineteenth century there was a violent reaction against such mindless inhumanity and great debate raged among the philosophers as to whether punishment should be regarded as deterrent, retribu- tive, reformatory, or educative. F. H. Bradley contended that reform and de- terrence external to the fact of pun- ishment, Ihough they might well accom- pany punishment. For Bradley punishment was a "social a reaction of the community against all that weakened it, and an appropriate punishment should be judged in terms of protection of society. With Bernard Bosanquet and the great his- torian, T. H. Green, Brady thoughl retri- bution was just and necessary. Green also maintained that punishment was preventive and thus retributive in Uw sense that the state consisted of a system of publicly supported rights and any viola- tion of those rights must so punish the offender that the balance can be adjusted and maintained. Theologians can recognize here one of the major doctrines of the Atonement. Likewise Bosanquet held that the intent of punishment was to maintain and give expression to the moral standards of the social conscience. The formidable J. S. Mill set forth the theory that punishment should be regarded as a kind of only justifiable when it benefited the offender and protect- ed society. Inasmuch as he believed the springs of human action came from pain and pleasure, more pain than pleasure must come from crime through punish- ment. To those who argued that mercy was indispensable to punishment, Jeremy Bent- ham stated that forgiveness was only virtue when justice had been done and a benevolence which disregarded this was cruel to the wrongdoer as well as society Thus J. D. Mabbott, C. S. Lewis and Emil Bnmner have argued that "to be punished for an offence against the rules is a sane man's and justice outraged. The famous justice, Oliver Wendell Holmes, was always angry when a lawyer spoke of maintaining that it was an emotional word and the pressing problem was what was to be done. Tlus accords with the pragmatism of American law. Basic facts worth considering ars given too little attention by reformers. One was the axiom laid down by the distinguished Alberta justice, Mr. M. M. Porter, that "crime must never be made profitable." Another is the question of compensation to victims of crime. Should not criminals be forced to make what compensation they can? If reformation of the criminal be a primary objective so that he may be a "good" is it not just one step further to say that social offenders should be sent to the hospital for a brain or other operation to make him docile? Punish- ment today takes little account of the vic- tim or of the delinquent's family. Expendables By Margaret LncUhnrst A WAG writing in the New York Times recently made a list of some tilings he saw in Ihe world around him "that serve no useful purpose" things (hat exist but "contribute nothing to the well- being of mankind." His catalogue included Ihe Philadelphia Phillies, Inxicnb horns, Iho lluke of Windsor, Mount Etna, 10-chil- drcn families, Marshall Ky, cross walks and slum landlords. Individual lists are likely to be equally as prejudiced and whimsical but arc fun to draw up nonetheless. To the original list there could be added: Ihe Calgary Stam- pedcrs, wrestling matches, Information Canada, Gordon Sinclair, hoi-line and panel shows, poodles, Opportunities for Youth, en- durance contests, ferris wheels, Betty Fric- dan, wrecked car lots. MIOW, rock festi- vals, toothpaste ads, kid TV stars. Any others? ;