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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - July 22, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta Colin McGlashan July M, 1970 THE IETHIRIDOI HIKALD 5 Mexico At Rich Nations Club Door npHE Aztecs called it Ten- -1 ochtitlan, a lake city of floating gardens and a million charred sacrificial hearts. Cor- tes anc" his conquistadors stripped the Indians of. their language, razed their pyra- mids, burned their manu- scripts, slaughtered -their1 priests and rulers, took away their names, brought new dis- eases'that killed them by the millions, plundered their arte- facts to be melted down into dull bars of gold for the vaults of Madrid. The natives, said the Spaniards, could never be con- verted to a money culture. Today, ths fine, thin air 'of the high mesa, feet above sea-level reeks with prosperity and progress and half a million cars. The trains of a new piilUnn subway glide on rubber wheels: The luxury shops of the Zona Rosa rival Bond Street. This is the one "developing" country apparently on the brink of joining the league, of rich nations. Mexico today is testing the theory that the ex- colonial nations can industrial- ize the way Europe did. This decade will decide. The statistics of progress are heady. Production grows by 6 per cent a year. This is a bil- lion-dollar'-a-year market for the United fifth largest after Britain, Canada, Ger- many and France. The invest- ment analysts who come here from New York talk about a new Japan. "We are building a new world says a Mexi- can businessman across a ritual four-hour lunch. "In 15 or 20 years we are going to be the country of the The new affluence is Latin America's broadest-based. The workers in the new industries of the cities, sometimes earn 100 times what thier fathers did. They live in suburbs of boxy houses that resemble parts of Southern California. Income per head has passed Portugal's and is chasing Spain's. Half the 50 million population doesn't share the new indus- trial affluence. It lives at sub- sistence level. Despite repeated distributions of land, there are more landless peasants than in 1310. And for all the efferves- cent statistics about the sales of consumer durables, it's still cheapef to keep a resident maid with two children than to buy a wasliing-machine. The halfway houses between traditional peasant poverty and the new life are teeming. They are the "misery circles" shanty towns of huts and hovels stretching to the horizon around the capital. No one knows their population. Half a million people are said to livs in Nelzacohuati, the slum city near the airport. Their inhabi- tants often blot themselves into oblivion with a daily three litres of pulque, the whitish, fermented sap of a cactus-like plant that is "milked" three tim.es a day through a long tube: it tastes like a cross be- tween beer and country cider. There is no pavement, no water, no sanitation. When it rams, the ruts in the streets run raw sewage; when it's dry there are dust-storms and rats. In one courtyard, perhaps. 20 yards long, 14 families live in one-room, doorless brick shacks. Within 50 yards, the cars of the new class rush past along a four-lane concrete mo- torway. The capital's murder rate is the hemisphere's highest: one can meet men who have killed a dozen times. "I used to won- der what a murderer was says a European priest. "Now I know lots, and they're very nice Not long ago, the Judas in an Easter Passion Play couldn't stand the crowd's insults. He shot six people. Mexico had the first socialist revolution of the century, in 1910. One million, perhaps two million, died. The violence last- ed 14 years. Starvation follow- ed. Those years are etched on the national consciousness they created. When the United States and British oil com- panies were nationalized in 1938, women gave wedding- rings and peasants came in from the country with live chickens to help pay the bill. Today, government is stable. It wears the mask of a democ- racy. Beneath it is what one U.S. observer calls 'an inge- nious, amazing system, the politics of magic" that has as its particular ingenuity abolish' ed orthodox politics. It'has re- placed them with an adaptation of the complex, authoritarian but sometimes beautiful sys- tem of human relationships that marked the civilizations of Aztecs, Mixlecs, Toltecs and Mayas, What is now called the Insti- tutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) has run the country since the revolution ended. In the thirties its leaders talked and acted like Fidel Castro. Today it encompasses all views from Marxism to the far Right. But outside the umbrella of 'the Revolutionary Family' dis- sent is not admired. It is not that opposition parties aro banned all of them, in- cluding the illegal Communist Party, receive government sub- sidies and share a gift of 20 seats in Congress. It is merely that the PRI, while intensely disliking election walkovers, in- sists on winning by 95 per cent. This is a staggeringly young country. Well over half the pop- ulation is under 20. At Volks- wagen's new plant in Puebla, the average age of the workers is 20: the dollar a day earned by apprentices often makes them their families' wage-earner'. The ycung are reared on a heroic history and the rhetoric of socialist revolution. They grow up to find politics con- trolled by a middle-class bu- reaucracy that hates dissent. The mixture is explosive. Eighteen months ago it led to a massacre. The student movement of 1968 started with fights and rivalry between two schools, brutally broken up by the granaderes, Mexico's riot po- lice. The students forgot their differences to build a move- ment around, police brutality and the laws against 'social dissolution', traditionally used to jail independent trade union leaders and other dissenters. Within three months several hundred thousand people were marching down the Paseo de la Reforma for the first time since fc Revolution. The Olympic Games were due to start: the Government sent in heavily-armed troops. Offi- cially, 39 were killed. Reliable estimates are that 500 students and bystanders died in a hail of bullets. Thousands more were at least 100 aro still jailed without trial. The movement was smashed. It has vanished almost without trace. The grievances behind it survive and fester, and they're not confined to the young. The generation gap is narrower here. Tire students' parents shared their concerns for the fabric of society. "They were in a. movement in which we says an affluent and conservative law- yer. 'We don't -like the indus- trial culture, the slavery of the man to his products. We cried and we grieved with the youths who were killed.' Where Brazil is crushed by a repressive military dictator- ship, El Salvador owned by 14 families, Colombia held back by a rich, conservative Roman Catholic hierarchy, Mexcio dealt with the Army, the land- owners and Home the classic Latin American mill- stones a generation ago. In the fields where it is its own master, progress is stag- gering. Fifteen years ago it imported food. Now in spite of having only 11 per cent of land fit for agriculture, and most of that at the mercy of droughts it is an exporter. Fifteen million acres of once desert land in Sonora now, pro- duce more than half the coun- try's wheat. New strains of dwarf corn developed in its tropical regions grow across Afro-Asia. Latin America's largest hydro-electric project is going up at Malpasso. The rich swamp lands of the south-east are being drained to produce three crops a year. Priorities are right: 8 per cent of the budget on defence, 37 per cent on education. But with population growing at 3 per cent a year, eVen that isn't And it needs to find half a million Dew jobs a year to stand still. During Whoop-Up Days In Lethbridge Red or Blue Brand 69' FRESH Pork Picnics Ib. 49' CHUCK ROASTS Cross Rib Roast Stewing Beef Uon b Side Bacon By Beef Liver Pork Sausage ib. Smoked Sausage................IB. Deep Brown Beans ;r' 3 ,.r 85" Tomatoes Pink Salmon Apple Sauce Corned Beef Niblets Corn Contadina Malkins 14-01. tins Hereford....... 12-oz. tins Green Giant 4 '1 19-oz. fins for 4 4 Jl PEEK FREAN BISCUITS Assorted or Creams 16-ci. pkgi. each v V MARSHMALLOWS lowiwys QC0 lI'A-oi. pkfl-O O3 12-oz. tins KETCHUP E. D. Smiths 19-01. bottles 75" APRICOTS., 49'd GOLDEN YEILOW BANANAS HEAD IETTUCE GRAHAM'S FOOD MARKET 708 3rd Avenue South PHONE AND SAVE FREE DELIVERY GROCERIES 327-5434, 337-5431 MEATS 327-1812 OPEN THURSDAY Till P.M. The dilemmas of under- devclopment remain as real and as sharp as in Afro-Asia. As one U.S. analyst here puts it, the decisions that count are made in Washington: tariffs, quotas, raw-material prices. And the rich countries, says Alejandro Carrilo, editor of the Government newspaper, El Na- tional, still defined their indus- trial cathedral by discrim- inating against the poor. 'We've seen nothing very concrete come out of the promises they've made. They leave us the crumbs of industrial pro- duction. When they try to pro- duce goods that can compete, tariffs stop them. We are still part of the Third World.' He writes off tourism as 'the golden legend: if you analyse it, you find the cream of the tourist trade is not going into the hands of Mexicans. We get the fringe benefits. We can't rely on tourism as a main source of revenue.' The trouble is that tourism is a main source of revenue, and grow- ing. Most of the visitors are from the U.S. They fly in by American Airlines or Braniff, stay at the Hilton or the Shera- ton, drive a Hertz or Avis hire-car, eat at an Aunt Jemi- ma's Pancake House or a Shakey's Pizza parlour, shop at Woolworth. Sanborns or Sears Roebuck. The profits go back home. More than U.S. com- panies operate in Mexico. They dominate the consumer goods market food processing, cars, fridges, cosmetics and its million a year worth of advertising. 'Look around this said a teenage girl an- grily. 'Nothing here is Mexi- can, except the food youVe eat- ing. We don't own anything _in the country any more, the grin- goes, are taking it all.' Advocates of foreign invest- ment argue that Mexico must learn from foreign technology so as to progress to compete with it. The trouble is that the Third World has to take the technology it is given, and that tends to be obsolescent. One ex- ample was the brave but dis- astrous attempt to found an in- dustry making radio tubes: as it got under way, along came the transistor. There is also Mexico's in- dustrial pride: its motor indus- try. The machines in the ring of 15 car-making plants around the capital are new and expen- sive. They are not, however, those used in Detroit. They are specially designed for a low- production, high-cost and there- fore inefficient car industry. Eight motor companies rushed into Mexico in the early sixties to compete for a market total- ling units a year the minimum economic run for mass-production of one car model. The result is that a Ford Mustang, for example, in spite of wage-rates one-eighth of Detroit's costs almost twice the price. By law, two-thirds of each car must be made in Mexico. A look at the assembly line of one of the largest car factories reveals it isn't. "No, of course we don't make 65 per cent admits the'works man- ager, "but it's important to tell the Government we do, or they'd close the plant." Says Edmundo Flores, one of Latin America's leading economists, "the auto industry is not Mexi- can, and it's never going to be Mexican." Meanwhile, an industry that was seen by the Government as the passport to indus- trialized-nation status comes close to crippling the economy. One estimate is that is has cost close to million. To con- template this tragedy from the Mexican side of the develop- ment gap is at best to suspect tiie industrial nations don't in- tend to encourage possible competitors: at worst, it is to wonder if exploitation is not in- eradicable. But perhaps nothing can keep Mexico back from identity and economic independence. Its im- mense vitality, its passionate nationalism, its individual and collective desire to succeed will drive it on to emulate Japan. "There is no question we will swing it like the says Edmundo Flores. "We had our great reforms before the Cold War, so the Ameri- cans couldn't interfere with us like they did with the Cubans. We are going to do every im- aginable thing to pacify the gringos. Why shouldn't we? "We have better technicians than anywhere in Latin Ameri- ca. Industry is growing by leaps and bounds. In a couple of years, we will be making watches, we will be making cars. Expensive and badly made, but that's always the beginning." What does 'seem certain is that if Mexico can't cross the development gap between the rich and poor nations in the there will have to be changes in the rales. (Written for The Herald Md Observer, London) The American Indian's future From The International Herald Tribune TPO the several initiatives he has launch- ed in domestic affairs, President Naxon has added a new Indian policy. He has done so with a candid statement to the general effect that the treatment ac- corded the American Indians is a historic shame and a present disgrace, and he has acknowledged the difficulty of redressing ancient wrongs by the very complexity of the solution he proposes. The attitude of the United States toward the Indian tribes varied, in the early days, between treating them as sovereign entities and as the objects of genocide. In the later stages, the vacillation was between the theory that the redman was a permanent ward of the state and one that would im- pose assimilation. Mr. Nixon rejects the paternalism of the ward system and the cultural waste of assimilation. Doubtless aware of the hostility engen- dered among the Canadian Indian bands by the Trudeau government's announced plan to transfer them from federal to pro- vincial supervision, President Nixon would have Congress explicitly disavow ths in- tention of terminating tie special relation- ship that exists between the Indians of the United States and Washington an inten- tion which has stood on the statute books since 1953. At the same time, he urges a large increase in Indian responsibility for programs within their own communities, including education. The President also recognizes that in many aspects of Indian affairs there is a conflict of interest within and among the federal agencies; to solve that he would set up an Indian Trust Counsel Authority, to act as a sort of ombudsman for the tribes. Finally, he pro- poses more money for Indian health, edu- cation and economic development. This acceptance of the value of "cultural pluralism, as a national asset, this recog- nition of the need to see that the Indian future is determined by Indian acts and Indian decisions, is a sophisticated and statesmanlike approach. It will not meet the demand of many "Red Power" advo- cates, and its success depends on trans- lating a complex philosophy into concrete acts. But in outline, and.in many of its specific suggestions, it comes closer to meeting the needs of the Indian within the larger American community than any of its forerunners. The great difficulty in adapting the In- dian to his present environment (or vice versa) is not really racial antagonism. Far more than the black, the Indian has suf- fered almost as mush from stereotyped1 romanticism of the Chingacbcook variety as from the harsher prejudices of t h e frontier. But his culture, his very identity, has depended on an economy that is either impossible to re-create (as in the case of nomad hunters) or which keeps the Indian at permanent poverty levels, such as the subsistence farming, eked out with hunt- ing and fishing, which characterized the life of so many Indian tribes. To keep alive the symbols and the moral force of a culture when its economic reasons for being have disappeared has often been done over centuries'1 of slow transmutation of values. The Asian Indian sacred cow, for instance, may conserve something of the old Aryan pastoral cul- ture in entirely different circumstances. But ths American Indian experience has been too abrupt for that; some tribes have shifted from foot-slogging, through a horse economy, to the pick-up truck in only a few hundred years. There is no certainty that the continued existence of a true In- dian culture within the American pluralism is possible, under the best of conditions. All that can be said is that Mr. Nixon is willing to give a good try at preserving one for the Indian future. Reversing The Supreme Court From The Christian Science Monitor TT will be interesting to watch the out- come of a case which has just passed through the Boston Municipal Court. For this case could just possibly have very considerable national repercussions. In a case of involving the sale of a magazine charged with being pornogra- phic, Chief Justice Elijah Adlow stated, in sentencing the defendant, that be would not recognize recent United States Supreme Court decisions on obscenity. Judge .Adlow stated specifically, "I re- fuse to live by rules made by men who have lost their heads by being elevated too adding, "the Supreme Court has put its endorsement on filth and we in this city will continue to entertain a little de- cency. If the Supreme Court has indeed issued rulings which would cover the magazine in question (and this isp by no means cer- then there is no need to stress that an interesting and perhaps significant con- frontation has arisen. This is not so much because there can be any doubt as to where the judicial power lies, but Judge Adlow's ruling almost certainly expresses the feelings and opinions of vast numbers of Americans. These Americans have increasingly felt that American courts, including the high bench, have gone much too far in their desire to protect free expression in writing and literature. While granting that past decades may not have made an adequate distinction between the serious discussion of sex in writings of earnest intent and the exploitation of sex for prurient purposes, many Americans are convinced that the pendulum has now swung unjustifiably far in the opposite direction. Thus there will be much instinctive sympathy with Judga Adlow's stand. One cannot, of course, advocate a wilful disregard oj Supreme Court rulings. To do So would be ta open the door to incalculable- consequences. There are, in the South for example, not a few judges who believe that in its desegregation rulings the Supreme Court has, as Judge Adlow charged, "lost its head." It requires no great imagination to foresee some Southern judge or judges being emboldened by the Adlow ruling to the point where the former would also de- clare his refusal to live by the high court'! rules. No, whatever effect lies in the Adlow decision should lie in the field of com- municating'to the Supreme Court the deep and .widespread national displeasure over decisions which have opened the United States to a suffocating tidal wave of print- ed obscenity. Nor do we believe that tie high bench will be unheeding of such' a point. In fact, there have been several recent decisions' which have encouraged observers to hold that the Supreme Court itself may nave felt that it had gone too far and was ready to cut back on some of its more per- missive rulings. The Adlow decision may help nudge the high court further in this welcome direction. Labor's Conscientious Objectors From The Wall Street Journal for them: Chief Justice Burger and Justice Douglas have just assert- ed that a working-man may have a Con- stitutional right to be a conscientious ob- jector to union membership. In a dissent in a New York -case, t h e Justices disputed the Supreme Court ma- jority's refusal to grant a hearing to Ralph Russell, a former member of the Team- sters union. He has been denied unemploy- ment compensation by state officials be- cause he rejected a job that required his rejoining the union. Some four years ago Mr. Russell quit his job, declaring he bad conscientious ob- jections to union membership. When the company offered to take him back, he de- clined to become a union member again and therefore, couldn't take the job. So, said New York State, no jobless benefits. In the words of the Court hbwever, "If the result of the New York holding is that a worker must decide be-, tween a deeply felt belief, which falls in the First Amendment area, and crucial unemployment then the Court might have found that the effect violated the Constitution. Had the Court heard the case, it might have decided that the Con- stitution obligated the state industrial com- missioner to provide employment that does not conflict with the worker's freedom of association. Many working people find compulsory unionism repugnant for a number of rea- sons-, including dues-paying and union poli- tical activities. That it can also be purely and simply repugnant to a man's consci- ence strikes us as a wholly reasonable proposition. A Little Puzzled By Dong Walker VPHEN Joanne and Judi were seven and five years of age it was discovered that they were to have a brother or sister brother as it turned out. Having been informed of the expected addition to the family they were naturally full of ques- tions. This was the opportune time to begin tbeir KX education, according to tte ex- perts. Their mother told them the facts of life. She thought she had done a credible, job of it until a little later Joanne raised the subject again. The little girl said she was a bit puzzled. She understood the mother's part in pro- viding a place for the baby to grow from an egg. she said, "what does daddy do ;