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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - July 19, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THE LETHBRIDCr. liEfiA'.S Wedneiday, July 19, 1971 Weal Ascherson Egyptian conundrum Foreign correspondents in the Mid- "f Prpsidpnt. talked recently of dle East have Egyptian resentment at tho Kussian presence but none them forecast the dramatic turn of events this week. One firm conclusion can be drawn from Premier Anwar Sadat's dic- tum telling thousands of Russian military adrisers and technicians to go back where they came from five years ago. That is, that the Soviets are not prepared to give Egypt the offensive missiles it wants to devas- tate Israel and to recover Sinai by military means. In short Moscow is refusing to be pressured into all-out measures against Israel, either mili- tarily or diplomatically. Russia is not ready to break up its detente with the West for the sake of Egypt-or the fledgling association of Arab states which includes Egypt, Syria and Libya. Internal pressures, both in Egypt itself and in the federation, have been brought to bear on President Sadat, to fulfil his promises to negotiate, or force by military means, the return of Egyptian territory lost in the 1967 war. It was expected that the Soviets would help. But instead, the Russians have provided a lot of defensive wea- pons, technologists and all kinds advisers. Egyptian military men have been willing, but difficult students of modern warfare. Privately the Rus- sians believe that Egyptians are not able to master the sophisticated mili- tary hardware they have provided, and they have probably intimated as much to the top Egyptian brass. This would undoubtedly be a source of bit- terness, a slap at national pride the Arabs would increasingly resent. Mohammed Heykal, one of the most influential men in Egypt and the late President Nasser's most inti- mate friend and colleague, editor of the Cairo newspaper Al Ahram, has lashed out at the continuation of the state of no war and no peace. He says it's a crime. Mr. Heykal's statements have been interpreted as a strong criticism of President Sadat's stew- ardship. Some commentators believe that Mr. Heykal would like to see the removal" of Sadat as president but there has been no indication if this rumor has any foundation in fact. It is quite probable that the Rus- sians have been interfering in Egyp- tian domestic politics, spreading ideological Communist messages in strategic places and that the put- down of the Communist enclave in the southern Sudan was not as effec- tive as was thought at first. There can be no question that tha Libyans have been playing their part in ousting the Russians. They have been twitting Egypt for its re- luctance to act against Israel for a long time. What the change in the Libyan government has got to do with the general situation is hard to say. If Col. Qadanfi, who has given up the post premier to his col- league, Major Jalloud, still has a say, there will be an all-out Arab effort to support Palestinian guer- rilla activity. All in all, the Russian withdrawal could be interpreted as a short-term diplomatic defeat for the U.S.S.R. but it is hardly a defeat that will ease Israeli apprehension. The Sov- iets are asked to leave, primarily because they have not fulfilled their task from the Arab point of view. Five years have passed, and there is no settlement on the Sinai ques- tion. The next development in the snarl of "its, ands and buts" must be, what will the Egyptians, the Libyans and the Syrians do now? Expand the guerrilla warfare, try to make use of the offensive weapons they already have, or look for powerful new friends? any of the ans- wers can be found in this list of ques- tions may be known soon. But dur- ing the period of uncertainty the world will be treated to an outburst of rhetoric from the Arab world. That's fundamental In a climate of Middle-East confusion. Socialist semantics The official Chinese press, always rich with high flown colorful rhe- toric, has been having a semantic problem how to distinguish the So- viet brand of imperialism from the U.S. variety. Imperialism per se, is described as "moribund, not dead capitalism." The Americans are plain ordinary imperialists, so the Chinese line goes. But the Russians are called "social imperialists" these days and the Russians are "socialists in words and imperialists in deeds." If you follow this line of reasoning, you can only come to one conclu- sion. Those revisionist social Imperi- alist Russians are trying to expand moribund, not dead, capitalism to other countries. It's enough to make Lenin shudder in his refrigerated mausoleum. ANDY RUSSELL VfTE Camp u had a very interesting and well lo- cated camp a few years ago up on the Toklat River in Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska. It was situated just below the upper forks of the river to one side ol the wide valley on the edge of the great alluvial gravel flats a mile wide In some places. The view was magnificent with snow and ice draped peaks cleaving the sky all around. Below the eternal snowline, the lower reaches of the mountains were one vast carpet of rich green tundra broken only by the gravel bars along the river. There was hardly a day when we couldn't sit down with binoculars in front of our tents and see many kinds of game. Only when fog blanketed the country were the animals and birds hidden. There were many grizzlies and herds of caribou and dall sheep along with a scattering of moose. One ten day period in early July we saw somewhere in the vicinity of 8000 caribou migrating north. On one memorable day I was among eleven separate grizzlies between 7 a.m. and noon, all ranging in size from a tiny first year cub to a big, burly old male. Golden eagles were in sight al- most continuously, swinging in great cir- cles, nding the thermals above Ihe valleys, as Ihey hunted squirrels and ptarmigan. Three kinds of ptarmigan lived and nested there at various levels in thousands. High up on the slopes above the river, rare surf birds nested. Lower down were the golden plovers and long-tailed jaegers. These last are unique birds, a predatory gull with contrasting black and white markings; very beautiful flyers that winter in Japan and nest in Alaska and northern Canada. Through it all greal grey and black tim- ber wolves ranged, preying on game big and small. Contrary lo popular belief, wolves arc as harmless lo man ns coyolcs. No record of any person ever being attacked by wolves in North America has been snbslanlialed. We always thrilled lo sc-c them covering the country in Ihcir long reaching gail. They ,uo n Inily wonderful pnrt of a mng- nificcnt wilderness scene, Ihe wild hull- mnrk of Ihc freedom nnd the vnst expans- es of Ihc nnrlh. For one outdoor v.rilcr ami Ihrcc iifilur- nhsl llii.s n ;md fascinating kaleidoscope of color nnd guests ment, which my sons, Dick and Charlie, and I never grew tired of watching. Nor was the life of these raids all in the dis- tance. Right in camp we bad two daily visitors called Ruth and Charlie, a pair of fat, mischievous ground squirrels that lived in a hole only a few steps from our tents. These were pitched close by a cabin, the home of the Park Ranger who lived there with his wife and two small daugh- ters aged four and five. The squirrels were the special friends of the girls, who, for some unaccountable reason, named them after their parents. So we often had the little girls and the squirrels visiting us. Sometimes we shared various goodies with the girls, but the squirrels helped them- selves. How much of our groceries thesa animals pilfered during the summer no- body will ever know, but it was consider- able. Though they would never allow a hand to touch them, they were very tame. They were also entertaining. One day came back to camp in mid- afternoon after an exhausting session of filming grizzlies at close range and we aTl stretched out in various altitudes of repose. I was sitting with my back against a grub box, while Dick and Charlie lay on their sleeping bags. Dick was reading and Char- lie was sleeping, when Charlie, the squir- rel came calling and hcgnn rummaging around the stove, where he discovered a piece of a pancake among some chips. At this point Ruth arrived and Charlie scamp- ered away with his booty, and without much thought of direction ran up onlo his namesakes stomach. Charlie, the photo- grapher, woke up to find company sitting on its fat bottom bolt upright on his mid- dle. For a moment or two both Chnrlics were eye to eye; then the one underneath chuckled. The squirrel let out a muffled .squawk at this earthquako under him nnd lit out, still hanging onlo the bit of pan- rnkc, through the door wllh Buth hot on his heels. They were hastened on their way by n ronr of InuRhler fill around. There were few dull moment.'! In that camp, Wn oil remember It with nostalgia, for It was a wild nnd wonderful location where wo wero not aliens lo Hie scone, hnl ,1 livhiK p.irl of it enjoying n kind of n: of UK- viUlonicv. found in few places. Economic links hasten end of cold war ABE the two halves of Eur- ope really drawing closer? Or are llieir economies, at least, moving further aparl? In Moscow last week, Come- con, the East European econo- mic bloc, held its own summit. It discussed progress towards integration, but it also looked towards the European Econo- mic Community's summit this autumn and tried to work out its own policy towards the great trading fortress of 10 na- tions arising in the West. From January next year, no East European country will be able to make trade agreemenls directly with an EEC nation. In theory, the EEC Commission at Brussels will negotiate an agreement with Hungary or Poland as if It were the trade ministry of a united West Eur- opean nation. For several years, the commission has ex- ercised the right to veto and approve all trade agreements with "planned economies" by Community members. Now, to- wards Comecon members, its control of trade Is supposed to become complete. This is a dismaying prospect for the smaller Comecon mem- bers. Already, several have tried to make their own ar- rangements with the Commun- ity before Hie closing date: Hungary and Poland havo sought special understandings, and Romania has boldly ap- plied for preferences as an "under-developed nation" (half its population is still They fear that the com- mission will enforce a strict protectionist policy, and make it harder to earn the hard currency through exports which they so badly need. But there are signs that the fatal first of January may pro- duce some anti-climax. Exist- ing trade agreements will be allowed to run their course. The commission, fearing above all a flat defiance from France which values its sovereignty in dealing with Eastern Europe, may even permit bilateral trade agreements to be re- newed, with a token clause sal- uting the Commission's rights. Certainly, until there is a mone- tary union, payments on East- West trade will continue to be made between individual trea- suries. The East Europeans sec the commission's policy as a form of political pressure, edging them towards decentralized market economics without a stale foreign trade monopoly. The commission would not in- terfere If, say, a Romanian tex- tile mill made its own deal wilh a London firm of shirt- makers. It is the massive treaty specifying all exchanges from collars to locomotives, signed between an Eastern and a Western country, that the com- mission disapproves of. But, wilh the exception of Hungary, Eastern Europe's movement towards market economies in which each enterprise does its own business has slacked off. Since Czechoslovakia, there has been fear that a liberalized eco- nomy may produce uncontrol- lable political results. Trade between the two blocs tripled during the sixties. Yet it is still small beer. Although Comecon produces nearly a third of the world's industrial output, the present six EEC members did more trade with Switzerland in than with the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania combined. In spite of enormous and well-publicized deals bet- ween West Germany and tho Soviet Union, like the agree- ment to purchase over a million tons of Ruhr steel pipe signed recently, Soviet trade accounts for only one per cent of the Federal RepubEc's external commerce. Tin's is the situation which the industrialized nations of Eastern Europe want to change. One hope is the "co- production" system, by which Western firms use cheaper Eastern labor and materials to help Eastern factories to pro- duce goods for re-sale within the Common Market. But this scheme, though 10 years old, has been inexplicably slow to develop. Comecon Itself Is making slow progress towards integra- tion. So far, there is no joint currency or trade policy, brt the International Bank for Eco- nomic Co-operation (IBEC) has begun enormously to expand its hard currency capital through bank loans from the West. IBEC finances multilat- eral trade within Comecon, al- though the bloc still does most of Us trading by old-fashioned bilateral barter deals, leaving only less important goods like shoes and some textiles to be purchased for hard cash in tha Western style. But another Comecon organ, the International Investment Bank, has been achieving big- ger things. It finances projects in tlie joint interests of ell members, so far largely In tna field of improving transport. So far the Soviet Union has not asked for HB funds, and Czechoslovakia has been the biggest borrower. But the Rus- sians will soon apply. They want 1IB help to exploit tho gigantic iron ore deposits known as "the Kursk Mag- netic to become tha main supply for all Comecon industry. And here there emerges tha central problem of Comecon, which also affects the entire developed world. It is the ano- maly of the Soviet economy it- self. The Soviet Union is both vast and apparently self-suffi- cient. Like the United States, it only exports about four per cent of its production (most Comecon members export be- tween a fifth and a But this is deceptive. The Soviet Umon's needs and natural re- sources are too big for its own technology and human resour. ces. Slowly there is emerging an unofficial world consortium to develop the natural wealth of the Soviet Union. This, really, is what Come- con financial integration is about. Comecon members al- ready do half their trade wilh the Soviet Union. Now they must invest in exploiting So- viet raw materials, on which both their own economies and the Soviet economy depend. The petroleum and Iron and copper and gas are there in ground, in quantities whosa noughts reel off to the horizon. But tha Russians cannot get them out fast enough to keep pace with their own needs and those of Eastern Europe. And this, too, is what moat East-West trade Is about. West German pipes will help to bring Soviet gas to the out- side world. The Japanese are building harbors and Investiga- ting Siberian copper. The French and Germans are helping with the great lorry factory on the Kama River, a necessary part of the Infra- structure. One of the biggest consortia ever formed is being evolved by the Americans and the Japanese to exploit the oil in the Tyumen basin in west- ern Siberia, at a cost of per- haps million. Tha age of Russian self-suffi- ciency is over. From now on, the Soviet Union must be in- volved with the whole indus- tralized world if it is to go on making progress. This does not mean dependence. In Come- con, at least, there is no doubt about who is the strongest. But It is the most fundamental guarantee that the Soviet Union is in earnest about bringing the cold war to an end. (Written for The Herald and The Observer, London) Timothy Ross South America's Indians in danger of extinction TRIBAL leaders who came from all over Colom- bia at the end of last month to watch the trial of eight farm- workers accused of murdering 16 Kuiba Indians were disap- pointed by the result. For the three-man jury found Ihe eight not responsible for any crime. Responsible instead, said the jury, were the centuries old social attitudes that led settlers to consider Indians as vermin to be hunted for sport. Although a judge has an- nulled the verdict, opening tho way for a retrial, and it is ru- mored that other trials will soon take place, what is really at issue is not individual mas- sacres but Ihe eradication of the Indian, culturally and eco- nomically as well as physically, Ihrough much of the continent. The contact of the remain- Ing indigenous South American peoples with civilization, whe- ther through Christian mis- sionary work, scientific expedi- tions, settlers, or through labor contractors, brings the: begin- ning of the dcntli of their cul- tures. And worse still. It brings them the most serious ills of Ihc more advanced societies; diseases against which they have no resistance, alcohol whose cffecls they do not un- derstand, work contracts they cannot read, nnd expulsion from the lands they have lived on for centuries. The cause of most cnnlarls Is Innd: land for farming, for mining or for rond-building. And the first people lo make the ronl.iel. ;ire usiuilly loinjli .selllers, likt! Ihe Colombians whose trial hns just onded, for wlwm tho Indian is A mn'snnca an animal that steals crops and cattle or an object of sport. When Indians have re- sisted the invasion of their lands the settlers have fre- quently responded by wiping out whole Iribes. In Brazil, in 1907, Uie Direc- tor of the Sao Paulo Museum wrote that because of the resis- tance put up by the Kaingang Indians "it appears that there is no other means one can use except to exterminate the Kain- gans and any other Indians that rebel against develop- ment." The Indian Protection Ser- vice, set up three years lalcr lo letter To The Editor Anglophile Permit an "Anglophile" to comment on Hie editorial on July II. Yes! I am thin-skinned on this subject as I did not come to Alberta 51 years ago to speak French. I camo ns a British soldier-settler, on an assisted plan, paid for by both the British and Canadian governments. I have lived a good deal of my time ID Al- berta where settlers of both German and Ukrainian back- grounds predominate, nnd they too are English-speaking, not French-speaking, and are far more numerous than those o( French origin in Alberta. Also, we hnvc 200 million English- speaking neighbors to tho south of us, so they too, be Anglophiles! I Iravo lols of I'ompnr.y. (i, KKN WATTS Lclbbridgn. combat this attitude, did some noble work in defence of the Indian, but finally had lo be disbanded because its workers were bribed by the landowners and its policies so distorted Uiat it came totally t o belie its name, forcibly transferring some tribes to poorer lands and wiping out others. Extermination might be con- sidered merciful. The Indian who is transferred to land that will nol support hunting and simple agriculture is forced to join the ranks of the poorest laborers. The Tercna tribe, transferred from the inland Brazilian stale of Malto Grosso to the north- east of Sao Paulo in 1930, is a pitiful example of the destruc- tion of a proud tradition nnd the reduction of a free people lo misery. In 30 years Ihe Terenas liavo forgollen Ihcir tribal culture. The remaining 48 families (of (lie original hundreds) scratch a bare living from the four square miles they share wilh groups from Iwo oilier tribes, growing bananas and selling their labor on neighboring farms. To cnlcrtain visiting officials they sadly dress up in paper lials and chicken feathers, prc- Icnding lo he the Indians their fathers were. They still havo litlle rcsislanco to ordinary ill- nesses: flu and measles kill more than old age. Whatever Ihc precautions taken, In tho meeting between eiriiiuitlon and tho Indinn tho contact ilself be poison- ous. A cxpcdilinn reccnlly discovered Hint only in trllx'i nlrcndy In touch with settlers does tooth decay exist. In Brazil, despite the prohib- ition against sexual relations with Indians, the workers on airstrips, mines and Indian posts have repeatedly been found to be spreading venereal diseases. Simple germs which every city dweller carries on his skin can cause blindness among them. Since the conquest of Soulh America by the Spanish and Portuguese the Indian has suf- fered in this way; dispossessed by Capuchin missionaries in Co- Looking Through the Her: 1022 Coming Thursday lo the Empress Theatre, Gladys Wallon Second Hand Rose. Ex- tra added attraction Mary Pickford as she appeared as "Liflle Mary" 12 years ago in "Going Straight." M3Z One week from today will see the opening of the long- awailcd 1932 Lclhhridge Exhi- hilion. The giant downtown par- ade will officially open the fair lombia, enslaved by plantation owners in Brazil, exploited ev- erywhere. The only refuge white man has provided, Bra- zil's Xingu National Park, is now threatened by government road-building plans. Over the centuries their num- bers have been reduced so dras- tically that many anthropolo- gists consider that the present generation of Indians in some countries is the last one befon they are civilized out of exij tence. (Written for The Herald flml TIic Observer in London) backward and Ihousands are expected to throng business streets while the pageant winds ils way about the strecls. Southern Alberta crops continue to present a promising picture in the July survey of The Herald based on report.'! from its correspondents through the district. Lethbridge's second case of polio wilhin n week was reported lo The Herald by Iho city health department. The Letlibridge Herald KM 7th St. S., Lclhbridgc, Albcrla LETIIBRIDGE HERALD TO. LTD., Proprietors and Publisher! Published 1905 -1954, by Hon, W. A. BUCHANAN Second Clusi Mill Regisirallnn No. 0011 f Tht CnnnrtlBn and Iho Canadian Dnllv Association and Ih. Audll or Publlshoi towARS( "M Publisher THOMAS H. ADAMS, Central Managir OON PILLING WIIMAU UAV ROY I MILES DOUGl AS K WALKER Manag.r Bdllorlal P.ji Edllw- "THE HERAIO SERVES THE SOUTH' ;