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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - July 17, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta -Saturday, July U', 1971 THE IETHBRIDGE HERALD 19 Boneless spiders Andy sends a complete 20- volume set of the World Book Encyclopedia to Jacqueline DuBay, age 8, of St. Paul Minnesota, for her question: Do spiders have bones? An ordinary spider is an itty- hitty creature. Imagine how tiny her bones would be if she had any bones, actually, there are no bones at all in- side her small body. This is not unusual. Thousands of other spider-sized animals do not have any bones either. Our big bodies need an inside frame- work of bones and we need bones with joints to move arms, legs and other parts. But the busy little spider does not need them. She has other ways to hold her body in shape and move about. It may seem strange to us, but most of nature's animals have no bones inside their bo- dies. The long list of boneless ones includes hundreds of dif- ferent spiders and more than half a milion different insects. Lots of larger creatures, such as shrimps and crabs and lob- sters, have no bones in their bodies either. The experts tell us that spiders are not insects, and this is true. But they are distant cousins of the insects and so are all the. other ani- mals on this list. However, they are not related to the worms, snails and many other bone- less creatures. The -piders and insects, the crabs and lobsters are related because of what they have in- stead of bones. Your bony skel- eton, remember, forms a frame- work inside your body. All these little boneless cousins have an outside framework instead. It is called an exoskeleton. Part of it is made of crisp crusty ma- terial. The rest is made of tough leathery material. The spider's exoskeleton covers her head and chest sections with a crusty shield. Her round tummy is held securely inside a tough leathery bag. This covering works because her body is so small. But if spiders and in- sects were human sire, their bodies would need inside skele- tons to support them. As exoskeleton tends to be rather stiff and the busy spider must be able to move around. Our bones are stiff too, and we move them only at the joints. The spider has joints also, spe- cial bendable joints in her exo- skeleton. Her eight legs have stiff stockings with round gar- ters of bendable material at the joints. Like us, she has muscles inside her body to make her joints move. Each muscle has two ends, one fixed on each side of a joint. As she scuttles around, dozens of mus- cles stretch and squeeze to bend the many joint's in her skinny Many insects are covered all over with stiff exoskeletons. Davis to visit western Arctic OTTAWA (CP) Environ- ment Minister Jack Davis will visit the Western Arctic July 19-25 for a first look at his de- partment's work in the Macken- zie Valley area, it was an- nounced today. Environment Canada, in co- operation with other federal de- partments, is studying fish, for- estry, wildlife and the effects of pipeline construction in the North. Mr. Davis will visit the Peace-Athabasca delta, re- search sites, fishing communi- ties, tourist lodges and an oil rig at Tuktoyaktuk on the Beau- fort Sea. But this stiff material has bands of- bend able material around the loints. Likn the spi- ders, they have muscles inside to make the joints move. Shrimps have the same sort of jointed exoskeletons. Crabs and lobsters need sturdier frame- work for their larger bodies. So their crusty exoskeletons are thicker and stronger. But they too have the same bendable joints. Experts have a fancy name for all the creatures that have joints of this kind. They call them arthropods, which means animals with jointed feet. Questions asxed by children of Herald readers should be mailed to Ask Andy, P.O. Box 765, Huntington Beaca, California 92648. (Copyright Chronicle Publishing Co. 1971) Your Horoscope By JEANE DIXON SUNDAY, JULY 18 Your Brithciay Today: Dis- cipline comes naturally in response to the challenges and stress of the coming year. Your inner sense of duty is the directing factor mater- ial gain is not the main moti- vation. Today's natives are esthetic, sharp judges of color, texture, design, and often given to surges of emotion or otherwise in response to beauty or its ab- sence. ARIES (March 21 April Be able and willing to meet strangers and unfamiliar ideas and manifest your own in cour- tesy and serenity. TAURUS (April 20 May Seek a co-operative spirit among friends and neighbors, but in so doing, keep your own counsel concerning details of personal matters. GEMINI (May 21 June Once you've done your share in U.S. space program Why go back? CAPE KENNEDY, Fla. (AP) Three teams of American astronauts have landed on the moon in two years. Now Apollo 15 is ready for a fourth expediiton and two more crews will follow next year. Launch date for Apollo 15 is July 26. Why go back "We go back for knowl- says Apollo 15 com- mander David R. Scott. "With all the new scientific equip- ment which we will carry, we expect to make a quantum jump in our knowledge about the moon, and from this per- haps learn more about our earth and solar system." Scott and James B. Irwin are to land at the base of the Apennfac Mountains near a mile-wide gorge named Had- Rille. They are to stay 67 hours on the surface, twice the length of any previous moon-walkers, and they'll ex- plore a large area, driving a four-wheel vehicle among the rocks and craters. In moon orbit, astronaut JameG B. Worden will operate a sophisticated new array of scientific instruments and cameras intended to chemi- c a 11 y and photographically chart 20 par cent of the moon's surface. "We really have a five-in- one geologv site at Hadley-Ap- Scott reported. "We have a mountain front which may contain original lunar crust; we have the mysterious rille, which could have been fonr.ed by lava flow or vol- canic gases. "Ve have a clustre of cra- ters believed formed by the impact of material thrown out by a larger crater; we have which may have been volcanoes, and we have an- other mare (flat plain) for comparison with the mare visietd by the Apc'Jo 11 nad 12 crews." Earlier landing teams each hat only one geology feature to study, either mare or high- lands. If Scott and Irwin find crys- tal material, it could date 4.6 billion years to the beginning of the moon and the solar sys- tem. Previous Apollo crews returned rocks up to 3.7 bil- lion years old. The oldest rocks ever found on earth data 3.6 billion years. The first billion years of earth's history hsve been er- oded away by wind, water and atmosphere. There is no such erosion process on the moon. If the astronauts can find original lunar material, it may be pos- sible to understand the forma- tion and creation of resources there, and in turn to extrapo- late the first billion years of tte history of the earth. Worden said the cameras and instruments he'll operate in orbit should enable scien- tists to d-aw an accurate age map of the 20 per cent of the surface over which the com- mand ship will pass. "There are a lot of things that happened in the moon's nistory that we'll understand better with accurate he said. "Why is there such a differ- ence between the front side, with its many large mares, and the back side, which is mostly We don't know about the edges. There must be some kind of a zone there that interacts between the front and back." GOREN ON BRIDGE Q. vulnerable, South you hold: 4AK975 W6 OJ95S The bidding has proceeded: West North East South IV to Pass What action do you take? Research officers get raise EDMONTON (CP) Senior research officers at the Alberta Research Council have been granted salary increases of up to a year, bringing top salary levels to a year. The provincial cabinet ap- proved the increases earlier this week and said in a state- ment they are part of general salary increases of six to 6% per cent approved for most of the council's 100 professional and 250 technical staff. Salaries for senior research officers now range from to associate research officers to as- sistants to and junior research officers to BY CHARLES H. GOREN mi: Br Tte ChKJW Trlbdnel WEEKLY BRIDGE QUIZ As South, vulnerable, rou hold: The bidding has proceeded: North East Sooth West 1 Puss 10 1 V I NT Pass 5 Pass 3 ft Pass f what do you bid now? q. 2-East-West vulnerable. As South you hold: The bidding has proceeded: Nort! East South West I