Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - July 10, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta
Soluiday, July 10, THI LETHIRIDGI HERALD S Jane Huckvale Ancient Malta the hub of new problems since the arrival of the Knights on MaKa, there has been conflict be- tween ecclesiastic and tem- poral authority. The Grand Master was a very great lord, who struck his own coins and corresponded on equal terms with European monarchs. But the Bishop, who was appoint- ed by the representative of the Pope in Sicily, interfered in all kinds of affairs that were none of his business. The whole con- flict was complicated by the arrival of the Inquisition at the behest of the Knights who feared the "pestilence" of the Reformation. Heretics would have been less trouble. The Inquisitor filled the dungeons of his palace with suspects. He quarreled constantly with tha Bishop, mostly about status, and the Bishop quarreled with the Knights over the same thing. (The Bishop had an in- genious method of removing Maltese who wanted to escape the Grand Master's jurisdic- tion. He conferred the tonsure on laymen who had no inten- tion of abandoning the lay life. The haircut gave the Bishop authority over anyone who sported this distinctive clip.) Clashes continued when Brit- am was invited to take over the government in 1813. Much of the difficulty stemmed from the language problem. Because prelates appointed to Malta were Italian speaking, the lan- guage generally used in the conduct of affairs was Italian, in the absence of written Maltese. (This language, spo- ken by all islanders is Semitic in origin and can be under- stood in Arab countries with little Conflict arose when Lord Strickland who was Maltese on his mother's side, became Premier in 1927. He had been instrumental in de- vising a Maltese script, which he insisted was quite good enough to be used in the schools and by members of the legislature. He saw no rea- son why Italian should be forced on a people who sel- dom saw Italians other than priests, and had no use for the language unless they left the island. The Bishop whack- ed back hard. He threatened excommunication to anyone who supported Strickland's candidacy in the elections. Great Britain was forced to step in not for the last lime suspend the constitution. A Royal Commission inquiry followed, a revised constitution came into effect, the Strick- land government was defeated, and a more reasonable prelate appointed. But the Italians had by no means given up. Mussolini's agitators infiltrated Malta, and a further attempt was made to reinstate Italian as a medium of instruction. Again, the Brit- ish intervened and forced the government to retain Maltese as a language of instruction and to replace Italian with En- glish as a second language. Most Maltese arc now Maltese- English speaking. No one needs lo be lold of the heroic defence of Malta against the terrific bombing they endured during World War n. Their suffering ended in 1943 when Tripoli was cap- tured. The award of the George Cross, the first one ever awarded to a community in the Empire and Common- wealth is a moving tribute lo their staunch courage. The ci- tation, engraved in stone in the handwriting of King George the VI is set in the wall of the Grand Master's Palace, along side another ci- tation by President Roosevelt- Thanks were extended in cash too. In 1943, while Britain was still fighting for her own life, she gave 10 million pounds for help in restoration of the ter- rible damage inflicted, follow- ed by larger grants until in- dependence. The war over a new con- stitution, re-establishing self government came into effect. But this one was considered only temporary and in 1954 the British asked representatives of both Maltese political par- ties to sit in on talks leading up to a revised status. Mr. Dominic Mintoff, the present Premier was in office then for the first time. There "were all kinds of suggestions, including one from Mr. Mintoff himself, that Malta should retain its own Parliament with powers to legislate on all matters oth- er than defence and external affairs, but should also be "in- tegrated" with Britain by send- ing three members to West- minster. But Mr. Mintoff scotched this idea by putting forth unrealistic demands for huge sums of money to sup- port the economy and bring the Maltese standard of living up lo a par wilh the British one in an impossibly short time. As if this were not enough, the British were forced to announce a cut in defence expenditure, a disaster on an island practically entirely de- pendent on the dockyards for survival. Mintoff threatened severance from Britain and told government employees not to have any conversation or correspondence with the British a ridiculous request which was honored in the breach. Tension was heightened by a renewed quarrel with the church, culminating in the Caravaggio affair. This con- cerned two magnificent paint- ings by the Renaissance artist. They are the property of the Church. They had been sent abroad for exhibition, and when they came back Mr. Mintoff sent his agents lo Ihe docks and had the paintings BUCKINGHAM PALACE -t Book Reviews Inside Russia, and its problems "The Soviet Union" by Dev Mnrarka (Thames and Hud- son, 240 pages, distri- buted by Oxford University several years Dev Mu- rarka, a Calcutta journal- ist, has been a Moscow-based correspondent. His columns, via The London Observer, are some- times reproduced in The Her- ald. In this book he records the fruit of his study and observa- tion of the vast and variegated land of the Soviet Union, con- centrating mainly on its politi- cal system since the revolution. The book begins with a rather pedestrian review of the his- tory of Russia. Once the reader has made his way through the beginnings, the Tsardom, and the Revolution, interest begins to quicken. The check marks I make as I read a book only begin in the chapter on the Stal- in Ascendancy but thereafter they become frequent. By no means an uncritical ad- mirer of the Soviet system, Mr. Murarka nonetheless tries to be fair. He points out, for in- stance, that the seeds of the Cold War were not sown simply by Stalin's insistence on absorb- ing the East European coun- tries. The abrupt termination of Land-Lease by President Harry Truman had a large part to play in fouling relationships. Stalin faced a mighty recon- struction job. Twenty million peop'e had been killed an an- other 20 million deaths were in- directly due to the war (these figures are the highest I have ever the western half of European Russia was devastat- ed and 25 million people were homeless. In the face of this it is no wonder that even U.S. Secretary of State Edward Stet- tinius said the termination of Lend-Lease was an "untimely and incredible' measure. It is Murarka's opinion that the most fundamental element in Soviet foreign policy is not ideology but the search for se- curity. He thinks the policy is really geared towards preserv- ing peace. At the same time he says the action in Czechoslova- kia alleged to have been be- cause of a threat lo the secur- ity of the Communist camp was really the result of the fear that Soviet authority-was being un- dermined. "The whole Soviet course in Czechoslovakia was a great tragedy for both coun- tries and for communism, too deep for words." Although there are limita- tions in the structure of Soviet society, Murarka does not be- lieve there is any reason to be- Iiev2 that the people would want to be uprooted from it. He thinks the outside world has been unjustifiably excited by signs of dissent. What there is of it is confined to a very small number of people whose "politi- cal objectives are limited, phil- osophy is incoherent and out- look on the world simplistic." They are not catalysts of change and may be excuses for the orthodox to be even more rigid and unyielding. The view of the Soviet Union provided by Dev Murarka i s neither encouraging nor de- pressing. It could be called ob- jective. DOUG WALKER. Melancholy McKuen Charming reference "Old Man's Garden" by Annora Brown (Gray's Pub- lishing Ltd., pages, rpHIS lovely book would be a bargain at twice the price. It is available at the modest figure indicated because it is a reprint (first published in An added bonus can be bed by purchasing the book at Leth- bridge's House of Books where autographed copies are avail- able. The author was honored at this year's convocation of the University of Lethbridge and does not need to be identified to the people of South Alberta. Her book probably docs not need description, either. No doubt it is treasured in many homes already. As one newly introduced to the drawings and text dealing with the flora of the prairie, I fully appreciate why the book has been rcpublished. Miss Brown has gathered together the references to each plant in the Indian legends, the records of the explorers, poetry, and botany books, and woven them with her own observations, !o make a charming reference book. Even the way the plants are grouped is delightful: Old Man's Medicine Bag; Old Man's Vegetable Garden; Dyes; etc. One cculd wish that Miss Brown's illustrations were in color but the drawings are so good that even newly interest- ed naturalists can make identi- fications. DOUG WALKER. "Rod McKuen at Cavncgie arranged and edited by Dan Fox, (George J. Mc- Leod Ltd., 127 pages, rnWENTY-NINE of American stager-composer Rod Mc- Kuen's works from his 1970 ap- pearance at Carnegie Hall get the full-production treatment in this useful if somewhat over- blown collection. Including the hits Love's Been Good to Me, Jean and If You Go Away, the music is mixed in with the usual breath- Eooks in brief "The Aardvark Aanthology" edited by Judi Walker (Letli- bridge Community College printing department, 30 pages, aardvark aanthology is a collection of poetry writ- ten by 23 Lethbridge Commun- ity College students. The poetry ranges from "okay" to "really okay" and.is worth every penny of its 35 cents. The book will be on sale at the college booth at the Lethbridge Whoop-Up days in the Youtharama build- ing. A Century of edited by .lolm Shaw. (The Daily Colonist, Victoria, 12S paps, Daily Colonist of Vic- toria, the oldest paper west of the Great Lakes, has put out this little book as part of its contribution to British Columbia's centenary. The volume is made up of original articles and cuts from the Colonist's weekly maga- zine, The Islander. They cover a wide variety of subjects and give a good slant into the his- torical background of the prov- ince. Tills is an interesting little book for B.C. residents as well as all people across Canada. MARGARET LUCKHURST less fan-type pictures of the sparrow voice McKuen, plus more art work than any musi- cian needs. The reader pays in inconven- ience what he gels in eye daz- zle. Many of the songs are given large play on the pages, making turns in the middle of the numbers necessary. Presumably to beef up the number of pages, and hence the book's price, every song is fol- lowed, on separate pages, with the words in poem form. McKuen is a writer of for- midable melancholia, which possibly accounts for his high rating among young fans, but he would be doing a lot more for them if he would put out either strictly a music collec- tion or a poetry collection, and not mix them up. JOAN BOWMAN. brought to his custody. After a year, when he refused to re- turn them to then- rightful owners, he had a sudden change of heart. He gave the paintings back and resign- ed the Premiership. The opposition refused to form a government, the police had no leadership, riots and violent disturbances broke out and again the British were forced to take over administration temporarily. Negotiations for a new constitution commenced aJl over again and finally a formula was reached accept- able to both sides. Malta be- came an independent monar- chical member of the Com- monwealth in 1964. Dom Mintoff is in office again, having made his peace with the church. (The Maltese church having found its busi- ness affairs in a hopeless tan- gle, followed Mintoff's advice and hired American business consultants, McKinsey and Co. to put them on a manageable Mr. Mintoff is wasting no time making new and threats, if the demands are not met. It is important to understand that Malta is not a member of NATO in spite of Mr. Diefenbaker's re c e n t statements. NATO's status has never been clearly spelled out since independence when it in- herited the allied naval head- quarters installed hi colonial times. It is the headquarters for HQ Allied Naval Forces Mediterranean, wlu'ch does not control the U.S. Sixth Fleet with headquarters in Mayfair. Whether Malta is essential to NATO combat effectiveness is in some doubt, but the symbol- ism of the allied presence is highly significant. The West would regard it as unaccept- able if the Russians were to get a grip on the islands. Mr. Mintoff has publicly denied any intention of allowing the Russians in, and he would be violently opposed by his gov- ernment and Us people if he did. He has continually reiter- ated his desire for neutrality far as neutrality is pos- sible. His overriding need is for more money fast. Tourism, Malta's second largest source of income, has declined dras- tically, principally because the British are no longer going there is such large numbers. When they were allowed only a meagre sum of money for travel abroad, they went to Malta because it too, is in the sterling area. Now that these restrictions have been lifted, British tourists are going else- where. The docks are now working again, after months of strike, but the workers want more money, and further as- surance of job guarantees in the future. When the 55 members of the Maltese Parliament assemble soon, in their exquisite Cham- ber, hung with Gobelin tap- estries inherited from the Knightly past, Mr. Mintoff is going to have to present a con- crete plan for a new long term agreement which will meet Malta's economic needs. In or- der to get it he must assure Great Britain that Maltese fa- cilities will be denied the Rus- sians and will -remain avail- able to meet essential Western strategic requirements. If he can't do this, he's going to run into very rough trouble with Parliament in which he has a majority of only one. Most British newspapers think that Mintoff will get more money. They are not tak- ing an alarmist view of his with the Russians and view them as political black- mail emphasizing his demands for an updated agreement and more money which they think he will get. This remains to be seen. What is certain now is that there's going to be lots of tough talk ahead before it's all over. Attacking the problem "Indian Education: A Na- tional Tragedy A National Challenge" (U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office, 220 pERSISTANCE was re- quired to produce this re- port by the special Senate sub- committee on Indian education in the United States. The com- mittee lost its first three chair- men: Sanator Robert F. Ken- nedy, by assassination; Sena- tors Wayne Morse and Ralph Yarborough, through election defeats. Finally, in the fall of 1969, the committee completed its study and produced its re- port under Senator Edward Kennedy. Not only did the committee find Indian education in a de- pressing state; it, had to face the discouraging fact that other studies had been made in which high hopes for improve- ment had been expressed but which had virtually come to nought. Nevertheless the com- mittee bravely made 60 recom- mendations for a new assualt on the immense task of up- grading Indian education. Recognizing that improved education will not be achieved without attention to other mat- ters, there are recommenda- tions for attacking the prob- lems of poor living conditions, employment, alcoholism, etc. Perhaps of greatest interest to Canadian readers is the em- phasis on returning education to the Indian communities where Indians can take greater responsibility for running schools and where bilingual teaching might: have a greater chance of implementation. Persons responsible for In- dian education in Canada will he acquantcd with this report. Attention is drawn lo it. here so that the wider public inter- ested in this subject. n-Jghl get the report and study it. DOUG WALKER. Focus on the University By J. W. FISHBOURNB The cart before the horse? TkOUBT may well be "the beacon of the as Shakespeare claimed, but it is an insidious sort of thing. Like the vice of which Pope spoke so eloquently (my, aren't we getting once you -en- tertain it, it tends lo grow and grow until you become skeptical about almost every- thing. Just to show you how serious an ad- vanced case can be, lately I have found myself harboring doubts as to the in- fallability of the Economic Council of Can- ada. See how bad it can get? It is ac- ceptable even fashionable to ques- tion the wisdom of governments, the good intentions of labor (or management, if you and even the established church is not entirely immune, but to question the ultimate wisdom of the Economic Council of Canada is very close to sacrilege. Let me explain. Back in the early 60's, I think it was, it was the Council that provided the impetus for the dramatic ex- pansion in University enrolment. II com- piled all sorts of economic and educational indices, for Canada, Hie U.S.A. and a few other places, and observed a remarkable co-relation between levels of education and productivity. A high standard of education among the populace, it seemed, goes hand in hand with economic growth, high GNP and a satisfying level of affluence, the Council also noted that Canada has al- ways lagged well behind the U.S.A. in educational levels, and that American economic indices are generally higher than Canada's. It concluded, therefore, that what Canada needed to enjoy the high standards as those south of the bor- der, was more and higher-level education. The Federal government was impress- ed (and perhaps not unaware of the re- lationship between staying in school and claims on the Unemployment Insurance Commission) and set about encouraging more and better pnst-secondary education. Not having jurisdiction in the field of edu- cation, it offered the provinces the only tiling it As is their custom, the provinces sniffed suspiciously for a while, but then an exciteable Frenchman denounced the idea as just another En- glish plot to destroy Quebec's education, culture, language and probably the virtue of its womenfolk. This naturally reassured the Western provinces anything damn- ed in Quebec cannot be all bad so Fed- eral assistance to financing of post-sec- ondary education began. Now that Federal money was available, everyone quickly got aboard Ihe band wagon. Building programs were launched, matriculation requirements lowered, pro- grams lengthened. Institutions themselves weren't so enthusiastic at first, but the reluctant were quickly won over by a sys- tem of per-student financing. So the big rush to education and affluence was on. Enrolments at universities doubled and tripled, and at the college and trades school level increased even faster. Up until now. But somehow, we don't seem to be liv- ing happily ever afterwards. We aren't any more affluent, the gross national prod- uct isn't at all spectacular, our economic growth is more sluggish lhan ever, and we have more unemployed well edu- cated unemployed, mind you than we have had for years. What do you suppose went wrong? Well I am sure that the Economic Council can give us a perfectly logical explanation. 1 am equally confident that anyone of 147 Economists can come up with equally per- totally different, of course- answers. Doubtless they will. Not being an economist, I am naturally unable to explain these mysteries myself, but I cannot help wondering about one minor little point. Remember this all start- ed by someone noticing that well educated nations are prosperous nations, and con- cluding that to be affluent you must send the kids to school. Well, just suppose for a momenl that il is Ihe other way around, that the affluence has to come first. That would mean, instead of high levels of edu- cation leading to affluence, that it was only affluent nations that can afford to spend a lot of money on education. In short, that the Economic Council had got the cart be- fore the horse. A sobering thought, that, and one which goes counter to what we've been told, for lo, these many years. It would be nice to dismiss it, and perhaps I there's some real evidence that it's wrong. The Voice Of One -By DR. FRANK S. MORLEY Canada's crying need 'T'HE crying need of Canada is for a re- turn to Puritanism. Every society and civilization has been made great by its Puritans and when Puritanism declined so did the culture. The Greek and Roman are two obvious examples. Lecky is only one of the many who describes how British democracy was the child of Puritanism: "in ages when all virtue seemed corroded and when apostasy had ceased to be a stain, they clung fearlessly and faithfully to the banner of her freedom." In Europe, especially West Germany, the cry is for political theology. To the Puri- tan all theology is political theology. As Lecky says, "It is to Puritanism that we mainly owe the fact that in England reli- gion and liberty were not dissevered." An ode by Horace shows how true this was in ancient Rome "Because you consider yourself subject to the gods you rule the world. This is the foundation of every- thing." This unity of politics and religion in the Roman state led to Christians be- eing accused as "atheists." To label politi- cal structures as divine is, of course, blasphemy and a "national religion" is a wicked thing. It is equally true that when a political power sets itself up in absolute independence of religion, as in Russia and as it tacitly does in Canada and the United States, it becomes an idol exceed- ingly dangerous and prey to corruption. The revolt against Puritanism shows its malign effects not only in the unspeakably foul stuff that passes as literature, in jun- gle music, in disordered art, in bestial morality, in social approval of homosexual- ity and abortion, and in the destruction of the home. It is apparent in the mindless violence of the time. Violence breeds vio- lence and destroys all decent human rela- tionships. Hatred and crime cannot pro- duce a happier and humane society. As Emerson said, "Ends pre-exist in the means." A favorite theme of Jacques Bar- zun is the war against the intellect which appears in the deterioration of language. Where language loses integrity and deter- iorates as ours has done, coherence and logic decline, there is a loss of articulate precision, and the intellect sickens and dies. Vague words and fractured grammar mean incoherent thought The decline of Puritanism spells the de- cline of both justice and liberty. In Canada a spectacular illustration was the casual abrogation of the basic rights of citizens, in the U.S. the contemptible treatment of Muhammed All (Cassius and in Great Britain in the arbitrary deportation of Rudi Dutsehke though one could find scores of examples. Acquitted unanimously by the Supreme Court All has been held up to public disdain, lost four years of income, the cost of appeals has been 000, and he has had to live with the threat of five years' imprisonment over his head. What happens to the dictum that justice should not be delayed? As for the expulsion of Rudi Dutschke by the British Government, it makes mockery of the Puritan boast that England had been established as a sanctuary for refugees from political persecution throughout the world. The tribunal heard prominent doc- tors testify to his health, eminent acade- micians to his scholarship, and leading churchmen to his character. The Govern- ment deported him, however, on the ground that his presence might lead to fu- ture trouble! The Sunday Times bitterly at- tacked the decision and the Observer com- mented, "The handling of this case has already done more harm to British demo- cratic traditions than Mr. Dutschke's con- tinued presence could ever do." The gov- ernment acted in panic, motivated by ru- mor, against a very fine young man. In such a state of mindlessness, it is not surprising that the Methodist chaplain at the University of North Carolina advo- cates a departure from "narrowly rational- istic theologies" to embrace Eastern reli- gions! In Calcutta they are taking up col- lections, not for starving human beings, but for starving cows. The chaplain shud- ders at how such a negative element in Christianity such as the crucifixion must strike a Buddhist and suggests "the mys- tic quiet or Dionysian celebration." Such an escape from meaning, responsibility, and humane relationship cannot solve any- thing. To the contrary. Only a return to Puritanism can cleanse and save society. No, not that! By Dong Walker IT is getting so that going to Jack and Anne McCracken's home is becoming something of a war of nerves. Early in the new year, the McCracken family was joined one evening by the Bes- sie and Walker families for fun and games. The first game announced by Anne was charades. There is only one game I hate worse than charades and that is the thing calling for the passing of an orange from neck to neck! We had to play charades despite the groans. Recently when we arrived at the Mc- Cracken door, Anne greeted us with the cry, "Good, now we cai play I might have thought she was making a serious proposal if I hadn't noticed Bessie already seated in the living room. Anne knows be hates the game as much as I do.