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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - July 8, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta Wtdntiday, July I, 1970 THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD 5 Robert Stephens Can Britain Succeed In Europe T UXEMBOURG A chill wind blew around the sky- scraper building of the Euro- pean Centre here in Luxem- bourg as the European foreign ministers arrived for the for- mal opening of negotiations to enlarge the European Commu- nity from six States to 10 by the inclusion of Britain, Ire- land, Denmark and Norway. Was it an omen or will Bri- tain and the other candidates succeed in their third attempt in nine years to enter the Com- mon Market? As the' chief spokesman of the European Six, the Belgian Foreign Minister, M. Pierre Harmel, who is the current chairman of the EEC Council of Ministers, recalled it was Winston Churchill who, in a speech at Zurich in 1946, first sounded the call for a Europe united through the reconcilia- tion of wartime enemies. But when the then-French Foreign Minister, Robert Schuman, pro- posed the first pragmatic step towards European unity through the formation of a Franco-German coal and steel pool in 1950, Britain held back. Britain maintained this reserve throughout the negotiations of the following eight years, which led to the Treaty of Home by which France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Hol- land and Luxembourg formed the European Economic Com- munity. (Popularly known as the Common Market, the EEC is now merged with Euratom and the European Coal and Steel Pool into t'ne jointly ad- ministered "European Com- The Rome Treaty followed an unsuccessful attempt by Britain to persuade the Euro- pean States to join in a wider European free trade area in- stead of a Common Market, and after the EEC was estab- lished Britain formed the Euro- pean Free Trade Area (EFTA) with six States' which were out- side the Common Market Austria, Sweden, Portugal, Denmark, Norway and Switzer- land. Yet while Britain thus stood aloof from moves towards eco- nomic integration in Western Europe she had in other re- spects, especially military and political, led the way towards European co-operation. Al- though, like France, she had rejected the idea of a Euro- pean Defence Community with an integrated European Army, preferring integration within the North Atlantic Treaty Or- ganization (NATO) including the United States, in 1954 she had, in the treaties setting up the Western European Union, accepted for the first time in her history a commitment to maintain a military force on the European continent indefi- nitely. By the beginning of the 60s, the British government, than under Harold Macmillan, be- gan to change its mind about the Common Market, for it be- came evident that the Market would be a going concern, and that unless Britain joined a powerful new European politi- cal grouping would emerge dominated by a Franco-Ger- man partnership. This led the Macmillan gov- ernment to open negotiations in 1901 tor possible entry into the Common Market. But after 18 months of hard, detailed bargaining, conducted by the present British Prime Minister, Mr. Edward Heath, British en- try was abruptly vetoed by General de Gaulle. The Gener- al saw in Macmillan's agree- ment with'President John Ken- nedy on the supply of Polaris atomic missiles a proof that Britain was still "Anglo-Saxon" rather than European, and that if admitted to the Common Market she would be only an American "Trojan horse." De Gaulle's action and his opposition to supra-national in- tegration in either Europe or in NATO, as well as his general foreign policy of coolness to- wards American and rap- prochement with Russia, led to a prolonged crisis within the Common Market itself. Feather For Indians From The Saskatoon Star-Phoenis Indian people of Sas- katchewan and, indeed, of all western Canada have rea- son to be proud of Melvyn La- Vallee, a full-blooded Indian, who recently graduated in medicine from the University of Saskatchewan. Born on the Cowessess He- serve in t h e Broadview area, Dr. LaVallee worked his way up through the various levels of education and finally to grad- uation from a discipline which is difficult and demanding and which yearly sees many of those who would attempt it fall by the wayside. Following his internship, his present plans are to practice in northern Alberta or Saskatch- ewan, but there are others who will make the efforts to see him become a surgeon after study abroad. Undoubtedly, Dr. La- Vallee will be able to do much among his people, as a physi- cian and surgeon, to further their welfare, but the task is a formidable one for a lone work- er. Where, perhaps, he may ac- complish his greatest good is in the inspiration which his suc- cess in this fine profession can bring to young Indians. He will be living proof to them that, given any kind of opportunity, an Indian can rise above the status of mediocrity which has been forced upon him by the white man. His ex- ample to them can do more to raise the Indian in the social scale than thousands of words of windy rhetoric. The onus lies upon the pro- vincial and federal govern- ments to do all possible to see that young Indians be given the opportunities which will help them follow in Dr. LaVallee's footsteps. In the British Labor gov- ernment, encouraged by the need to find new solutions for Britain's economic problems, decided to try again and ap- plied formally for membership of the European Communities. It hoped to force de Gaulle's hand with the help of the other Common Market governments, especially after the departure of Dr. Konrad Adenauer from the West German Chancellor- ship. But once again Britain ran into a French veto. Then, in the summer of 1968, the situation began to change dramatically. The French stu- dent "revolution" shook de Gaulle's position at home. The flight from the franc which fol- lowed showed the vulnerability of the French economy and its need for the Common Market and for German financial sup- port. After de Gaulle's- electoral defeat and replacement by President Pompidou, and the emergence of the Social Demo- crat coalition government in Bonn urder Chancellor Willy Brandt, the trend towards end- ing tha stagnation of the Euro- pean Community and the mal- aise created by the barring of British'entry gathered momen- tum. The trend was acceler- ated by the fact that ur.der the Rome Treaty the Common Market was supposed to end its transitional period by the be- ginning of 1970. This entailed not only establishing a full customs union, but also com- pleting the agricultural com- mon market and the arrange- ments for financing the com- munity's operations, especially in agriculture. In December 1969, at the suggestion of Presi- dent Pompidou, tha Common Market held a summit meeting at The Hague. There they agreed on the triple aims of completing the Common Mar- ket, developing it through the growth of economic and mone- tary union, and enlarging it through' the admission of new members. In practical terms, it was a compromise by which the French agreed to the open- Red or Blue Brand SIRLOIN STEAK IB. 1 .29 Prime Rib Roast Red or Blue Brand Ib. Beef Rib Steak Red or Blue Brand Ib. Pork Chops 99c Sausage B.m.hira ..........n, 59c Pork Loin Roast BOI..I.. ib. 99c Bologna By the 49c Garlic Sausage........... 65c Frozen Chicken ,b 39c Orange Juice Sweet Peas 4 89c 89c n Malkins Fancy M 14-oz Oft- Green Beans snced 4 Tin, 89c Special K Keiioggs.......n-oi. Pkg. PURITAN MEAT BALI STEW WIENERS AND BEANS SPAGHETTI BEEF STEW 2 L TINS BANANAS .00 61 ORANGES California Valencia 7 1.00 69C 2 NEW POTATOES cNr1a.......10 big 89c California sanla Rosa California Canada No. 1 Bleach 47c Cola...........64-oz. container Instant Coffee Nabob... ,0..z. Plum Jam uamm..........4..b Tin 99c GRAHAMS FOOD MARKET 708 3rd AVENUE SOUTH GROCERIES 327-5434, 327-9431 MEATS 327-1812 OPEN THURSDAY TILL 9 p.m. PHONE AND SAVE FREE DELIVERY But in other respects the si- tuation is worse for Britain. The system of agricultural fi- nancing agreed on at The HEgue summit would, if ap- plied to Britain unchanged, mean an enormous burden on the British consumer and tax- payer. Because Britain is the world's biggest importer of food she would find herself paying something like half of the total sum levied by the Common Market to finance ag- ricultural support prices, and so to subsidize European farm- ers. This process last year cost million and has led to the piling up of huge farm sur- pluses. The British hope it may be possible to negotiate a reduc- tion of this potential burden, at least during th'e transitional pe- riod before Britain assumes the full obligations of the Common Market. This will undoubtedly be the most crucial point in the forthcoming talks. The British government made it plain in the opening statement here by Anthony Barber, Minister for European Affairs, that unless a fair solu- tion were found for this prob- lem it would be unable to join the Market. The European Community on its side had laid down the principle that the talks should be concerned sole- Jy with .transitional arrange- ments and not with the basic structures of the Common Mar- ket, the customs union and ag- ricultural financing, already agreed upon by the Six. But the British also count on the recog- nition by the Six that the pre- sent farm policy is in the long run too expensive for everyone concerned and that a more vigorous attempt should be made to reduce surpluses by applying the plan for-stream- lining agricultural production produced by Sicco Marisholt, the Dutch vice-president of the European Commission. Simi- larly, the British hope that the program for economic and monetary union now being discussed by the Six will not have crystallized into any un- acceptable form before Britain enters the community arid is able to have a say in its de- velopment. The other two main problems are relations with the Common- wealth and with those EFTA countries which have not ap- plied for membership of the community. The central Com- monwealth issue is how New Zealand is to sell her butter and cheese, most of which now goes to Britain under a prefer- ential tariff system, if Britain adopts the same protective bar- riers as the Common Market. A similar problem arises with the Commonwealth countries, primarily Jamaica and Mauri- tius, which are heavily depen- dnet on sugar exports to Bri- tain and have an agreement with her lasting until 1974. Then there is the question of association with the Common Market for some independent African members of the Com- monwealth on the lines already applied to 18 African States, all former European colonies, through the Yaounde Conven- tion. But while these bread-and- butter questions are vital, tha degree to which the Six or Bri- tain are prepared to make eco- nomic concessions' will prob- ably depend in the last resort on how far they are attached to the political of build- ing a bigger and revitalized European Community which might produce, in the words of the retiring President of the European Commission, the Bel- gian Jean Key, "a united and reconciled continent, having its own institutions, its own laws1, strong at home, generous abroad, a force of stability, peace and progress in Uie world." (Written for The Herald and The Observer, London) TD-A 1J44A vo IB ing of talks with Britain and the resumption of movement to- wards the economic and politi- cal unity desired by their Com- mon Market partners and the European Commission, in re- turn for a definitive settlement of the system of financing the community's farm policy on lines favorable to French farm- ers. The door was thus opened to Britain's entry into the Euro- pean Community provided she could pay the economic price demanded. In this respect, the situation fa in some ways easier than in 1961, for example as regards the problem of ster- ling balances and the position of some of the bigger Common- wealth countries, such as Aus- tralia and India. The latter have already either begun to make their own arrangements with the Common Market or to develop other markets which have made them less dejVm- dent upon Britain. How Much Wheat? From The Winnipeg Free Press A RECENTLY completed Free Press survey shows that the amount of wheat stored on prairie farms has been much exaggerated. This has come about through a number of factors, including the bootleg- by farmers of then- wheat through outlets other than the Canadian Wheat Board. The farmer is as honest as the next man. But in recent years he has found himself hedged by so many rules and regulations that he feels frustrated. Added to his frus- tration is his present painful economic sit- uation. Farmers are resourceful, and most of them are rugged individualists. These characteristics have reasserted themselves in the face of the wheat glut. One way or another the farmer has disposed of a sub- stantial quantity of his wheat. By doing so he has made a shambles of DBS estimates of the surplus. There are indications that the Wheat Board, while accepting the DBS estimates, is becoming suspicious of them. The deci- sion this year to make aerial surveys of farms and to hold elevator operators, as well as farmers, responsible for irregular- ities in delivery looks like a desperate mea- sure to correct a situation that is now out of hand. The board appears to be trying to stop the breaking of regulations by impos- ing new ones. But as the recent task force on agricul- ture suggested, what is needed is not more regulation but less. The quota delivery sys- tem itself needs to be looked at and in connection with other farm products as well as wheat. (The fact that the board is now offering a 16-bushel quota on barley is a case in point. Obviously there is less bar- ley in the country than had been antici- pated and quotas have had to be raised to meet the demand. Many fanners who sold their barley below the board price are now wishing they One recommendation of the tax force In- dicates distrust of the quota system. It is "that the grain delivery quota system bo used, if used at all, primarily as an instru- ment to facilitate the movement (within a given crop year) of grades of grain re- quired by the market and to provide for the equitable treatment of farmers unable to deliver grain during any specified period of time within a given crop year." But more than the quota system and tha plethora of regulations should be looked at. Based on the survey, there appears to ba some need of a check on DBS estimates. The task force questioned DBS figures on the farmers' cost index the prices paid by farmers for goods and services. Perhaps the Wheat Board should begin to question estimales on farm-stored grain. At the mo- ment the board continues to accept these figures and use them as the basis for planning. The cabinet minister responsible for the Wheat Board, Otto Lang, has said he is dissatisfied with the wheat cut-back this year under Operation LIFT; even now his experts are working on a new plan (hopefully to be ready by August) for a further cut in wheat acreage next year. But if the amount of grain on farms is substantially less than DBS has calculated, this policy could have unforeseen results. A ten million acre reduction this year add- ed to a smaller than estimated surplus of grain on the farms drastically changes tha picture. A further cutback next year might not be at all necessary. Mr. Lang should make his own survey of the situa- tion before going ahead with any further plans. To commit the Wheat Board and farmers to an intensified LIFT program for 1971 without full and accurate knowledge of all the factors would be far from wise. Reducing Troops And Tensions From The Christian Science Monitor npHEHE has been no war on European soil for the past Z5 years. This is the longest such period of peace in modern times. Is this merely the result of great good fortune, or the balance of power be- tween the United1 States and the Soviet Union, or is it traceable to a gradual but growing realization on Europe's part that, despite its many remaining differences and tensions, it must find peaceful means of settling its rivalries. Although good fortune and the balance of power have been important factors in this long period of European peace, we hope that we shall not be deemed either naive or overoptimistic if we express the conviction that more positive factors1 are also at work. We believe, in fact, that the peoples of Europe, for many varying rea- sons, have increasingly come to see the desirability of living at peace, whatever the disagreements over ideology and terri- tory. Thus we refuse to look with a cynical eye on the possibility of some kind of ah agreement on troop reductions in Europe between the North Atlantic Treaty Orga- nization and the Communists' Warsaw Pact grouping. The latter has just indi- cated that it is willing to discuss such a cut with NATO. NATO has long hoped for such negotiations. Such talks, and even their exploratory preliminaries have not yet been agreed upon, would be long, thorny and hard- fought. Not only would such troop reduc- tions be a most difficult technical prob- lem (for example, should Russia being close to West Europe, withdraw a heavier percentage of troops than the United1 States, which is some miles away from Eastern but there are also accumulations of fear and mistrust which must be dealt with. Each side would obvi- ously move slowly and warily, fearful lest it find itself militarily and diplomatically boobytrapped. Yet, with the decreasing likelihood1 of war in Europe, the logic of troop reduc- tions, becomes more apparent. Such a de- velopment would be a reasonable next step in an even broader movement which is helping to lessen tension between Com- munist and non-Communist Europe and gradually bringing the two sides a bit closer together. This broader movement is compounded in part of the growing trade between East and West, the talks which West Germany is now having with the Soviet Union, Poland, and East Germany, and the mounting rhythm of cultural ex- change. If Europe is Increasingly ready to live at peace, a visible sign of this would be an eventual reduction of the number of troops which now face each other across the continent's ideological dividing line. Breathalyser Tests Need Rethinking From The Winnipeg Free Press rpHE SUPREME COURT decision that the breathalyzer law is valid will be warmly welcomed by the majority of the public anxious to remove the deadly haz- ard of drunken drivers from our highways. Stringent laws against drinking and driving have proved their worth in Britain and Scandinavia, and the appalling toll on Canadian highways that shows no sign of decreasing fully justifies the stand1 of the Canadian Medical Association, which de- mands compulsory blood checks in all se- rious accidents. Dr. William Ghent of Queens University pointed out in Winnipeg recently that al- cohol probably accounts for one hah" of the yearly traffic deaths, and that in such circumstances one cannot be too fussy about the means by which to combat it. The phoney issue of the invasion of privacy, as well as the argument that some people can carry their drink better than others due to their particular meta- bolism, can hardly stand up against the annual figures of death and mutilations. What we are facing here is a war by the drunk against the innocent, law-abiding user of the highway, and under such war conditions certain rights have to be abro- gated. A plea of invasion of privacy has a singularly hollow ring to the man whose entire family was wiped out in a traffic accident caused by a drunk, or to the fam- ily of a breadwinner, who, because of a similar accident, was turned into a vege- table to be kept hospitalized at consider- able expense to the tax-payer first and later to his family. However, tlu's does not mean that all rights of Canadian citizens should be abro- gated, and there is much truth in the dis- senting judgment of Mr. Justice Ritchie that the impossibility of an Independent check has deprived an accused of the right to make a full defence to the charge. This is an important point since a sealed box with a person's breath enclosed in it will not be easy to devise, and, moreover, both breathalyzers and policemen are fal- lible. One wonders why the Canadian breathalyzer legislation that adopted, a great part of the British law did not go the whole hog and adopt all the provisions of the relevant British act. The British were equally concerned that an accused person be not deprived of his defence. Thus, in Britain, the breathalyzer test pro- vides merely a prima facie evidence that allows a policeman to arrest the driver and take him to the police station where he has to submit either to a blood or a urine test, at his own discretion. In either case, sealed samples are provided for him for independent analysis. This is not a foolproof system either, since mailing of these samples to labora- tories may cause chemical changes, but at least both defence and prosecution are then on equal footing. Moreover, blood or urine tests are far more reliable than breathalyzer tests. Obviously, it may be more difficult to obtain a doctor to take the tests in Canada than it is in densely populated Britain with its system of police surgeons, but a urine sample, for instance, would not require any particular medical skills and could be carried out even in a rural police station. The whole matter ob- viously needs rethinking. There is room for improvement, but issues of civil liberties and invasion of privacy only confound a grave problem that is one of the curses of our mechanized civilization a cursa that needs liftirg by whatever means are available. ;