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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - July 6, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta Thursday, July 6, 1972 THE LETHBRIDGE HMAL6 5 Five-hour day instead of four-day week By Helen Bridle, In The Ottawa Journal TSN'T it amazing that in our society, which claims to function on a system of free choice, we are actually consid- ering a radical change in our social rhythm without any alter- native? Why must the rive-day week automatically become tliu four-day week? Arc Micro not alternative ways of organizing our time? This is to propose that serious consideration he Riven to tlio five-hour day. There arc many possible reasons ar.d before be- ing projected into the tour-day week wouldn't it he best to con- sider alternative options? is the five-hour day? The external features might be as follows: the total 24 hours of the day could be regarded as havijig a possible eight hours for sleep, and potentially three shifts or sectors of five hours each for action of one kind or another with a one-hour cushion of non-allocated time. The three sectors could run until noon for the first shift; another from noon until 5 p.m.; and a third from 5 to 10 p.m. Alternatively in towns and cities the "activity" hours could begin at, say, 9 a.m. and stretch tlirough until midnight if a ma- jority of people so preferred. Ideally it should be possible to retain, the five-day week and offer everyone the opportunity for work during a five-hour per- iod each day but it might be necessary, at least in the ini- tial short term, not to exclude the possibility of a six-day week traditionally to enable certain people to earn enough basic income. Alternatively the live-day week, with the five-hour day could embrace some people who so chose working two five- hour shifts totalling fen hours, and these workers could earn more at present wage scales than is now the case. The basic element of the scheme, how- ever, would remain the five- hour day. Basically, what are the rea- sons for the five-hour day? The main reason is that it would introduce a greater flexibility for the individual in adapting to changing needs and chang- ing values than does either the present system, Hie eight-hour day. or the four-day (ten or twelve-hour) week. One feature of Ihe five-hour day could be that educational facilities and leisure group ac- tivities, convivial social groups, could function during the day- time five-hour sectors, or five- hour shifls, as well as during the evening sector, if finances proved adequate. In connection with the edu- cational program, it might be possible to think of more specif- ic prerequisite studies for chil- dren in the primary school when they arc expected to go to school anyway, so that ?ach person gels a very basic mini- mum knowledge for his even- tual adult needs. And then in the secondary schools, colleges and universities remove Ibc de- mand of the school structure for pre-rcquisilefi and allow any- body, of whatever age, to at- tend secondary school or col- lege or university for shorter or longer periods of time, ac- cording to the individual's choice. if an average family were to depend entirely on the income from a single five-hour shift nt present wages it would be able to satisfy nothing more than bri.sic needs. On the other hand since a large number in the labor force are working mothers, either in this way, or through the father On runaways to Canada jlfOST of the talk about am- nesty for draft dodgers and military deserters is corning from people in the United States. Very little is coming from the exiles themselves. Tliis is one of Ihe salient facts to be learned from "War Kesislers the first, and possibly only, fair and in- depth inquiry into the exper- iences, attitudes, present lives and future hopes of the thous- ands of young Americans who fled to Canada to escape the draft or service in Vietnam. The book, published by the K n o x, Pennsylvania, Free Press, is based on extensive interviews in nine Canadian ci- ties in 1970-71 by Kenneth Fred Emerick, assistant professor- librarian at Clarion (Pa.) State College. Emerick focuses on 33 war resisters as a representative sample of a total exile popula- tion estimated at between 000 and in Canada alone. Of the 33, 21 were de- serters from the aimed forces (he calls them military resis- tor) and 12 were draft dodgers (draft Only one of the 33 expressed a desire to return to the United States to live. To say that the study Is fair is not to say that it is objec- tive. Emerick does not dis- guise his pro-resister bias. He also shares the resistors' con- viction that America is devel- oping into a fascist police state. Sample: "It is becoming al- Don Oakley, NBA Service most as necessary to dis- play the [lag "in the land of the free' as it was to exhibit the swastika in Germany." This is another thing made clear by the took. Opposition to the Vietnam war was only one factor in the decision by these young men to abandon their native country. With varying degrees of intensity and logic, they are disgusted with the American way of life and of government, with pollu- tion as much as with racism. They believe America is on the way down, and out. Hence their emphatic rejec- tion of amnesty which be- comes a more and more aca- demic question, anyway, as they become more established in their new lives. Another, and perhaps the most important, fact is that these men are not bums or freaks or misfits or cowards. Some are decorated Vietnam veterans who had only weeks or months to go before honor- able discharge. Emerick reserves lus highest admiration, however, for the draft resislers, who, he be- lieves, exhibited a higher moral sensitivity and courage in their refusal to go along with America's "Vietnam in- sanity" from the beginning. "Still, the reader can find in- advertent compliments to the United States behind the anti- American harangues. For instance, none of the re- sisters had any difficulty leav- ing the country. And in a sec- lion of the War Measures Act of 1970, when Prime Minister Trudeau suspended the civil liberties of Canadians in res- ponse to terrorist activities by Quebec separatist, even Em- crick admits that such a thing could not happen in the United States. This is not the first time that Americans have migrated en masse to Canada. As Em- erick notes, thousands of col- onists the United Empire Loyalists fled during the Revolutionary War and their Canadian descendants are just- ly proud of them. But one tiling the modern exiles seem unable to under- stand is that the United States is not Canada. For many res- sons, none of which has any- thing to do with the character of Canadians, the democracies do not look to Canada for lead- ership. Canada did not have to choose to intervene or not in- tervene in Southeast Asia against a threat, or supposed threat, to world freedom. Spar- ed such a choice, Canada was also spared its consequences. Perhaps in time the war re- sisters will lose some of their bitterness toward their former country. And perhaps, through the help of a hook like "War Resisters Americans can come to understand what motivated them. But first, both sides have to stop the deprecatory name cal- ling, the simplistic generaliza- tions and the hate. think PART IV PICTURE QUIZ 5 POINTS I am a Latin American leader making my first visit to the Soviet Union since 196-4. What's my name and title? HOW DO YOU RATE? II lo 100 polnll TOP tCOREI II to 90 polnll Emllint. 71 lo 10 polnti Good. 61 to 70 polnll Flir. 60 or UfflMrl 11 H'mml FAMILY DISCUSSION QUESTION What effect would government-Imposed wage ana price controls have on the national economy? YOUR NEWS QUIZ PART I NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Give yourself 10 points for each correct answer. 1 External Affairs Minister Mitchell Sharp la expected to visit the People's Republic of this cummer to officially open a 2-week.. 7.. a-exhlbltton hockey series b-Canadian trade fair c-envlronment conference 2 Manitoba's proposed Labor Relations Act would (CHOOSE ONE: take away, strengthen) the pro- vincial cabinet's power to prevent a strike by declaring that certain workers are providing essential service, I According to the Science Council of Canada, pollution of the St. Lawrence River IE a (CHOOSE ONE: serious, relatively minor) problem. 4 According to the agreement worked out between the CBC and Its striking technicians, employees are guaranteed continued employment should their Jobs become obsolete through, technologi- cal change. True or False? C The United States presidential race will enter Important stage when the (CHOOSE OtiE: Republican, Democratic) Party convenes July 10-13 to pick Its presidential candidate. PART II WORDS IN THE NEWS Take 4 points for each word that you can match with iU correct meaning. 1.....retroactive 2.....retrogress 3.....comply i.....deterrent a-go along viih b-somethlng that seems contradictory c-go backward d-effecLive earlier than when enacted e-something that Inhib- its or discourages PART III NAMES IN THE NEWS Take 6 poinU for names that you can correctly match with the clues. 1.....Jean Chretien t.....A. Maxwell Hen- derson B.....James Wah-shca O'Conuell 8.....Lloyd Barber 73-72 g-lilnlster ol Labor b-Auditor-General c-indlan Claims Com- missioner d-Presldent, Indian Brotherhood of the Northwest Terri- tories c-Indlan Affairs Minis- ter 6 VEC, Inc. STUDENTS Save This Practice Examinalion! lu.jle Reference Material lor Exams. working two five-hour shifls, adequate income could be se- cured and the non-monetary benefits to the family, as a whole, could be enormous. The five-hour day would have the great advantage of offer- ing the mother a reasonable amount of outside work during a five-hour period, if there arc children, preferably on a dif- ferent shift from that of the husband. Both could share equally, if at different times, in earning, in looking after the children and child care costs paid to outsiders could be virtu- ally eliminated as a regular drain on the family earnings. For a young couple or single people, it would be possible to continue one's education for pleasure, or for re-training, without the indignity of going on welfare to get the retrain- ing, or the embarrassment of being thrown out of the re- training program if he has not met the examination standard during the period of the gov- ernment subsidy which he now receives. Alternatively, the individual could quite simply learn a side- line avocation for the fun ol it. He could get the training to start up a small business of his own, initially perhaps working a ten-hour shift to raise capital for his project. Then he could use the second or even third shift to carry out his indepen' dent enterprise, on an experi- mental basis, while holding the basic job which provided his minimum needs. Eventually he could supple- ment his basic income with some derived from his private undertaking, or switch 10 it en- tirely. Professional and executive people could, if they would, ar- range their lives to fit into such a system. Many executive hours and activities hardly cor- respond to the hours of workers with the exception of immedi- ate supervisors. For either business or person- al reasons people in these groups might prefer to stay with a more conventional work- ing day. Even they, however, might find advantages in a five- hour day system. Professional and executive of- fices could be used In the way university desks are now, with a cupboard or locker in each office for the papers or belong- ings of each user of the office, but the cost of rent and equip- ment could be diminished for the professional user by one person using the locale on the morning shift, his associate us- ing it in the afternoon, a third using it in the evening. Either professional or execu- tive might find the system at- tractive from the point of view of use of leisure lime. Instead of playing golf on weekends and even being prevented then when it could play any day in the free shift. In the realm of work an em- ployer could share his know- how with another colleague thus having an alternate in the management picture, encourag- ing alternative input ol creative ideas and facilitating alterna- tive opportunities for on-the-job executive training. Policy decisions could still be taken at the present level of the executive, whatever that might he, and the owner-man- ager would not be prevented from having the final word in decisions of policy. The large industrial enter- prise would probably gain more than it would lose from such flexibility. It could function with as many shifts as its managers thought suitable even the maxi- mum of three, without paying overtime. Work and play could be shar- ed more equally, among single people as well as by married people, by families, by employ- ers and employees, in factories and outside them, by men and by women. Is it not possible that govern- ment In co-operation with labor, management and interested people might try a pilot project using the five-hour day? 'Crazy Capers' Safe boating: nonsense to sense By harry Bennett CAFE BOATING for the ancient sailor involved much more than a knowl- edge of the sea, skill at handling a boat and common sense. Early boatsmcn saw ill-omens in every shadow, under every wave and above every cloud. Safety for them meant con- the right kind of sacrifice, carry- ing t'ne proper cargo, consulting with a magician and a lot of luck and good for- tune in avoiding prowling sea-monsters. Modern man, especially modern man of the sea, traded superstition for machinery and fate for power. He replaced God-con- trolled wind power for man-controlled steam power. Safely a matter of tangible com- mon sense and good judgment, rather than spiritual superstition and fear. Sailors learned to watch for reefs, not monsters; to look at the weather, not a and to read scientific instruments, not carved whale bones. This week is Safe Boating Week and all boaters are asked to use their heads ar.d their judgment to help prevent boating ac- cidents. Boating perils still exist, but they are in machinery, fuel, boats and their operators, not some spirit. Boats, misused, can be as dangerous as cars when misused and similar precau- tions must be exercised. Boating and drinking don'! mix. Speeding in crowded areas can be fatal it takes a greater distance for a boat to stop than a car travelling at an equal speed. If in a boat, don't smoke whlla filling or checking a fuel tank. Don't approach an anchored craft, a sail boat, or a canoe or a row-boat at high speeds they can't manoeuver as fast as a powered vessel and the wake could upset them. Always carry one Ministry of Transport approved life vest or jacket for each pas- senger, and make sure all swimmers know how to use them. Make sure all non-swim- mers have one on at all times Don't use inflatable toys as life preser- vers. If in a boating accident don't panic fear is the worst killer of all. In a situation resulting from an over- turned boat stay witli it. A group of people floating by an overturned boat is easier to see than one person adrift by himself. Above all use common sense and think before taking any sort of risk in a boat. On the use of words Theodore Bernstein rplIE GROWING -isms. The suffix -ism is coming into increasing use. Words like consumerism, racism and sexism are common these days, but some of (hem are so new that they have not yet made their way info dictionaries. It's a safe bet that they will achieve recognition, however. The suffix covers a broad field, denoting action, practice, behavior, abnormal con- dition, doctrine, cult or adherence to a system or principle. It provides a kind of shorthand that is clear and useful. For in- stance, without the word consumerism one would have to resort to some such elabor- ate phrase as "adherence to the cause of asserting or defending the righls and inter- ests of the consumer." Without sexism one would have to fall back on male chauvinism [or maybe female which isn'" so bad, but is, after another ism. The language does keep growing. gested the teeth of a lion and so the word came into flowery speech. That and who. The impression seems to be widespread that it is improper to use thai as a pronoun referring to people: that it must be who. A woman reader in Syn- cote. Pa., writes that her "pet peeve" is to hear people say such things as, "There are girls that are pretty and girls that are not." She says she was taught to use who for people and that for things. Her teacher must have been the notorious Miss Thistle- bottom, who was always frightening her pupils with hobgoblins. The truth is that who is restricted to people and which to things, but that may be used for either. Centuries ago the Bible gave us such phrases ae, "He that reproveth a and the word has been used in that way at least since then. The pronoun that may be used in referring to generic, as con- trasted with particular, people. Thus, it is quite proper to say. "Everyone that saw the game was tlu-illed." Of course, you could use who in that sentence if you were of a mind to. Word oddities. What's the connection be- tween a dandelion and a lion, to say nolh- ing of a dandy lion? More connection than you might at first think. The name of the flower comes from the Old French dent de lion, meaning literally tooth of the lion. Some old Frenchman thought that the sharply pointed leaves of the plant sug- Hof word. Flammable means the same tiling as Inflammable that is, readily ignited but it is not, as one authority seems to suggest, a late coinage; the Ox- ford English Dictionary records its use as far back as 1813. What is fairly recent is its promotion by fire underwriters as the better word for labelling such things as gasoline and cleaning fluid. The under- writers discovered that many people thought that the prefix in- of inflammable meant not as it does in such words as inactive, ineffectual, Incapable. But that's not the meaning here; it is in or into. Inflammable means roughly capable of going up in flame. However, since most people are not philologists, it was thought that flammable was the clearer word and thus the safer. Probably it is. Latter. Three things should be noted about the word latter. First, it means the second of two, not the last of three, five or whatever. Therefore, it is not proper to write, "The candidates are Smith, Jones and Doe and the latter is favored to win." Make it the last-named. Second, if you ira speaking of three persons, you should not refer to She latter two. The phrase latter two would be appropriate only if you had already mentioned a first two: "The bridge players will be John and Jane Smith and Henry and Mary Jones and the latter two arc favored to win." Third, use of latter often compels the reader to look back to see who or what is meant, and that can be annoying unless the sentence is a short, simple one. The reader won't object to repetition of a name or of a thing, but he may be irritated if he has to retrace his steps. Word oddities. There is nothing really odd about the origin of the word only, ex- cept that it is so simple and so obvious that most people would never think of it. The word derives from Old English ele- ments that meant one-ly. And that is just about what only means: in a class by it- self, alone, exclusively. As if you didn't know. (New York Times) E Algy again! ANSWERS ON REVERSE PAGE I didn't likn Hint crack about my wife. Cmi't you Uiink of a bruw w? IT seems I'm to have trouble with Algy. Algy, you'll remember, is the poor chap whose parents abandoned him in one school after another until he became in- curably educated, so that he keeps expect- ing words and even people to mean what they say. He cnmc to sec me again about those Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. Now I'd explained all about those talks as carefully as I could, and pointed out. that even though some of the details might look odd, the term "arms limitation" meant that sooner or later there was bound to be some sort of limitation on armaments. At the lime, he seemed lo mxlorsland it. all righl. hill thru he found this piece in the Great Falls Tribune; Washington The Senate Armed Ser- vices Committee approved Thursday most of a ?1.3 billion increase in the strategic weapons program thnt the ad- ministration contends is necessary lo maintain United States military strength in the wake of Ihe arms control agree- ment with Ihc Sovicl Union. So help me, Hint's word for word. Anoth- er one and one-third billion dollars for arms, because of arms control.' The article left no doubt that the agree- ment referred to was the result of the re- cent Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. It also said where the money ivas going, and not going; some million was for "ac- celerated development" of a new and dead- lier missile-launching and just under a half billion for engineering costs in conncclion with a new strategic bomber, but nothing for the moment for anti- ballislic missile prelection for Washington, an item specifically permilted under Ihe control agreement. I thought Algy might have several ques- tions to ask. but as it turned out he had only one. "Considering lh.nl. bombers and missile-launching submarines are strictly offensive he began, "and ADM installations are wholly defensive, can we conclude from this new appropriation thai the limilations they've; spent all this time discussing apply only lo defensive arma- ments, and that they cnn make all the offensive ones (hey There's only one lliing lo do about Algy, I guess, and that's to slop him reading foreign newspapers, ;