Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - July 5, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta
UN to probe Thunday, July 9, 1973 TKI UTHMIDOf HMUtft By Max Wilde, London Observer commentator VI GENEVA There are now about 300 American, European and Japanese worldwide multi- national corporations whose sales have been growing by about 10 per cent per annum, while the average Gross Na- tional Product ot all countries has been increasing at only about 5 per cent. Of the 100 largest economic units in the world, 50 are nation-states and 50 multi-nat'onal enterprises. These figures are issued in Geneva by the International Labor Organization, which is becoming increasingly con- cerned over the effect of this extraordinary growth. Certain industries have been by nature international from the outset, including the petro- leum, mining and plantation Industrie v where the raw ma- terial resources are abroad. Exploitation of these resources required international invest- ment of capital, and the ap- plication of technology not available in the extracting country. Such ventures were therefore undertaken to pro- vide a source of raw materials for home country' processing so that, as the economists ex- press it, the foreign operation was part of a firm's move to- wards "vertical integration." But, from the beginning of the century, a radical change took place and overseas invest- ment, particularly American, started to spread further into manufacturing. In 1901, the number of foreign manufac- turing subsidiaries of United States-controlled multinational enterprises was 47. Thirty- seven of these were in Europe, including the United Kingdom; six in Canada; three in Latin America; and one in a non- specified area. By 1960 there 988; by 1959 there were and by 1967 there were The largest growth was in Europe together with the United Kingdom, where the number leapt from 677 in 1959 to in 1967. As a consequence, direct American investment in for- eign countries experienced a similar growth. This amounted to million in doubling the 1960 total of U.S. direct investments abroad. But as an accompanying table hi the ILO survey shows, in West- ern Europe it almost quad- "VWiere do you get off challenging me? Who Jo you think you me, some kind of BOBBY ruplcd while in the six Com- mon Market countries it rose from million in 1960 to million in 1970. During these 10 years the increase in Africa was between three and four fold, in Asia and Canada about double, but only about 50 per cent in Latin America. Another measure of the growth of multinational busi- ness, the ILO survey says, is annual capital spending abroad on plant and equip- ment. Between 1965 and 1971 these annual expenditures of U.S. foreign subsidiaries al- most doubled to' mil- lion, while in Europe, and es- pecially the Common Market -countries, they rose even fast- er: from million in 1965 to million in 1971. It more than doubled in Japan, but rose only moderately in Canada and Latin America. In the 1960s France more than tripled its annual direct investments abroad, and Ger- many's increased nearly five times in the five years up to 1865. British net direct invest- ments abroad scarcely moved between 1960 and 1966 (from million to They even dropped between 1960 and 1962. Direct foreign investments by European countries abroad appear almost insignificant compared with those of the United States, but it is a dif- ferent story where indirect in- vestments are concerned. la 1970, according to the survey, the total of American long- term private assets in Europe antpunted to million, of which the mil- in direct physically tangible investments. Euro- pean assets in the United States, however, amounted to million, of which only million was in direct in- the remainder was in "paper investments" such as bonds, bank and other claims and, especially, in cor- porate stocks in the amount of minion. The attitude of the Interna- tional Labor Organization, which is a UN agency, is summed up in the survey by Mr. Wilfred Jenks, the direc- tor-general as follows: "For some the multinational cor- porations are an invaluable dynamic force and instrument for the wider distribution of capital, technology and em- ployment; for others, they are monsters which our prese_nt institutions, national and in- ternational, cannot adequately control; a law unto them- selves, which no reasonable concept of the public interest or social policy can accept. The debate between these views is as sharp within na- tions as among nations. It is particularly sharp in the homeland of so many iculti- national corporations, the United States of America. Our role in the matter is not to espouse either of these con- flicting views or any variant of them, but to provide an im- partial meeting-place where they can evolve pragmatically commonsense solutions for specific problems of an essen- tially international nature di- rectly within the competence of the ILO." Now, the ILO is to "under- take intensive and extensive studies" concerning issues raised by the social policy fol- lowed by multinational porations, and has called upon Book Reviews wen as em- pbmn' and workers' aaoona for necessary date. At the lame time, the United Nation ttaatt fe alto tackling the problem and it will be dis- Sodal Coundl at its meeting in Geneva m July. The UN ap- proach is more a legal than a social one, and is mainly con- cerned with the alleged inter- ference of multinational cor- porations in domestic politics (notably in Chile by the In- ternational Telephone and with fair business practices to ensure that host countries retain an adequate share of profits; and the need for international legislation, in the form of treaties and con- ventions, to curb the power of multinational corporations and regulate their conduct and practices. Preserve the north "The Life of The Far North" by William Fuller ant John C. Holmes. (McGraw-Hill, Ryerson Ltd., 232 pages. Without doubt this book is a sheer delight. Over 100 color photos and 25 black and white pictures plus numerous sketches highlight this book about the starkly, beautiful north. Fantastic shots of north- ern life, ranging from Feregme falcons and beavers to forest fires and wolves in the moon- light, make your" time spent between these covers worth, while. Add to this tiie tive, easily understandable text and you've got a winner. But, for the icing on the cake, this fantastically colorful book is only Unbelievable. You can buy two at this price and its still cheap. The Our Living World of Na- ture Series presents a book that covers the north like a blanket of snow. The seasons, the plants, the animals, the birds, the land itself are all de- tailed within these pages. It's a sad note to realize that as tiie authors delve into the intriguing worlds of the north- cm animals, almost without ex- ception, they add that this or that species is in danger of ex- tinction. Not content with push- ing the to the brink of obuvion, man, with all his knowledge, is now endangering the land teetf. Pipelines, roads and bufldmgs are an endanger- ing, or have endangered the And the oil tanker Manhattan wen envision gi- gantic ofl apffls in the Antic drcle of this huge vessel con- tinues to Invade this area. The north is home for many interesting animals and birds tiie muskbx, the caribou, the lemming, the golden plover (which nests on the tundra and whiten in New Zealand, Aus- tralia and The photographs of the floral of the area are just one more enjoyable facet of this fine book. GARRY ALLISON Diplomatic intrigue "Caprifofl" by William P. McGivera (Dodd, Head and Company Limited, 250 pages, Caprifoil is one of four inter- national agents, who at one tune was engaged in a danger- 1 "O 1858 ous mission of espionage in Germany. Later when the team split, things settled down and became quiet Suddenly Caprif oil disappears without a trace; Harry Adams dies a mysterious death with his face blue and his tongue sticking out Spence changes complexion a few times but escapes the results of his violence-inflicting existence. Ackerley, the serene, gentle- manly, shortsighted thief of well guarded secrets, sees death waiting for him also. The question who would like to aee them dead, and why? The path leads via an intri- cately wen-organized plot to three major powers negotia- ting with a formidable organi- zation of Arab guerrillas. They (the "Saracen have captured the French president and will release him only if nuclear warheads are handed over to them. These are intend- ed to be used against Israel jwiouiQ IDB incus icsut an ultimatum to make their land available to aO Arabs. This is a moat ingenious nov- el, wberejKw often have to de- cide where to place your sym- MtMei. McGfWfo understands how to keep the reader guess- ing and knows how to make him ton the pages, one by one. When the end comes, it is t in j uiuei ana unexpected. A low of novels of suspense and espionage win appreciate Che action, Hto heart wffl bleed with the fanatic, sparred by pa- triotiem, and ae wffl be intri- gued by the shrewdness of Ugh diplomacy. A book wurtlt reading not 0007 becauae of the immediacy of tememe but also for its weD- DISTILLED, MATURED AND BOTTLED UNDER CANADIAN GOVERNMENT SUPERVISION HANS SCHAUFL Books in brief er" (Clarke, Irwta Prbx- Ceapaay, The right rye at the right price. Right now. Right here in Alberta. An amateur, whoee only in caadhMnaking has A_ _ m unnimK 10 immuoio Ee wax DJOCKB stock together to form a _ _ J J _ viaiHiiiai canoie, should not try to evaluate this lovely book. But I would ven- aay that it covers just anything one migbt like to knew about the tricks of ere. and professional- candles. Mrs. CMs- bolin's directions seem to be simple and one is impressed that abe does not advocate the CM of eipeurive materials or molds. I think this would be a gift book for a creative The skills of learning By K. C. Saner, princhttl, LetUbrioge CMfeglato lutftnto The goals of education are usually stated in very idealistic and general terms, and numerous teachers have indicated that be- cause of this idealism and generality the goals cannot be of much practical use to classroom teachers. This is probably true. However, they are intended as long-term goals and not for immediate use. Their purpose is to define a broad general dir- ection for the school system, based on its philosophy of education. In this regard, goals must be as appropriate for the grade one teachers as they are for teachers of grade twelve. At the same tune, they must be as suitable for the reading teacher as they are for the art teacher. If there were one overriding, general direction which a school system might take, the following goal should be one that should be recommended: "The student will acquire the skills of learning and win continue to use these in his life situation." All of the people directly involved with the educational procss in the school sys- tem would share in providing experiences for the student in order that he would have the best opportunity to meet the goal. The goal would be realized if the stu- dent could demonstrate several things. One of these would be the formulation of ques- tions which were pertinent to understand- ing a problem. (Too few individuals attack a problem by asfruig thought-provoking questions.) Following the posing of the tions, the student would then punoe aonnn to his own questions. He would adoct sources of data relative to the problem or question applying skills appropriate to fee gathering and lacording of data aa they apply to the solution of the problem. The student then would respond to ques- tions and In inquiry, ask questions at var- ious levels of difficulty: fact, translation, interpretation, application, analysis, syn- thesis, and evaluation. This type of vestigation would provide the learner with the opportunity to develop his rational powers. The chief task of the school and the teach- er is to lead the learner to develop his ra- tional powers. There Is little doubt that frequently most of the school day is spent on die development of only one rational power, recall, and little time is devoted to the development of the other rational pow- ers. If there is merit in the recommended goal above, then it is hoped that it win be a direction for school systems to follow in the future. ANDY RUSSELL When there is no fear WATERTON LAKES PARK Most of us who have wandered the wild places of this earth have occasionally paused to con- sider what it would be like to find a place, where animals had never been hunted by man and thus are not conditioned to fear the most dominant of all species. Would they still be afraid of the fear of man really an inherent thing that all warm blooded things are born with? I think not. Charles Sheldon, a well known naturaSst and hunter of the early part of this cen- tury and likely the imm most influential in tiie original forming of Alaska's famed Mount McKinley Park, was convinced that wild animals are all born with an inherent fear of man. He based his observations on watching the wild sheep stampede for distant parts when they caught his scent, even in some of the most remote and lit- tle hunted ranges of the far north. I am convinced that they have to learn by ex- prience to really fear man, either through misadventure with him or by the actions of parents that have experienced tiie same. Wild are inclined to jump at the smell of man for the simple reason that he smells very bad to them even if he has been bathing regularly and more so if he has been sweating up steep slopes without bathing for the simple reason that he hates plunging into ice cold water. Most people frighten wild animals either because they make too much noise or have never learned to move properly in their presence. Any kind of Jerky, erratic move- ment in the proximity of wild ones tele- graphs fear, for only when afraid do they move in such a fashion. When a man learns how to move by watching wild animals when they are travelling, feeding and as- sociating with each other while going about then- every-day life, be will find approach- ing them closdy or even mingling with them something far from impossible. We met a wild bear in the Alssk Moun- tains of southwest Yukon one summer in the heart of what is now Kluane Nation- al Park a bear that had no fear. We teMjl come many miles by boat into this country where the most recent signs of man were many years old. We camped at the top of a portage near a falls for the night, and in the morning we woke to find the black bear poking around in the midst of various gear. Fearing for the safety of a slab of bacon tied to the outside of a grub box, I got out-of bed to drive the bear away. But he went only a few yards before turning to put on quite a show try- ing to bluff us into the notion that he was very fierce. I kept an eye on him whHe buDdmg a fire and preparing breakfast but paid Urn no direct attention until he finally subsided to disappear slowly into the timber. Then lie drcted camp completely, peeking out from behind various trees here and then as tMough trying to itimd up about something. Finally be seemed to de- cide we were friendly towards bears, for be came slowly out of some tfakk brush and proceeded to lay down on his bdhr like a dog to watch us from a range of only a few feet. Son, Charlie, supped away to the river with his fly rod and came back a few minutes later with three fat arctic grayling, which he put on (he ground la front of the bear. After some preliminary sniffing, the bear accepted them, ate them with relish and then lay down again to watch us eating our breakfast It was a wonderful experience, for tms was not a young bear nor overly big, but it was obvious that be bad likely never seen a man before and was completely fascinated with us. At some time he had injured an eye, for it had a muky cast over it His teem were yeuow with age though not broken. While we moved our equipment over the pottage be lay under the tree along the trail watching us with great interest, and when we moved on down river in the boat, be was still watching as though sorry to see us leave. I have ufUdi wondered if he ever met any more men, and if be did, bow they treated him. If they shot him on sight, it would be a sadness, for this was a friend- ly animal knowing no fear, only a great curiosity. Maybe he died peacefully in hfa winter den of old age, dreaming beariih dreams, lost forever among craggy Population squeeze worsening From The Spokesman-Review, Spokane la the past when proposals have been advanced for controlling our population givwlli, there have been shocked outcries from various groups. Some have termed the proposals an intolerable invasion of privacy. Others have claimed the over- population threat was a myth, greatly ex- aggerated. Still others lamented over aD the potential children that never would be born. There has indeed been a dramatic de- cline in the birth rate, bat in no way does this mean that the problem has gone away. The birth rate, for the first time below the replacement level, will lead to population stability, but it win take 70 years to achieve. In the meantime the U.S. will grow nearly two minion each year, with 35 mffiko births annually, well down from previous years, but still far above the IS minion deaths. Those who thought the population crisis greatly overstated may have to revise their opinions in the light of ins shortages that have been cropping op lately. These shortages are likely to get worse before they get better, if ever Formerly when the U-S ran sbort of materials or commodities we could buy our hay out on the wotM market Now oner areas of the world are not 90 anxious to sell us their non-renew- able natural resources. According to biologist Paul Ehrfich, when one child is bora in this country ha can expect to consume 50 times as much power as one bora in India, and 300 times as much steel as one born in Indonesia. It is a far greater strain on the ecology to provide for one U.S. babyrewB though ours is a rich country and large puiUuus of our land arc not considered crowded. It is aH very wen to lean back in cor chairs and discuss theoretically changing our fife style and values. Bat one aban- dons theory rather qutikly when there is no meat to be bought, when one is strand- ed on the highway without gas, or wban there is insufficient fuel to beat one's home. That, and more, is what those peo- ple who hare been warning of the popula- tion crisis have been saying an along. Summary: The screws of the squeeze are beginning to tighten, and tint is just the beginning.