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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - January 24, 1975, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD Friday, January 24, 1975 Clear confusion The statements made in Lethbridge this week by Mr. Chris Mills, secretary of the Canadian Cattlemen's Association, are of mixed benefit to those who are trying to understand the economics and politics of Canadian agriculture. Mr. Mills cleared up some of the fog. He made it easier to see the picture. And the picture itself, it is now clear, is one of basic confusion. The new freight rate increases, he said, make it cheaper to ship "un- finished" cattle to the East, plus the grain to finish them, than to finish them here and ship the finished live cattle or their carcasses to the east. This, he said, means the death of the feeding industry in the West. He suggested two ways of correcting the problem. One is to increase the cost of shipping the grain east, the present rate being heavily subsidized by the federal government. The other is to sub- sidize the movement of carcasses or of finished cattle in other words to roll back the new freight rate increases on these two commodities. Unfortunately more is at stake than the western feeding industry. The strong transportation stand taken by the prairie governments and especial- ly by Alberta is in favor of more process- ing here, especially of Alberta resources. Applied to cattle, that would mean more feeding and slaughtering here. But a good deal of Ontario and Quebec agriculture depends on cattle feeding, and to keep the industry alive there, the federal government has been subsidizing the movement of prairie feed grain to these Eastern farmers. This, coupled with the high prices of feed grains, is beneficial to the prairie grain producers. They like to see com- petition from both eastern and western feeders for their grain. And because Saskatchewan and Manitoba are more interested in grain than cattle, Mr. Mills admits those two governments would not like to see the grain market hurt to help the feeding industry. He even admits that the Alberta government is more concerned about grain than cattle, although feeding is a major industry es- pecially in Southern Alberta. So here is the problem: how to recon- cile the interests of eastern farmers with those in the west, and the interests of western grain growers with those of western cattle feeders. A further recon- ciliation may be needed between the interests of the commercial cattle producers and those of the feeders. Mr. Mills has stated the case for the cattlemen, for whom he works. But the greater problem -iJjscsdi, N Letters "Money! Money The Chinese outcome While world attention has been held by the power struggle presumed to be going on within the Soviet Union to find a successor for the supposedly ailing Brezhnev, a similar struggle which has been going on in China seems to have been resolved. And the world can breathe a sigh of relief at the outcome. Over the years two opposing factions in China have been represented by Chairman Mao Tse tung, the idealist, on the one hand, and Premier Chou En lai, the pragmatist, on the other. Both are now old and ailing and their health is the subject of much speculation. The latest result of their continuing struggle for control can be seen in appointments which were announced on the eve of the opening of the Fourth National People's Congress, the highest legislative body in China. This congress has not met for 10 years and its meeting has been long overdue, the delay apparently resulting from the inability of either faction to gain the up- per hand or to compromise. Until the day it actually convened, for instance, foreign journalists were unable to give a specific timetable for the event. In the plenary sessions leading up to the congress, where significant differences are resolved in private, com- promises were reached which amounted to a victory for the Chou forces. A party official, Teng Hsaio ping, who was condemned as public enemy No. 2 during the cultural revolution of the mid six- ties and had been in disgrace since then, was named a vice chairman of the par- ty directly under Mao in what seems to have been a dramatic turn of events. Some observers think that he will be the next premier, succeeding Chou En-lai who has held the post for 25 years. Another appointment signalling vic- tory for the moderates was the naming of one of China's senior military men, ex Marshal Yen Chien ying to be minister of defence. This post had been, vacant since 1971 when Lin Piao, Mao's suppos- ed successor, disappeared under mysterious circumstances and was said to have been killed in an air accident while escaping to Russia. Although Yeh is acceptable to both the radical left wing faction led by Mao's wife and the moderates around Chou, the bias of his department can also be seen in the recent appointments of three depu- ty chiefs of staff who, like Teng, had been persecuted by Mao's Red Guards during the cultural revolution. While the victory of the moderates does not mean that the left wingers have disappeared from the scene, it should portend a lessening of tension between China and Russia. This, of course, has uneasy military implications for the West. Nevertheless, it is a turn of events to be welcomed. In a world where radicals and unleashed idealists have access to weapons of catastrophic im- pact, any victory for pragmatism or compromise is heartening. ment's new transportation policy, although greeted with some skepticism in western Canada made a brave show on paper when it appeared somewhat unexpectedly in the latter stages of the 1974 cam- paign. Even the "highlights" sug- gested that Ministerial labors were far advanced. They il- luminated no less than nine pages, single spaced. Some of the guiding principles, ad- mittedly, were a bit vague; for example, "people and national interest first, profits second." Others suggested, however, that the Govern- ment had a clear perception of the road ahead. Jean Marchand's latest comments on the policy or program are somewhat dis- concerning. In the months since June visibility ought to have improved somewhat; the reverse appears to have happened. What was com- paratively clear is now "very complicated." It cannot be said that nothing has happened. There was a statement in December about protection of the basic prairie rail network (a matter which failed oddly to make the although it came not from Mr. Marchand but from Otto Lang, who also launched the new debate on Crowsnest rates or benefits. In addition, there Was the decision (again not hinted at in the continuing the freeze. Mr. Marchand suffered some harassment on Wednes- day from Opposition critics developments that the train is running behind time. K was the argument of Don Mazankowski, persuasively documented, that the freeze was designed to afford time for the Government to pro- duce the necessary solutions. To this the Minister offered a choice of answers. The Government, it appears, has been doing precisely this; hence the global study. On the other hand, it is quite wrong to suggest that the freeze was related to a new policy in the field of transportation. What then was its purpose? It was "only an example to the Canadian people of a field in which we can do something, and we wanted to indicate that it was our hope that everybody would follow this example. That was not done and at this time I think there would have been more distor- tion by keeping this very par- tial freeze than we now have as a result of lifting it as we It may be important at times that citizens'should follow the Government's ex- ample. It is arguable that, in other respects, they should shun the Government's exam- ple if they hope to avoid bankruptcy. But if policy is to be based on Government ex- ample, there is a very great deal to be said for bringing the example forcefully to the attention of the prospective followers. The least that can be said is that Mr. Marchand has erred seriously in hiding his light under a bushel. The fact is that the Govern- throughout the period of the freeze to introduce either over-all controls or 'at the least guidelines which might serve to restrain otherwise unmanageable demands on the economy. Ministers, at times under considerable pressure, exerted themselves to explain why such policies would be misguided or un- workable. It is surprising now to learn from the Minister of Transport that all this anguish and argument was un- necessary. Mr. Marchand could have stilled the clamour at any time merely by pointing out that the. Government, though the freight rate freeze, was setting an example for everybody to follow. It is too late now. We were tried and found wanting. The Government, having done its bit and been ignored, cannot now be expected to aggravate distortions by extending the freeze. Nevertheless, it was an interesting experience and no doubt something can be learn- ed from it. When the Govern- ment next goes into the example-setting business, it should tell us about it; perhaps even impress it on us with advertising as the Post Office does (no doctor would be without We might, in such circumstances, do better. John Turner, even now, is pursuing his secret search for consensus but, even if it materializes, it is not like- ly to be very helpful if we hear no more about it in critical months than we heard of Mr. Marchand's example. Freer trade rejection sparks internal political repercussions By Dev Murarka, London Observer commentator By Joseph Kraft, syndicated commentator MOSCOW The Soviet re- jection of the American offer of freer trade on condition that more Russian Jews be allowed to leave the country has serious implications for the super- power detente. The provision for freer emigration was inserted in the trade bill at the insistence of Senator Henry Jackson and became known as the Jackson amendment. Now it is the Brezhnev amendment that stands. But the economic effects of the Soviet rejection of the trade bill may not be so im- portant. The Soviet action does not affect contracts already signed nor any trade which can be carried on without requiring "most favored nation" treatment. At the most, therefore, it will slow down future trade growth for a while. One economic effect may be in the field of Soviet repay- ment of Second World War lend lease debts to the United States. According to an agreement signed in 1972, Moscow has to pay back million by July Of this, million were paid in Oc- tober 1972 and million in July 1973. No payment was scheduled for 1974 but from 1975 onwards payment was to be made annually. However, this repayment was subject to the Soviet Union getting most favored nation treatment in trade relations. Moscow's rejection of the trade bill means that no such treatment will be provid- ed and it is quite possible that the Soviet Union will stop repayments of the debt till this is done. But it is the political Im- plications which are more pertinent. In the first place, Moscow has served unam- biguous notice that it can be pushed around only so much in the name of detente. Lately, the Russians have come to feel strongly that, under cover of detente, Washington or at any rate some elements in Washington is bent upon humiliating .the Soviet Union in the eyes of the world and in the eyes of its own people. This was becoming almost intolerable for Soviet leaders. In private, some were even being taunted that domestic policy was no longer being made in the Kremlin but in the White House. The Soviet rejection of the bill with con- ditions attached about emigration, therefore, will .please a vast section of the Soviet public. Secondly, the Russians fervently hope that it will put an end to the presidential aspirations of Senator Jackson. There is little doubt about it that the Russians had come to detest the Democratic senator, who was making political capital at their expense. In one move, the Russians have blasted Jackson's presidential train, which was gathering speed, off the rails. The Soviet action will also hurt the reputation of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and this will not be unwelcome in Moscow. The Russians have been finding it increasingly hard to stomach Kissinger's claims to the role of a global saint and healer. Ironically enough, it was Kissinger who pleaded with the American Congress not to provoke Moscow with im- possible demands and the Soviet backlash has come ac- cording to his predictions. Nevertheless, the Russians will be happier if they do not have to deal with him from a position in which he is on a pedestal. As a result detente might become a more realistic political process rather than the hysterical publicity stunt to which the Nixon Brezhnev brotherhood had reduced it. Most important of all, it will restore some of Moscow's lost prestige among its friends who were beginning to think that it would never again be able to resist Washington's pressures. They saw Moscow as behaving like a pliant small client state. This worried them a great deal because it meant that they would be even less successful in resisting American blandishments. Privately and quietly they ac- cused the Russians of almost encouraging the Americans to behave as if they owned the world. Now, Moscow can con- fidently say that its policy was misunderstood and that it can distinguish between its own interests and those of Washington. The Soviet action is certain- ly not meant to damage detente. Rather, in the Soviet view, it is meant to make it a two way process in which concessions are given on both .sides, in which detente is not seen simply as a means to transform the Soviet Union into a capitalist democracy. In the long run such a percep- tion may serve the cause of detente better than the one Which has prevailed, with the Russians being at the receiv- ing end of the moral cane. WASHINGTON Henry Kissinger isn't exactly glad the Russians repudiated the 1972 trade agreement. But he is using the occasion to play a little detente politics. Dr. Kissinger clearly wanted Russia to accept the terms stipulated in the new trade bill. That would have made it easier to nail down the Vladivostok understanding on arms control in a formal agreement which can be sign- ed at a triumphant summit meeting in the United States this spring. But though disappointed, Dr. Kissinger takes a relaxed view of the Soviet decision to go back on the trade accord. He does not believe it casts a long shadow over arms control or other features of detente. Neither does he believe that Mr. Brezhnev is mortally ill. Still less that there is an all out leadership struggle between good guys and bad guys going on in the Kremlin. His view is that, since Mr. Brezhnev is not so young, there is some inevitable jostl- ing among possible replacements. He assumes that, if only for opportunist reasons, some of the can- didates try to curry favor with party cadres by taking positions adverse to the detente line espoused by the party's general secretary. But Dr. Kissinger believes that the opposition is largely :actical. He points out that Mr. Brezhnev took a hard line n ousting Nikita Khrushchev and then reverted to detente, -le recalls that Mr. (hrushchev took a hard line in heading off Georgi Malenkov; and then also came out for peaceful co operation. Dr. Kissinger's purpose emerges clearly from the long, carefully prepared state- ment he read in announcing the Soviet decision to abrogate the- trade agreement. The statement concentrated entirely on the amendment, identified with Sen. Jackson and his Jewish supporters, which made freer emigration from Russia a con- dition of the trade bill. The .statement set out in elaborate and painful detail the steps Russia would have to take to comply with the Jackson amendment. It spoke of "assurances" from Russia to the United States, and hinted they would have to be delivered in the form of "written reports." The clear implication was that the Russians rejected the trade bill only because of the Jackson amendment, and that Mr. Brezhnev would have been a craven coward to accept the amendment. In fact there are lots of bargaining reasons for the Russian behavior. The Russians are in far better position to deal now than they were in 1972. While the American economy has gone downhill, the Russian economy has improved. The Russians still have MOO million in credits granted by the Export Import Bank at very attractive terms which they haven't drawn down. By cancelling now, they undo a previous commitment to pay off wartime lend lease debts to this country. Moreover, another provi- sion in another bill span-. sored not by Sen. Jackson but by Sen. Adlai Stevenson of Illinois limits the amount the Russians can borrow from the Ex-Im Bank without congressional approval to million over the next four years. By breaking the accord now, the Russians lose little but cancel their obligation to pay off the wartime lend lease debt. The Kissinger tactic is to ig- nore all those considerations the better to blame the failure of the trade pact entirely on Sen. Jackson and his amendment. That narrow _focus serves to make it seem that the great problem in American foreign policy the big obstacle to detente is meddling by ambitious legislators pandering to minority interests at home in order to advance presidential hopes. The Congress is thus softened up for a further grant to Dr. Kissinger of the wide negotiating freedom he en- joyed under President Nixon. The trouble with that tactic is that it will not work. The push. for larger congressional role in foreign affairs goes way beyond Sen. Jackson and the issue of Soviet emigration. Behind it are men as solid and unam- bilious as Sen. Stevenson. It involves Vietnam, Cyprus, the Middle East and many other issues. In >other words, the Congress intends to play a larger role in foreign policy decisions for better or worse. Sophistical attempts to crowd the Congress out will not be for the better. Criminal rehabilitation A government example By Maurice Western, Herald Ottawa commentator OTTAWA The Govern- who have been persuaded by ment was strongly pressed The editorial, Leave him alone (The Herald, Jan. 17) is astounding, to say the least. It suggests that a convicted criminal should be allowed to go free on his own claim that he .has been rehabilitated, and because it costs money to search for him. He Violated his parole, he is evading lawful custody and he does not consider himself sub- ject to the law of the land. This suggests to me that he has not been rehabilitated. If we accept the principle im- plied in the editorial, then any criminal could declare himself rehabilitated the mo- ment he is apprehended, and demand to be set free. The editorial further suggests that the search for the convict should be dropped because it cost money to search. I was under the im- pression that compliance with the law was one of the most fundamental principles of society, rather than a com- modity to be applied if the price happens to be right. Some "humanitarians" claim that punishment is no. deterrent against serious crime. At the same time we are increasing the penalties for minor offences such as overparking and speeding. I fail to understand how increased penalties can be a deterrent in the case of minor offences, but not in the case of serious criminal offences. The scientists who developed thalidomide were undoubtedly sincere, but thalidomide proved dis- astrous. I believe that it would be equally disastrous to allow a convict to determine when he is rehabilitated, or to drop the search for him because it costs money. I have no objec- tions to rehabilitation, where this is possible, but the fact is, that the two Toronto policemen who were murdered and the North Toronto housewife, and the lit- tle Vancouver rape victim would' all have been alive today, if their respective parolees had in fact been rehabilitated. Who is going to rehabilitate the innocent dead victims? Let the law take its course and let individuals take the responsibility for their acts. NIELS E. KLOPPENBORG Lethbridge Time for changes The editorial, Leave him alone (The Herald, Jan. 17) was just great! Society and the law makers have been liv- ing by the eye for an eye syn- drome for too long. Under the penal system, many good'lives are wasted because of one mistake. The time has, come for those responsible to take a good look at what they are doing and revamp their thinking and methods in this area. We are supposed to be some of the most civilized people on this world yet the way we treat our wrongdoers is far from civilized. People point to the number of repeaters as a means of justifying what they are doing but they forget that eVen an animal in a cage will become more violent and dif- ficult to handle than one that is kept free and in a home with love and trust. Humans are even more sensitive to the emotions of others than the poor animals that we keep in cages. The time has come for real changes and love is the real answer to the 'ills of this world. Not carnal love but love of humans, one for another, as Christ taught. When we can do this, maybe we can start closing some of the present cages that house humans like wild animals and the humans that now inhabit them will become useful citizens once again. Unless we can solve our own problems in our own land how can we-expect to go forward and bring peace to other war torn countries of the world? After all, isn't that all any of us really desire? A chance to live useful lives while we have the opportunity to do so? Let us' learn to forgive p'ur brothers and sisters that we too may obtain forgiveness. Yes, leave him alone. Let him prove himself. Give hini a chance! SHEEP WOMAN HUNTER Cardston. Interpreting ethics Much has been written recently in connection with Dr. Bette Stephenson's stri- dent call for the resignation of Justice Minister Otto Lang because (in her estimation) his personal bias was influenc- ing his administration of the abortion laws. (The Herald Jan. 11) I am rather intrigued as to what would happen if Mr. Lang acquiesced and the next justice minister ap- pointed also held the view that unborn life should not be destroyed, and the next, and the next! How many ministers would have to be appointed, and then resign, before people of Dr. Stephenson's philosophy are satisfied? Reaction from the medical profession to this attack from the CMA president has been wide ranging and im- mediate, because the doctors know, of course, that Dr. Stephenson's position does not give her a mandate to speak for all her colleagues. I think it is important that the public should know that she was not elected to the position, but ap- pointed which is rather different. The president of the CMA is nominated by the medical association of the province hosting the annual genera] meetings each year so unless a complete survey is taken of all members prior to a statement such as that of Bette Stephenson, her's could be nothing but a personal opinion, and should have been reported as such. It may, also, be of interest to people that the previous president is a strong pro-life man, and stated when ap- pointed that he would not use his position in any way to influence public opinion on the abortion issue. Stephenson, on the other hand, stated that she would use her position to the full to try to get abortion out of the Criminal Code in other words, she would use her personal bias along with her appointed office to force changes in the law. Who would believe that two members of such a noble profession could interpret their code of ethics so differently? TERESA ANN PARSONS Voice of the Unborn Sherwood Park Letters are welcome and will be published providing: identification is included (name and. address are required even when the letter is to appear over a they are sensible and not libelous; they are of manageable length or can be shortened (normally letters should not ex- ceed 300 they are decipherable (it great- ly helps if letters are typed, double spaced with writers do hot submit letters too frequently. The Lethbridge Herald 504 7lh SI..S. Lethbridge, Alberta LETHBRIDGE HERALD CO. LTD. Proprietors and Publishers Second Class Mail Registration No. 0012 CLEO MOWERS, Editor and Publisher DON. H. PILLING Managing Editor ROY f, MILES Advertising Manager DOUGLAS K. WALKER Editorial Page Editor DONALD R. DpRAM General Manager ROBERT M. FENTON Circulation Manager KENNETH E. BARNETT Business Manager "THE HERALD SERVES THE SOUTH" ;