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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - January 13, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THE LETHBRIDCE HERALD Thunday, January 13, Peter Desbarats Ideology and reality The outlines of. the coming struggle for power in Asia are beginning to show up. The edges are fuzzy but the shapes are there. Winner of the first round must be Russia, simply because it has backed the winner in the Indo-Pakistan war and now has India solidly in its camp. But winning the first round doesn't mean that the bout is de- cided. For one thing, Russia has lost some of the sympathy of the Islamic Arabs, and for another the Maoists may cause enough domestic ruckus in West Bengal and in East Pakis- tan, to take some of the propaganda value out of the Soviet posture of friendship for the Bengalis. Never backward in directing the propaganda game for its own pur- poses, the Russians are already charging Chinese collusion with the U.S.', even to suggesting that the Chi- nese had some part in the recent tombing raids in North Vietnam. (Absurd as such a suggestion is, it must be admitted that Chinese pro- tests against the bombings have1 been remarkably low-keyed.) In the war of words the Russians are on the defensive, particularly in the UN where Peking is using its bitterest villification against the So- viet "social imperialists" the ideol- ogical traitors of the Comm u n i s t world. The realities are, however, that ideologies are no longer the real question. The struggle is not one of leadership in the international Com- munist movement; it is a clash be- tween neighboring states enlarging into a struggle for power in a far wider area. The Chinese believe that Soviet support for India is one of the first plays in a calculated move to place a ring around China and one of the pieces to close the ring, would be a Japanese Russian rap- prochement. That is by no means beyond the realm of possibility. All this means that both the Sovi- ets and the Chinese will be listening very carefully indeed to Mr. Nixon when he makes his top level calls. And Mr. Nixon will be playing the cards with extreme caution. Although he does not hold all the trumps he has a strong hand. Decisions at the upcoming Nixon meetings in Peking and Moscow will go far to decide the future role of the U.S. in -south- east Asia. A real groove! City Council's theory that prettier buses will attract more passengers- like mesmerized fish to a fancy lure is unrealistic to say the least. Buses are simply conveniences for those who prefer them to their own modes of transportation, including shanks mare. But no matter what color they come in, including stripes and polka dots, buses are merely utilitarian methods of moving people from here to there and will never qualify for long line- ups, like dodgem cars at a fair. Council's move to consider paint- ing the buses mod blue and orange is fine as a paint-up clean-up move. These lumbering vehicles in new shades will add a dash of color to the city. Now if council could only find a way to keep the buses from belching greasy fumes and getting both their pretty chassis and the pure air all dirty they will have reached an apex in urban transportation. But council can't seem to be satis- fied with the premise that the local bus transportation service should be just that, and not a money-making utility. The straight ten cent fare is a business-like move in this direction. However council doesn't want to let it go at that. They're sure a more swinging bus image will persuade non-users to take advantage of their new splendidness. What dreamers! Les Canadiens en Afrique A French magazine called La Jeune Afrique published in Africa says that "there is a veritable pro- Canadian lobby today in Africa." It is important that the magazine uses the words "Canadian" rather than French Canadian or Quebec. Leo Ryan, writing to the Toronto Globe and Mail says that although French aid for developing Franco- phone African countries is declining somewhat, and that other countries are increasing their aid, Canadian support for projects in French- speaking African nations has risen spectacularly, and though our ex- ports to these countries is still rela- tively small, these have been in- creasing too. One of the outstanding examples of Canadian assistance has been the work of. a Canadian engineer, Fran- cois Cordeau, who showed that the Niger river, previously believed to be unnavigable, is nothing of the sort. This means that oil supplies which used to come by rail to Niger will come by rail, road and the cheaper river route. The saving to the Niger economy is estimated at about three per cent of the gross national prod- uct of this landlocked West African nation of nearly four million people, which gained its independence from France in 1960. There are other encouraging exam- ples of Canadian enterprise working to the benefit of African Franco- phone nations. Occasionally there is some antagonism by the French themselves who resent seeing their former position being usurped by others eager to invest in Africa's fu- ture. But, generally speaking the Ca- nadians have; been welcomed and are in the process of creating a future worthwhile export market for Can- adian goods. Not only is there no lan- guage problem, but the fact that Can- ada has no colonial past and is there- fore not suspected by newly indepen- dent nations of exploitation for pure- ly selfish reasons, contributes to the climate of good will. It's good news particularly when seen in the context of strengthening our national unity by reflecting the bilingual nature of our country in foreign policy ventures. It is also comforting to know that French speaking Canadians work- ing in these African ventures are re- ported to insist that they are "Cana- dians first and Quebecers second." A look at the future By Terence Morris PREDICTING the future is fun but not very reliable. For the educational soothsayer the element of unreliability has been partly removed because those who control our vast educational empire have told us what they hope to do to students and teachers this year. Thanks to press releases and reports we are able to say what is likely to happen in our school sys- tems this year. There will be a greater realization of the Importance of teacher pupil relationships and we can expect a sharp reduction in the horrific class loads that plague our schools. The past president of the Alberta School Trustees' Association said that ele- mentary school students were being, 'bunched together with 30 or 40 youngsters in a room it is like an assembly line more than an educational institution.' This excellent comment on our elementary schools has been supported by our local university. University of Lethbridge offi- cials have publicly extolled the value of a small student staff ratio and what is good for mature university students must be even better fur Ihe youngsters who are just beginning school. This means that we will have to make better use of our personnel resources but this is a reform long over- due and the benefits to our students Tvill be worth the traumatic change, Our elementary schools will receive much greater support than In the past. The en- minister of education emphasized the tre- mendous importance of the first few years of school and said, 'Our elementary level of education must become our primary In- terest mid in Allxila.' This wel- come assist to the elementary Khool wu supported by the ASTA past president who suggested more money and attention for our elementary schools. It is good that such distinguished and important educa- tionists should single out elementary edu- cation for special support. The early years of school often determine what a child does in the rest of his public school educa- tion. The key to most of the coming changes will be finance. Education Minister Hynd- man has promised major changes in edu- cational financing although it does not fol- low that more money will be available. It could mean a reassessment of our spend- ing habits and a drastic rearrangement of our financial priorities. This should mean putting more 'teachers' where they belong the classroom, and a hard look at the need for the costly equipment and build- ings that eat up so much of our school budgets. Hopefully, it could also mean much better salary agreements than the poor contracts' imposed on teachers last year. If we are to believe what we have read, UK future for education looks great. How- ever, past experience has shown us that there is often a vast gap between what Is promised for our schools and what actual- ly happens. This Is very sad, for the prom- ised reforms, especially smaller class loads a fairer deal for the elementary school, and a better use of personnel resources would NOT necesNily cost a lot of money. It would mean i change in our time-honor- ed school priorities but that is i price that we should bo willing nnd anxious to pay ns we move towards the twenty first cen- tury, A move to independence: Canada's choice (Second in i series) OTTAWA Walter Gordon was 48 years old in 1954 when he wrote a draft article for International Affairs which raised some fundamental ques- tions about this nation's de- velopment and suggested a roy- al commission on Canada's eco- nomic prospects. Before sub- mitting the article to the perio- dical, Gordon showed it to friends in the finance depart- ment at Ottawa. The article was never pub- lished. Its theme was incorpor- ated in the 1956 budget and Gor- don, a Toronto financial consul- tant, was named chairman of the royal commission in the same year. His preliminary re- port in 1957, rejected by the Liberal hierarchy, became "ex- hibit A" in the controversy over economic nationalism that has waxed and waned ever since. For the past 15 years, through political ups and downs, Wal- ter Gordon has been telling Ca- nadians that they must fight to maintain 'and increase their economic and political indepen- dence from the United States. Just as consistently, Cana- dians have refused for econo- mic reasons to m a k e the "choice for Canada" that Gor- don proposed. Now it looks as if the choice will be made. Canada is on the point of announcing its first comprehensive policy on for- eign investment But it is be- ing made not only (perhaps not even primarily) as an expres- sion of national will but as a practical and almost unavoid- able response to new economic conditions. As many Canadians are now aware, this country is no long- er as dependent as it once was on investment from the United States. Ttae Gray report states that in Uie next few years "Can- ada's anticipated savings rate will be entirely or almost en- tirely adequate to meet Cana- dian capital needs." Because massive foreign in- vestment has the negative ef- fect of upward pressure on the exchange rate of UK Canadian dollar, the Gray report states that "there is good reason to hold down .additional foreign capital investment in Canada." At the same time, the United States at this point wants to keep more of its investment capital at home. In other words, Canada final- ly appears ready to make Gor- don's choice but not for Gor- don's reasons. Walter Gordon's reaction to this is ambivalent. On the one hand, events seem to have proved that he was right in principle when he drew attention to the danger o{ U.S. foreign investment in the 1950s. On the other hand, the prag- matic logic of Canada's deci- sion in 1972 supports Gordon's numerous critics who have said all along, that the situation would take care of itself that Gordon's choice would be made if and when a mature Canadian economy was ready to sustain it. Gordon still fights this land of thinking, even when it's on his side. "I'm not convinced that this couldn't have been done or shouldn't have been done long he said in a recent inter- view, "and I don't think you can claim a tidy, neat little ar- gument that will justify the government doing something now and excuse it for not do- .log anything 10 years ago. "If somebody can say that it's going to be easier for us to do it now than it was a few years ago and if that helps them to make their decision, I'm all for it. "But I can see a situation where the balance of payments with the U.S. will reverse it- self and will no longer be in our favor thia could happen at any time and I would still say we've got to go ahead and do this. That's the way I feel about it." Today, at 66, Walter Gordon can look back on some monu- mental political battles, and de- feats. He recalled that when he talked about foreign investment !n the '50s, "people had never heard of the issue." In the 1960s when he was in and out of the Pearson cabinet, opposition to his views was "vocal and vio- lent." But bit by bit, he has seen many of his- ideas adopted and be has watched the main thrust of political opinion move slow- ly closer to his own, in Can- ada, in almost every, political party and in the minds of politi- cal leaders. In particular, in the mind of Pierre Trudeau. "I wrote a book in 1966 call- ed A Choice For Gor- don said, "Trudeau came into my office one day I had been kicked out of the cabinet and Wasn't back in again at that stage he simply dropped in and said that he'd read the book and agreed with it, and what was the fun about? "It wasn't just casual re- mark. He really had read the book and we had long con- versation. I've had occasion to talk with him once or twice since then, and as far as I could see, he hadn't changed his mind." Gordon would have preferred quicker action of foreign in- vestment by the Trudeau gov- ernment, but no one would un- derstand the reasons for Tru- deau's caution better then Gor- don' himself. "There are people in the cab- inet who were there when I was there and whose views (re. diametrically opposed to mine they're continentalist and that's he said. "It was perfectly clear that they were going to oppose as strong- ly as they could whatever Herb Gray recommended, and I'm sure they did. "On the other hand, it's per- fectly clear in this government that sooner or later, Mr. Tru- deau gets his way. Gordon's oppo n e n t s in the cabinet trace their lineage di- rectly back to the late trade' minister, C. D. Howe. Prime "There's nothing left for us to do but minister Louie St. Laurent didn't even dire to announce the Gordon royal commission in 1955 until Howe was on a tour of Australia. Although Gordon considers St. Laurent "Jhe greatest prime minister we've ever by the time the royal commis- sion's preliminary report was made in 1957 "he was old and harried and there Was such an uproar from Howe that St. Lau- rent, too, opposed the report, and so nothing was done about it." St. Laurent was succeeded by Conservative prime minister John Diefenbaker, descrlbnd by Gordon as "a Canadian Nation- alist he just didn't know how to put it into effect." But when Diefenbaker was defeated by Pearson and Gor- don became finance minister, events still conspired against an aggressively nationalistic policy. Gordon recalled one Incident vividly: "Mr. Pearson one day came out and said, in a public speech, that if we did anything to make a move in the direc- tion of independence, It would mean a drop in our standard of living of 25 per cent. "How it got into his speech, I don't know. I know whet I think happened: I think some- body had told him that on the average the; Canadian standard of living was and still 25 per cent lower than In the United States. That's where the figure came from but that's not the way he put it forward. "He didn't think it mattered anyway, you know. Think of all the other things that have been said by politicians that have been forgotten almost immedi- ately. But this one has stuck. I still run into people all over the place who repeat it to "The fact is, we're all so much better off now than we were 20 years ago. It's incred- ible. And there's no reason in my view why this affluent curve shouldn't continue. So anything we do is going to- be marginal. Either it'll give us a little more on top of everything else, or a little less below ev- erything else, but we're going to be better off anyway." There's a feeling, talking with Gordon, that the "choice for Canada" has become so obvious now that it almost no longer Interests him. "I would hope that we'd be a little less impressed in fu- ture with increasing the gross national product and our per- sonal he said. "We've got to do a hell of a lot more about evening things out a bit." (Toronto Star Syndicate) Charles Foley California's educational crisis: lack of funds I ANGELES The fur- ore over a suggestion that the University of California sell rare books in its library to raise money is one symptom of a wider malaise in this state's mammoth university and col- lege systems. Budgetary woes, conservatism at the top, the soaring price of schooling, in- ability to cope with the flood of new students these and other problems are causing pessi- mists to predict a collapse of the dream of uni- versal higher education. The book-selling gimmick was only one of about 50 money-saving suggestions in the state auditors' report. But Governor Ronald Reagan's ad- ministration in Sacramento has so often crossed swords with the university faculty, that staff and students alike look it in deadly earnest. Who could tell where the next blow might fall? The conflict between Gover- nor Reagan and his education adviser Alex Sherriffs on one hand, and the predominantly liberal-left faculty on the other has piled confusion and misun- derstanding upon crisis. What is the crisis about? Money, na- turally; the politicizing of the university, certainly; and also the purpose and nature of high- er education in the nation at laxge. To a foreign academic, the sheer size of the Califomian system must seem monstrous. The university has stu- dents on its nine vast cam- puses; these are the cream, the top 12 per cent of high school- leavers. Then come 19 state colleges which, over the uni- versity's protests, now have the right to call themselves univer- sities too, with stu- dents, drawn from the top 30 per cent. Finally, there are 93 community colleges with 000 students. This means that California, with a population of only 30 million, is sending well over million of ils young to :ome of intitule of lam- ing, while Britain (if one throws in teachers' colleges and advanced courses for grad- uates) sends some Does "more mean in Kingsley Amis' famous In .California, one can- not really doubt it. The failure rate at the uni- versity is around 50 per cent, including drop-outs and trans- fers, against {he British figure of 15 per cent. At the univer- sity the teacher-pupil ratio is 1 to 65, at the state colleges 1 to 18, whereas Britain's av- erage ratio is 1 to 8. The student's problems here are compounded by the rising cost of getting an education. Ocean auto NEA service this time, most everyone has heard of the Wankel rotary engine, which promises to revolutionize the automobile industry. German inventor Felix Wan- kel has just unveiled his latest achievement, which could rev- olutionize it all over again: An ocean going motor car. With a plastic covered ca- bin like a fighter plane and a shape like a porpoise, his "Zisch 69B" is designed to ne- gotiate calm waters on glider fins similar to a hydrofoil. At speedboat speed, it could tra- vel hundreds or thousands of miles in this fashion. In rough seas, however, the Zisch would plow right through large waves like a submar- ine. Hence-the enclosed cabin. Wankel has tested a scale model on Idke Constance and expects to try out a full size, four- to six passenger proto- type next spring. In terms of price, size and Interior, a mass- produced Zisch, he believes, could be to ocean trivel what the automobile has been to land travel. Considering what the automo- bile hu done to the landscape, the prospect of seascape c v- with Zltchea ia not M ncWnf it mfch It is estimated that the aver- erage University of California student will be spending some on fees, tuition, books, bed and board next year. In five years, the university once among the least expensive has become one of the more costly in the U.S. Foreign students have been particularly hard hit. The bud- get recently passed by the leg- islature will doable their fees, to As for faculty mem- bers, ttoy have been refused an increase in pay for the third year in succession, and other inroads have been made into a teacher's opportunities to earn anything above his basic sa- alry. For example, awards for distinguished teaching have been discontinued, "sabbati- cals" for research stopped and teachers of graduates told they must carry the same workload as those instructing undergrad- uates. What has caused the fiscal crisis? Partly, it is the shaky state of the national economy at large, but Governor Rea- gan's administration would hardly have dared to trim the higher education budget so drastically without strong pub- lic backing. The backlash from student demonstrations, cam- pus bombings, and other vio- lence was at 'its worst last year. Governor Reagan's edu- cation sdviscr, Mr. Alex Shcr- riffs, says that "many hun- dreds" of letters, calls and other communications have been re- ceived complaining of academ- ic abuses and use of the uni- versities for "political indoctri- nation." There has been a sharp in- crease in the number of pro- fessors who are resigning. One, former University of Califor- nia Vice-President Frederick Balderston, says the public Is demanding that the universities re-examine their mission. Skep- ticism and resentment over higher education is rising. "In the fifties, after Sputnik went up, huge sums were pour- ed Into Hfbor Dr. Balderston, "and the re- versal today will hit the chil- dren of the poor and students from the minorities who'd be- gun to hope for college educa- tions." The university's president, Dr. Charles Hitch, says the cut- backs will mean even more crowded classrooms, fewer classes, delayed graduations and a fall in instructional stan- dards. The point is approach- ing when "distinction will be- come a he declares, unless the trend can be changed. Governor Reagan obviously thinks otherwise. Economy in government and order on cam- pus are the twin pillars of his regime, and with cubtacks at the universities he serves both causes at a stroke. The pro- cess is known at Sacramento as "belt-tightening." "At a time when the entire economy is under the says Califomian Congressman Jerome Waldie, "it is signifi- cant that the governor sees the crippling of the colleges and universities as a primary means of eliminating monetary problems. I think the effect on higher education is going to in catastrophic." At the least, It will mean some re-thinking of the state's muclKjdmired master plan for higher education. Can Califor- nia, a state which often givei the lead to the rest of the coun- try, continue to offer a collegt education to virtually anyone who can make good use of it? Or will there be, as Mr. Rea- gan suggests there must be, greater selectivity at the uni- versities, i.e. the rejection ol thousands of students who can- not afford to pay their way? (Written for The Herald mil The Observer in London) Looking backward THROUGH THE HERALD 1922 It is understood that the Quebec liquor commission will open a wine shop for wo- men, which will be managed by female employees. 1932 From April first the Royal Canadian Mounted Po- lice will take over the duties in Alberta now performed by the Alberta Provincial Police. 1342 The defence depart- ment in Ottawa made known the details of the new walking- oat uniforms soon to be issued to Canadian, soldiers. Tailored in regulation khaki serge, the new uniforms are in addition to the regulation battle dress. 1952 Nearly 300 cars of coal, wheat, cattle and other produce are being moved daily off the Lethbridge division of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 19M The Mary Qultten- baum rink downed the defend- ing southern Alberta ladies' curling championship rink of Eileen Eshpeter, to capture the A event in the Lethbridge La- dies Diamond D playdowns. The Lethbridge Herald 504 Tin St. S., Lethbridge, Alberta LETHBRIDGE HERALD TO. LTD., Proprietors and Publisher! Published by Hon. W. A. BUCHANAN _ SKSnd CIIU Mill Rfglllnllon No. 001] Mtmbtr of Thi Cinidlin Prni irwtm Cinmlin Dilly NIWUIMT Publlihtri' Anoclillon IM tht Audit Buruu (H cVculillaSi CLEO w. MOWERS. Editor ind Publlihir THOMAS H. ADAMS, GfiKnl Mnnngtr DON PILLINO WILLIAM HAY Mnnl0 ng Eater Editor "OY'KWs DOUOLAJ K. WALKER Adrtrtlilng Minmr Edllorlil Editor "THE HERALD SERVES THE SOUTH" ;