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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - January 12, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta 4 THE 1ETHUIDOE HMAID WtJntxIoy, JdnuBry 11, WJ- Carl Rowan Meeting in San Clemente Minister Saio of Japan and President Nixon have been holding top level discussions in the sunny at- mosphere of San Clemente, Calif. Other than a firm the formal return of the island of Okinawa to Japan, plus the usual expressions uf mutual respect, there has been little to report on what they had to say to one another. ITie Americans will leave some of their military bases on Okinawa, but all nuclear installations will be re- moved. Although there has been con- siderable agitation in Japan for the complete phaseout of the bases, the Americans could hardly expect to go that far, even to extract further trade concessions from Japan. Mr. Sato has gone just about as far as he can go in accommodating Mr. Nixon on monetary and trade mat- ters. On foreign relations there can be no doubt that the talks centred on the President's upcoming trip to China. Presumably the U.S. presi- dent assured Mr. Sato that there would be no deal with Peking which would not take Japanese interests into consideration. The Americans and the Japanese have mutual vest- ed interests in Taiwan, both politi- cal and economic. Mr. Sato who was under tremendous pressure to follow the American line in regard to the two China policy, in the UN and he did so suffering ignominious de- feat along with the U.S. Now Mr. Sato, finds himself persona non grata in Peking, while great preparations are being made to receive the Amer- ican president in the Chinese capi- tal. These are anxious days for Japan which must now find new markets for its burgeoning industry and new political alignments while at the same time precluding a policy of mil- itary expansion. Arnold Toynbee puts it this way. Japan, he says, "is the prisoner of industrialization for ex- port and of the population explosion in a world in which technology has 'annihilated distance' Today, nei- ther self isolation noy aggression can solve the acute problem that Japan shares with the rest of the world. One world or no world is the choice that confronts us all." We paid, we'll stay Prime Minister Edward Heath has the support of NATO allies in his tough stand against threats of Mal- tese Prime Minister Dom Mintoff who has indicated that if all British troops are not off the island by Jan. 15, he intends to use force to get them off. The British, having prepaid the agreed rent to March 31st, say that it is impossible to dismantle all installations by Jan. 15 and they don't intend to leave any equipment behind. Reports indicate that the Libyans, who have plenty of money but lack technological expertise both in the air and on the ground, have already arrived in Malta to take over control of the civilian airfield. There are rumors that some of their troops a very small number are also .in Malta now. Thus far, the Russians have made no provocative moves. They are unpopular with the people of Malta, and with Mr. Mintoff him- self, who said in his election cam- paign last Spring that he would never agree to a Russian presence on the island. It would be unfortunate if there were a military confrontation before the British pull out, but if there is, the fault lies squarely with Dom Mintoff, who has shown neither good sense or genuine concern for the Maltese people in the whole affair. Divine guidance Canada saved from a step that might have spelled political union with the United States by an inspira- tion given a prime minister from the beyond the idea will seem in- credible to many people. Yet Peter Desbarats, in the long article on page five today, quotes Mackenzie King to that effect. There is usually room for some skepticism about claims to divine gui- dence in political matters. The issue of Canadian economic and political independence is one on which there can be and are differences of opinion. Mackenzie King may have become convinced that God wanted Canada to be independent but there is the possibility that, as the task o! saving the world from man's folly is slowed by separate sovereignties, others will believe God wills other- wise. Skepticism shades into cynicism when it is noted that politicians claim divine guidance but keep a wary eye cocked to the electorate. It will be seen from the Desbarats article that Mackenzie King sensed the Canadian people might not take kindly to a move that threatened their indepen- dence. Our present government lead- ers may have divine guidance on the matter, but indications are that they are trying to read the will of the people, too. ANDY RUSSELL The great horned oivl (SOMETIMES we wake at night to hear the hooting of a hunting owl perched In a tree near our house. It is a wild and eerie sound in its own peculiar way, but it leaves me with a warm feeling of be- ing home, for since I was old enough to take notice, the calls of owls has been something to associate with the kind of country that I love. The great horned owl is big; only surpassed in size by the great grey owl of the bushland farther north. What is perhaps most outstanding about owls in general is their keenness of vi- sion and silence of flight. Not long ago I came out in the late dusk of evening by a meadow at the edge of a tall grove of aspens to stand quietly looking out over the open ground. With only the slightest scrape of a feather on a limb, a great horned owl launched itself from the top of a tree close by to fly on silent wings out over the meadow to- wards the trees on the far side. Fifty yards out, the big bird suddenly tipped over on ils wings to plummet to the ground. Through my binoculars I saw it reach down and pick up a vole with its talons. Then, as though anticipating the tender morsel, the bird paused for a few moments before swallowing the mouse- sized victim whole. To pick up the move- ment of such a small thing in deep grass from forty feet above takes razor-sharp vi- sion Incomparably better than the eyes of man. Great homed owls arc true predators making up one of the most valuable con- trols of rodents In the ecological pattern. But they do hunt and kill animals and birds much bigger than themselves on occasion. Owls guarding a nest have been known to attack a man. I once saw a great horned owl strike a big skunk out on a summorfallow fiold. The fight was fierce, and against the setting sun a hnlo of flying scent appeared (is the skunk fired both barrels of his lethal stink gun. But it wu not tooufb for owl kilted skunk after a short fast moving struggle. Many times while travelling through for- est in winter I have seen where the tracks of a snow-shoe hare have told a dramatic story. The tracks would be first travelling in a straight line evenly spaced, then lengthen as the animal speeded up before beginning to twist and dodge. Then the line of prints would be punctuated by Uio exclamation marks of wide spread tail- feather streaks and the prints of wings on the powdery snow. And that .was the end 3f it, cut off abruptly if the bird was powerful enough to lilt the hare; or if not, there would be a smear of blood, bits of fur and a picked bone or two. A trapper friend was following a mink track along a frozen creek when the feath- er marks of a great horned owl cut them off. But there was a feather or two laying on the snow, and a bit farther along some more feathers and drops of blood telling Ihe story of a fight. More blood spots led the trapper two hundred yards upstream, where he came on the owl and the mink locked together in death. The owl had grip- ped the mink well back on the loin leav- ing reach for the animal to lock its teeth on the artery under the wing. So the fight had ended in stalemate with both com- batants losing. Owls are avid hunters largely preying on small game like mice, pocket gophers, birds and hares, but occasionally one will develop into a specialist taking birds as big as full grown turkeys. A farmer ac- quaintance whose flock of turkeys roosted on top of an old shed lost half a dozen full grown birds to a great horned owl before he was able to destroy it. I once examined a nesting site in n big aspon near a beaver dam to find evidence of the parent owls having brought a musk- rat, a magpie, ducks and grouse us well as a big sucker. Owls are diversified hunt- vi sometimes even taking fish. Secret talks disclosure serves public WASHINGTON A s m a 11 but loud minority of my press colleagues, and a num- ber of government officials, are portray column- ist Jack Anderson as some Kind o! trailer for making pub- lic those secret documents about the India-Pakistan war. James J. Kilpatrick thinks Anderson should have put "good citizenship" first and run to the justice department with the documents, helping, them to discover, and punish the "disloyal" official who made UK security breach. What to think or do about the official who leaked the docu- ments is a separate Issue. But there ought to be no doubt in the public's mind that Ander- son was a model of good citi- zenship when he remained faithful to his commitment to tell the public the truth. It would have been easy enough to curry favor with the administration by suppressing the documents, but Anderson knows that the single greatest justification lor a free press is that it serves to keep govern- ment honest. When government has grown so big and manipulates 10 many instruments of public opinion, the people must rely all the more on the courage and integrity of the press. The administration's anti- India actions were not fleeting gestures of trifling conse- quence. As Nikfca Khrushchev reminded the world in a 1955 speech before India's parlia- ment, as early as 1923 V. I. Lenin saw the wooing and win- ning of China and India as the keys to a worldwide Commun- ist victory. China has gone Communist, but has now eased outside the Soviet orbit; India has moved more and more into the Soviet orbit but has not gone Com- munist. It is a serious enough situa- tion that no responsible news- man should be shackled by a "secret" stamp when he sees clearcut evidence that the gov- ernment is lying, and using the press to mislead the public. Why shouldn't the American public know that while Mr. Nixon's national security ad- viser, Henry Kissinger, was using a press "backgrounder" to flamfloozle the public into believing the U.S. was follow- ing a fair, responsible policy, the White House in fact was acting with petulant childish- ness? There was Kissinger secretly telling top government officials the president wanted them to adopt a "pro-Pakistan that he wanted them to be "cool" to the Indians, and that Mr. Nixon didn't want the In- dian ambassador treated at too high a level. Why shouldn't the American people know that Kenneth Reading, Mr. Nixon's envoy to India, had fired home I cable protesting that USIA reports and other versions of the con- flict (based on Kissinger's briefing) did not square with the facts and could create a credibility problem? As Lyndon B. Johnson dis- covered about Vietnam, no for- eign policy succeeds for long without the support of the Am- erican people; and public sup- port quickly withers unless It is based on wide understanding of the truth. One senior government offi- cial admitted to'me that there was no "national security" damage in the Anderson dis- closures in the strict sense. Jordan might not like it known Tight little island that the U.S. wat conterapUt- Ing using it to sneak anna- to Pakistan. Some senior U.S. offi- cials, e s p e ci a lly Kissinger, might be embarrassed. But the greater problem, he Hid, was that "we can never conduct foreign policy if everyone la afraid to discuss problem! frankly, because of fetr that will be in the press the next day." That is indeed 1 serious problem. But let us not forget that if the administration bid been leveling with the Ameri- can people, the disgust and dis- may would never have ruen to high that one official would feel a duty of conscience to leik the truth. After the damage wat done, administration spokesmen be- gan to tell the press some of the things that should havi been revealed when our gov- ernment knew that war was imminent. They told how Mr. Nixon has made four impor- tant offers to the Indian prime minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, when she was here. These Included a unilateral troop pullback by Pakistan if India would agree to recipro- cate later, another million from the U.S. to help care for the 10 million refugees In In- dia and talks between the gov- ernment in West Pakistan and the Awami League in the East. "The president felt that he had given the lady an altemi- tive to war, and she chose war that is why he was to one official told me. Wouldn't it have been mare statesmanlike, more enlighten- ing to the American people, to confront the Indians publicly with Mr. Nixon's "alternatives to war" instead of Issuing silly behind the scenes orders to be rude to the Indian am- bassador? As it is, even the Anderson documents give us no clear picture as to why Mr. Nixon was so fervently pro-Pakistan and anti-India. The town re- mains full of whispers that it was because Mrs. Gandhi cut him up verbally in her toast at the White House dinner. Asian diplomats talk about the Indians snubbing Nixon and the Pakistanis treating him royally when he went to Asia after losing to Kennedy In 1960. Some speculate that sid- ing' with Pakistan, and thus with Red China, was part of some grand strategy the presi. dent had in connection with nil trip to China. We may never know. But thanks to Anderson we are lot closer to the truth about foreign policy bunglings which this government, like govern- ments before it, was all too eager to cloak in secrecy la- bels. (Field Enterprises, Int.) Maurice Western Commission on Indian claims still bogged down QTTAWA One of the ma- jor gaps in public in- formation concerns the pro- ceedings of the Barber com- mission on Indian claims, which was appointed two years ago under Part 1 of the Inquiries Act; it promptly went underground; and has not been heard from since. On the day that the House recessed, Frank Howard, the NDP member for Skeena, did manage to obtain from the prime minister two scraps of intelligence which may be significant. The first was that there have been discussions be- tween Lloyd Barber, the com- missioner, and the ministry re- lating to an enlargement of the terms of reference. The second was that, while the terms of the order in council have not been changed, Mr. Barber has been authorized to interpret them as he desires in receiv- ing representations from va- rious Indian groups. Mr. Ttudeau promised to consult with Jean Chretien "to see if there is any state- ment he can usefully make at this time." Some statement may well be necessary, if only to dispel an impression plainly reflected In another of Mr. Howard's questions. This had to do with the reaction of the native people toward the com- mission and "whether there have been any groups which appeared before him to make claims or whether In fact there has been a commission with no So They Say In England when they put a sign, "don't walk on the nobody walks on it. In the Uni- ted Stales when they put up a sign everybody walks on it. How can anyone export, the cops to be incorruptible when everybody walks on tlic grass? Brown, former New vork City councilman. sort of activity because of the terms of reference." Evidently, Mr. Howard, who has interested himself in this subject for many years, has reason to believe that Mr. Bar- ber has not merely gone un- derground but.has been trap- ped there since 1868. The appointment of the com- missioner two years ago was supposed to have been an im- portant forward step. Some- what earlier, the government had abandoned the scheme of a multi-member Indian claims commission to adjudicate his- toric controversies involving land rights, hunting privileges and social benefits supposedly guaranteed by treaties. Mr. Barber, however, was to in- quire into a report on claims, classifying those which ought to be referred to the courts. The government also agreed to finance research by an Indian national committee in order that the case of the native peo- ples might be properly present- ed. Practically everything that has happened since, however, has been shrouded in secrecy. There have been various prob- ings by opposition members; some expressions of concern by Liberal members. But very little light has been shed on the progress of the inquiry. There is some evidence" that Mr. Barber ran into difficul- ties at the outset. These may have been due to the terms of reference, which perhaps appeared to the Indians to reflect policy views of Mr. Trudcau in June of the same year, both sharply restrictive in character. In the general statement, the government plainly sought to limit Indian by emphasizing the "limited and minimal promises" of the original treaties. The prime mlnlslor had gone beyond this, arguing that, while the federal government would recognize treaty rights these being con- tractual arrangements, it would not recognize aboriginal rights on the ground that these are too general and undefined. When the subject was raised by Walter Dinsdale in October, 1970, (as a result of repre- sentations from the Indian brotherhood and Metis associa- a spokesman for the gov- ernment declined comment on the ground that the Nishga tri- bal council in British Colum- bia had taken court action to affirm their aboriginal rights. In May, 1971, it came up In a different fashion, when the government declined to pro- duce correspondence between Mr. Barber and various Indian organizations regarding Indian land, treaty claims and abori- ginal rights. Mr. Howard com- plained that many Indians, be- ing completely in the dark as to representations or responses to the commissioner from other Indian groups, wanted the in- formation. He challenged the view, credited to Mr. Barber, that disclosure would not be in the interests of the commission or of the Indians. There was at that time a very interesting intervention by Walter Deakon, Liberal member for High Park. Mr. Deakon quoted various docu- ments and government studies, 'Crazy Capers' all suggesting that the ques- tions of treaty and aboriginal rights are central in Indian thinking. He noted that, in the consultations held across the country by the Indian affairs branch In 1969-70, the Indian Act Itself received little atten- tion, whereas concern about the other matters was con- stantly expressed. On the ques- tion of aboriginal rights, Mr. Deakon parted company with the prime minister: "It is my respectful submission that the issue of aboriginal rights has as great a significance, if not greater, to the Indians as does the French language to the French." He also said of Mr. Tru- deau's policy statement: "This is the main reason why the commissioner of claims is hav- ing great' difficulty in justly dealing with and resolving ttM claims submitted to Mm fa.' adjudication." Mr. Deakon, It should bt emphasized, spoke as a pri- vate member. His observa- tions, however, may fresh significance from tnt prime minister's replies of Dec. 30. If Mr. Barber has been given freedom to inter- pret his terms of reference af he desires, the government may in fact although without formal announcement have made an important shift of pol- icy. It would appear that some sort of statement was made by the ministry on a subject which is certainly of great im- portance and on which the country has been kept in dark for two, apparently not very productive, years. (Tlic Herald Ottawa Bureau) Looking backward THROUGH THE HERALD 1922 At last Cardston will have a genuine skating rink. A real hockey club was organ- ized Monday night by about 20 of the local sportsmen. 1932 _ The "Y" Jokers de- feated the Sugar City High School basketball team last night. Although these two teams have met several times in three years it is the first time the city boys have come out victorious. IM; South Onilipr- ies were deluged with a rising flood of orders today Cram points throughout the prairie provinces and Ontario. Operat- ors accelerated production to capacity and sent out a call for more miners. 1952 Leihbridge had fewer traffic deaths last year than any of the provlnce'i other major cities. IWZ Charles E. Oliver, president of the Oliver Chemi- cal Company (Lethbrldgc) Ltd. Thursday raised the possibility of moving his manufacturing operation to Leihbridge. The lethbridge Herald 304 7th St. S., Lethbridge, Alberta LETHBRIDOE HERALD 10. LTD., Proprietors and Publisher! Published 1905 19H, by Hon, W. A. BUCHANAN I'm luckyl Mine Clan Mull Registration No. 001] Member of The Canadian Press and Ihe Canadian Dally NewiHMr Publllhtrs' Association and the Audit Bureau ol (flrculitlDni CLEO W. MOWERS, Editor mid Publisher THOMAS H. ADAMS, General Manager DON PILLINO WILLIAM HAY EdHor Assoclalo Editor ROY F, W LES DOUGLAS K WAI Wl Mverllilng M.negtr EdltoriaT Mw "THE HERALD SERVES THE SOUTH" ;