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Lethbridge Herald (Newspaper) - January 9, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta People of the south Margaret Luckhurst Old world influence on a young country rpHE EARLY cultural A sale of Canada was made up of adventurers from France, fur traders from England, and immigrants from Scotland and Ireland who were seeking a better life. Over the generations news of Canada's benefits trickled back to the Old Country and more and more people of all racial backgrounds began looking to Canada as the land of opportunity and succor. In particular, people in Central Europe seemed always to be in an erratic state of political and religious conflict which was reflected in a rigid cast system allowing opportunity only to the well-to-do. In the late nineteen hundred! and in the early years of the twentieth century, a heterogeneous migration of Ukrainians, Poles, Slovakians, Italians, Greeks and Russians made their way to Canada's shores determined to carve out a freer, better way for themselves, prepared to do any amount of hard work to achieve it. It wasn't easy. Left behind were centuries of tradition, anxious relatives, familiar languages. New to them was the vast emptiness of Canada and a frontier life with very shallow roots. It was a society into which energetic and robust young men could blend because the rule of the land was "every man for himself", but for young women it was an entirely different matter. Those who braved the trip to Canada found upon arrival that job opportunities were extremely limited, and to survive at all meant accepting any type of work they could find. Recently, two pioneer Ukrainian women recalled their early experiences in Lethbridge, and the many difficulties they were faced with in the "New Country." Mary Romaniuk first heard of Canada back In her home in the province of Bukovina in the Ukraine. "We were peasants," she said simply, "our life had always been on the land. My older brother heard of Ukrainians leaving for better parts and planned to join them. But in the end, he didn't want to go, I guess his ties were too strong. But I was young and the sound of Canada was inviting, so my brother very kindly sent me. I was 16 or thereabouts, and I'll never forget the worry I had when I got to Canada and couldn't understand a word of English." In 1912, when Mary arrived, southern Alberta was beginning to feel the economic advantages of the coal mines. Railways had been built to haul coal to larger centres and Se population was growing, ^in 1' the small towns". "There were many farms, but there was little rainfall and crops were not good," Mary said. "My first job was working in a home, where I got my board and room and about $10 a month pay. I felt lucky., because I was finding it very difficult to learn English." When she was 17 Mary met and married William Kucher-afl, and the young couple went to Retlaw to farm. "This was not a success," she recalled, "although we spent four years there they were very dry years and the crops were poor. Finally my husband decided we would give it up, and he got a job in the mine at Hardie-ville." Life in mining towns was pretty rugged, Mary recalled, particularly in the early years. "Most of the miners were Italians, Ukrainians and Czechs,** she said, "nobody made an attempt to understand the other, and there were plenty of fights and brawls. At pay day time, there was far too much drinking, and when you get hundreds of rough miners drinking and fighting it can be very frightening." To help out, Mary kept seven boarders who paid three dollars a month each for their board and room." It doesn't sound like much," she grinned, "but the men also bought the groceries. There were no stores in Hardieville then so we had to walk to Lethbridge for our supplies." "There was an explosion in one of the mines in Hillcrest, and many miners were killed," Mary reminisced. "A call went out to the miners in Lethbridge and Hardieville to help out. After this tragedy the Europeans became closer, formed a bond. They forgot about their differences and began helping each other out. It made a great difference to the community and was a great assistance to new people coming in. You see, the British people who came to Canada had come from industrial areas; they had some education and training and were able to work out their situations as they came along. We Central Europeans were usually uneducated, I never did learn how to read and write, and had come from a rural farm background. We didn't even know bow to get in touch mo- with the proper people to buy land, or get construction licences. In the Old Country you see, peasants didn't expect to get education and we just made out as best we could. In Canada we soon found out there were no peasants and everyone could have a chance at getting an education." When she was just 35, Mary was widowed and left with five children. Again she went to work in private homes, determined her children would not have their education interrupted. In time she married William Romaniuk who was employed for a number of years by the CPR, then later by Crystal Dairy. Annie Romaniuk, Mary'* sister-in-law, is younger than the latter but her story is similar. "I was born in Czechoslovakia, but my husband is Ukrainian and I have adopted his customs," she said. "As a young single girl I worked in hotels in Prague and other cities, but one day I heard that the Canadian government had contracted to bring 25 immigrant girls to Canada to work on farms. It sounded good to me, I applied and was accepted. That was in 1929 when help was badly needed in the west. I c a m e straight to Lethbridge and took all kinds of jobs; working on farms, in stores, wherever I could find work. Within a short time I had paid back the Canadian government the cost of my fare." She married John Romaniuk who had come from the Ukraine in 1927 and went to live with him on a farm near Coal-dale. "This was during the dirty thirties," she recalled, "when times were very hard. Our house was just a two-room shack with such thin walls I could see through them in places. But we didn't give up. Eventually times improved, we were able to buy more land and build a bigger home which we paid for within a few years. We had three sons and one of them' is now on the farm. We retired three years ago and bought this little bungalow in Lethbridge. Canada has been so good to us. Can you think we would ever be so fortunate today in Czechoslovakia or the Ukraine?" Both Romaniuk women have a fierce loyalty to Canada, especially to southern Alberta. "It's the land of opportunity," Mary observed. "When I first came here, only Dr. Galbraith had a oar, which was a coupe. I was astonished to see a carriage moving without horses! I never thought we'd ever be in the position to own a car too, but in Canada everyone has the opportunity of working towards what they would like to have." Neverthless, while the two women regard themselves as devoted Canadians, they are anxious that the traditions of their native land be preserved. Longtime members of the Association of United Ukrainians, they have worked hard over the years to endow their children and their grandchildren with a cultural heritage which they sincerely hope will not be lost. Celebration of B'piphany this past week stands out as a classic example. While most of us were settling into post-Christmas routine and adjusting to a new year, members of the Eastern Church celebrated Epiphany, or Twelfth Night, which fell on January 6. This festival commemorates the day the Magi came to adore the infant Jesus, bringing Him gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. The Romaniuk household is typical of that of other Ukrainian households during the Christmas season. "We have gradually come to celebrate both Christmases," Annie explained. "In the Old Country we did not exchange gifts, and it was a strange custom to us when we first came here, but our children grew up with the tradition of Santa all around them and we now have two Christmases to enjoy. However, for older Ukrainians, Epiphany is still the real Christmas. On its eve, we sit down to 12 meatless dishes symbolizing the 12 apostles. There is boiled wheat, seasoned with honey, or in its glace prosphora, a piece of read and honey is eaten. It represents the essential food. The main course following always includes beet soup, holub-ci, pidpenky mushrooms and pyrohy." Annie explained while the Ukrainian Association Is strong is large centres, it isn't as much an influence in the lives of young people as it once was. "For years the Association was strong here," she said, "there was a large membership and through their efforts a church and hall were built. We held a special school in the hall for the children to learn the language and the music and dances. Music is such a part of our culture you see, we all want our children to have a strong background in it. We made our native costumes and continued our fine needlework which is so difficult to do. But as the generations have passed, the younger people seem less interested in learning the language, and young girls show little patience in learning any of our crafts. It's a shame, for we feel this part of our culture has mixed well with other cultures which have formed Canadian traditions. However, we older ones still meet, both for fellowship and to decide ways and means to raise funds for various local charities and projects. Recently, because of our deep interest in education, we donated $1,000 to the University of Lethbridge." In a determined effort to show their appreciation to Canada, the Romaniuks have been instrumental in establishing a Ukrainian room in the Sir Alexander Gait Museum. It is filled with artifacts and costumes depicting their national way of life. Recently they held a tea in the museum and funds from this will be donated to the museum to purchase needed articles for social events of this nature. Neither woman has been back to the land of her origin. "Before he died, my second husband offered to take me back to the Old Country," Mary smiled, "but the trip was costly so I told him to go alone, and I went to Expo with my grandson instead. Now I am to old to go and I don't have many regrets about it any longer. "Please put in your story that I, we, can never get over what wonderful things can be done on the prairies; the many libraries, the art and music! When I go from this world I would like to think the culture we Ukrainians brought with us and which carried us through so many hard times, will be appreciated and dignified by all Canadians. Our Old Country traditions, like our costumes and dancing may die a little with younger people who do not see the value of them today. But they won't go entirely, for they have already been accepted as part of our way of life." ANNIE AND MARY ROMANIUK Photo by Phil Faulds BOOK REVIEWS Encounter groups proving popular "Marathon 16" by Martin Shepard, MD, and Marjorie Lee (Longmans of Can a d a Limited, 253 pages, $8.75). 17NODUNTER -group- itis and sensitivity - training-itis have recently taken North America by storm, and Marathon 16 is one more or less honest attempt to explain to the un-encountered just what it's all about, while at the same time cashing in on the current leisure class buy - anything and do-anything philosophy. Encounter groups are a par-apsychoanalytic tool intended to shock today's touchless ingrown, communicationless, future - shocked human beings out of their antisocial hangups (which everyone has), and they do succeed. Lethbridge has had a number of encounter group meetings, and they continue to become more popular. The prude who enjoys his or her prudery will probably continue to decry encounter groups as being immoral and all sorts of worse things, and no doubt in a few cases this criticism is accurate. But ingeneral, sensitivity training can teach participants how ridiculous their various social and often private hangups are, and teach them at least the basics of how to get along better with other people. And in contrast to the follow-the - leader principles of Gol- den Rule philosophy which requires faith to work, encounter groups thrust participants into situations where they are forced to see that they can get along Witches and warlocks "Mastering Witchcraft: A Practical Guide for Witches, Warlocks and Covens" by Paul Huson (Longmans Canada Limited, 256 pages, $7.50). TIAVE you ever wondered what it would be like to be a witch or a warlock, or indeed how one goes about becoming witches or warlocks? Mastering Witchcraft, written by an Englishman who had a witch for an ancestor, and who has had a lifelong interest in the occult, offers an enterprising and thorough guide for the beginning, do-it-yourself witch. And it's a lot of work! Magic is something we tend usually to pooh-pooh to each other, and even to ourselves - until we're faced with the situation where, if just supposing, there is the teensiest, weensiest bit of a possibility that just maybe there really is a world of magic, we're going to get nailed if we contravene the "law." So, we obey the "law," Examples? Friday the 13th, black cats, walking under ladders, breaking mirrors, knock on wood and for a few people in certain countries of the world, voodoo. There aren't too many "practical guides" on how to become a witch available these days, since the arcane arts have fallen into disuse and disrepute (who'd want their mother to be called a witch?). Mastering Witchcraft answers the questions of how to form a coven, casting spells, curst n g, developing your witching powers and the four Great Rules of Magic. A variety of cants is included, with details about what they are designed to do, and the introduction contains a brief but interesting history of witchcraft. It's a fascinating book, and a must for the well-stocked occult bookshelf. JIM WILSON. Focus on the University Semper eadem TUST as 'tall oaks from little acorns " grow,' large and prestigious universities develop from small and obscure ones. Three centuries ago Harvard was smaller than Lethbridge is today, Yale hadn't been even thought of, and apart from a couple of seminaries in Quebec there was not a single institution of higher learning in all that vast land that later became Canada. Now there are thousands-quite literally-of colleges and universities on this continent and the names of scores of them, including several in Canada, are known around the world. They grow, but they don't really change. In all those years of development, the basic objectives of higher education don't appear to have altered a great deal, and probably that is good. Methods of achieving those objectives haven't changed much either, and that's not so good. One would have thought that, if there is anything to all the t a 1 k i n g and writing about "scientific" ways of doing things, some small improvements in the approach to teaching university students might have come to light. Perhaps the system was perfected long ago. But there has been a change in the way universities are governed (if it can be said they ere governed at all!), a very recent change, and one that is still going on. After hundreds of years of the usually benign rule of externally-appointed chancellors and regents and governors, a few years ago faculty members quite suddenly decided it was their turn to run tilings. Here and there, first at one institution then at another, and soon at scores of universities, they demanded the right to govern their affairs and those of their institutions, and curiously enough, no one seriously objected. Opposition was sporadic at best (or worst) and in Canada virtually non-existent. It was almost as if the governors and administrators weren't tyrants and ogres after all, just ordinary people waiting patiently for someone who really wanted the responsibility to come and take it. While it may be a bit early to judge with even people they don't much like. Marathon 16 offers one example of how an encounter group works. This particular group session was carefully tape recorded, and a trained reporter added visual observations, thus producing an accurate study of the session. Five men, five women, the group leader (Dr. Shepard) and the non  participating recorder (Mrs. Lee) spent 16 hours in Dr. Shepard's office for the encounter group project. Sixteen hours of exposing one's innermost thoughts changes the participants, who are in themselves interesting people. If they seem a bit offbeat to start with, it's understandable: they're from a New York world that is somewhat different than Lethbridge. But the book shows the how and the why of their change, which would apply just as significantly to a Lethbridge - ite taking part in a local encounter group meeting. For those who would like to learn more about encounter groups, the book is interesting and informative; for those who have taken part in encounter groups, the book offers another insight into what happens. JIM WILSON. whether this palace revolution will make any significant difference, permit me to doubt it. As long as universities have the same traditional values and goals, use the same methods and maintain the same structure as they have had for centuries, the results are going to be about the same as they have always been, whoever is in charge. As a matter of fact, faculty control of universities seems to me all but a guarantee that there will bo no change, in goals, outlook, methods, structure, or anything else. Whether or not this-please make your own choice between stability and stagnation-is a good thing is a matter for the public to judge, so probably it won't be decided soon, if it is at all. It seems much more likely the public will continue to regard a university as a slightly mysterious place where their kids go to get "educated"-whatever that may mean-and let it go at that. So, a century from now, universities will still be carefully screening high-school graduates, offering them all the traditional courses, examining them, scrupulously grading the results, and awarding degrees to those who achieve the predetermined standards. They will still be striving for higher budgets and more buildings, and prophesying doom if they don't get them. They will still be delving into esoteric- but scholarly-questions, purusing incomprehensible research problems, defending their academic freedom and seeking the truth as they understand it. And insisting, of course, when a vital social issue arises, that their place is above the battle. So, gentle reader, if you are worried about what radical students-or more radical professors-might do to damage the institutions you revere, please set your mind at ease. The universities will survive, and in just about their present form. A building may burn now and then, occasionally the whole place may be disrupted for a time, but no one is going to change the really important things about the university in your time, or your children's. Unless you want them changed. The Voice Of One -By DR. FRANK S. MORLEY The Bear's big embrace JN recent years a dialogue developed between European Christians and Communists behind the Iron Curtain. With sentimental optimism Christian theologians tried to prove that there was no gulf between the two ideologies which could not be bridged by goodwill and Chechoslovakian Communists especially eagerly tried to meet them halfway. Alas, ,the.honeymoon .is. over and disillusionment has come. When will people learn that Communism means "to bury us", as Khrushchev contended and, while tactics may change to suit the moment, ultimate purposes do not change? After visiting Russia in 1959 and noting the extermination of minority ethnic groups, I reported the brutal squeeze on Russian Jews. No longer could a Jew hold a commission or belong to a service club in army, navy, or air force. They could not go to university or aspire to professional status or be foremen at factories. As has been their fate in history they were made the scapegoats for every national trouble. People in this country, however, tried to believe the best and hoped that justice would triumph in Russia, To the contrary pressure has increased intolerably and there can be no doubt that Russia intends to wipe out Jewry. The diabolical purposes are highlighted by the fearful punishments meted out to the hijackers arousing the remnants of the world conscience. Unhappily justice is in such bad shape all over the world that no nation is in a position to throw stones. None, however, has more colossal impudence and hypocrisy than Russia. Over and over again she has stated that the courts must finally be the instruments of the best political interests of state and that, where state interests and justice collide, justice must be thrown out the window. This is a matter of record. Russian imperialism is brutal and bare- faced. She has conquered country after country and coerced completely under her control their economy and politics. Millions of Latvians, Esthonians, and Lithuanians have been dispossessed, slaughtered, or deported. In a systematic policy Russia has transplanted Lithuanian and Latvian families to the borders of China and replaced them in their native countries with Russians. . Iithuanian.. soldiers are used to guard the Chinesei borders. As the New York Times in a feature article recently reported, the Russians have completely demoralized Czechoslovakian life. When I visited Czechoslovakia ten years ago the Czechs were proudly sprouting wings. They were reviving their culture, breathing more freely, talking of Comenius and Hus, delighting in the revival of writers and artists. Russian Con> munism could not tolerate such freedom, nor can Communism tolerate any strong movement of the intelligence. All the Communist apologists have declared this basic intolerance. So in Czechoslovakia Intellectuals are forced either to manual labor or starvation. The purge is ruthless and complete. All newspapers, books, and magazines must adhere strictly to the censored party line. Under the direct supervision of the Soviet Union the Communist Party has been forced to purge itself of any suspected liberal elements. Members are asked, "Do you approve of the armed intervention of the Warsaw Pact authorities?" If they do not approve, revenge is merciless. Party functionaries have replaced the former "Communists" whose loyalty to Russia may be suspect. The sun has again set in Czech life for an indefinite future under the black, barbarian wave of Russian imperialism. But the West does not talk of expelling Russia from the Olympic games! dangerous role The Winnipeg Free Press proposed bill "In Place of Strife" that the preceding Labor government had to withdraw because of union pressure. The strike organizer is Kevin Halpin, a Communist party member for 20 years, who not so long ago more or less wrecked production at Ford's plant in Dagenham. It is a feature of the modern techologi-cal society that a few determined men can cause it to grind to a halt, whatever the views of the majority. At Dagenham, Mr. Halpin was able to cow the workers into disrupting production. But when it came to secret ballot in a general election it became obvious that he had nobody behind him other than a few like-minded militants. There is nothing new in demagoguery. It's as old as ancient Athens. What is new is the vulnerability of our technology to the machinations of a. handful of demagogues. This is something that those who wish to protect democracy must bear in mind, and sooner rather than later. ANTI-COMMUNISM has become a term of opprobrium. Yet, as Raymond Aron recently remarked, rational anti-communism is essential for all those who cherish our democratic institutions and wish to see them developed rather than wrecked. It is, therefore, not a case of seeing a "Red under the bed" when, in analyzing the recent industrial unrest in Britian, we notice how the Communists are very much in the forefront. Lord Shawcross, once the attorney-general in the post-war Labor government, sounded the alarm months ago. Now the havoc caused by the strike of Britians power station workers has brought the problem once more into the forefront of public opinion. A new general strike is being organized in Britain for Jan. 12 in a series of political warnings against the Tory government's legislation on unions - legislation not very different from Barbara Castle's ;