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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - January 8, 1921, Lethbridge, Alberta SATUHDAY, JANUAHY 8, THE LETJIBUIDGK DAILY OF INTEREST TO THE FARMER SID SOILSIVEYANDMEfflODSTOPREVENT SOIL DR1FONG DISCUSSED BY AGRONOMISTS Soil Survey Will Have Great Effect in Bettering Agricul- tural Methods, Sayi Hon. Duncan lation to Compel Proper of Tillage Might Be Modified, W. H. Fairfield. (kidnumton Bulletin) Soil drifting and the methods em- ployed in overcoming its detrimental effects in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, were discussed by experimentalists from each of the two provinces at the convention of agronomists on Wednes- day. J. H. Ellis, experimentalist of the Manitoba agricultural college, strong- ly advocated the growing of grasses legumes at intervals of three or four years, depending upon the condi- tion of tho soil, to add root fibre. In Manitoba it has been found that in every case where soil drifting has be- como a problem, the soil was either of a very sandy nature or lacking In root fibre. Among the crops he recom- mended to use to replace this root fibre, were clovers, alfalfa and'brome grass. In one district where blowing had formerly caused a considerable loss every year, the farmers had started to grow brome grass on a fairly large scale, and (is a result of thu added root fibre, today soil drift- ing in that district has been practic- ally eliminated. Preventive Measurec Temporary preventive measures that sure to start, and work right across the tield. He cited one instance where u whole field had been saved by the application of a load of straw over a putch that had itarted, while the crop on an adjoining Held which start- ed blowing at thci same time, was en- tirely destroyed because no immediate steps had been taken to stop tho blowing. Although straw or manure could only be used on a very limited had given very good results in Manl-1 area, he pointed out that it had been toba, the speaker Enid, were hoed crop substitutes, aud the use the proper implements for cultivation. A good me had been found for siint'low- ers in preventing summer fa Mow land from blowing. In the iprlng he sug- gested that the sunflowars.be tfeedod in rows or strips across the field, thus forming a windbreak for the land tween the strips. When the proper time for plowing arrived the land be- strips could.be plowed and the means of saving large areas. Throwing up furrows across the field had in a great maiiy oases been used as a moans of checking soil drifting. Lost Organic Matter N- In a paper on soil drifting in Sas- katchewan, Prof. Roy Hanaen, depart- ment of soils, University of Saskatche- wan, pointed out that the soil at In- dian Head, due to 22 years of crop- [pinff, (13 crops and 9 summerfallow) cultivated. The advantage in using loBt one-third of the original nit- sunflowers was 'that they were a rap- content, and on this basis one- id growing crop and would .afford ample protection by the time the soil third of the organic matter. These figures have been widely quoted, and was dry enough to blow In been substantiated by similar fallowing, he advocated the use-of the work at NortU Dakota' Kansas and at duck foot cultivator, In prefcrance to Saskatoon. As did the former speak- tho surface harrows or discs that are' er' he out that the principal often used. Straw and As an Immediate relief for soil drift-! cause for soil drifting was the deple- tion of the organic matter. The logical Livestock, Irrigation and Alfalfa A going the rounds' among Southern Alberta stockfflen that a small ninclier endeavored' to borrow from a bank 11200 with.Which to buy cattle. Ho had plenty of feed and water on his place to accommodate them, but the loan'was refused. How much truth there may be in the story re cannot say, and, there may be a lot more than the bald facts as stated entering into the question. But the story serves to point to the need of farmers and stockmen stocking up their herds and of the necessity of the binkj aiding' In the process. Cattle today are at the lowest price ebb since before the .war. The same is true of practically all. kinds of livestock. Heifers are bringing from J25 to 540 op the Calgary market, and etockera and feeding steers from t'15 to J50. Cows also are very cheap as compared with two yearn ago. At the same time CanWIan statiltics show that there are almoit one million less cattle in Canada than there were a year ajo. And there are just as many 'or more months to feed; ed, was also recommendable, but hard- ly possible under the system of grain 'farming in vogue. The speaker pre- sented figures Indicating that the acre- age seeded to grasses and legumes an- nually in Saskatchewan had been de- creasing during the put three yearg. In 1920 the total acreage was acres or about one per cent, of the thusiasts, and while the planting of trees is ah excellent thing to beauti- fy the farm home, provide a shelter belt, it is futile to look to wholesale tree planting as a practical means of. controlling soil drifting. Trees require care on open prairies, to thrive and there is greater immediate need to induce, farmers to plant trees around tfre and take eare of them. Fall Rye Pall rye for very obvious; reasons AaJ Dwiffreiu Operation, by "FRUIT.A.TIVES" MRS. M. J. Union St., Vancouver, B.C. "I suffered with tho symptomi .of FeiSjijo Trouble, with chronic Coa- itipatioa and constant Headaches. luul pftuu Low down in the beck and iidu of tlte body. I tried vuriouj remedies without relief, and then put myself under a doctor's c.iro tad be advised me to have an operation. I refused. I started taking 'Frult-a-, from the outset, I felt better', 'and this vicdidne has completely relieved ine of all my misery and lufleririg. My weight was only 143 pounds and now it is IBS pounds. of pain and headaches and the terrible Constipation; and what saved me from misery is the splendid frail medicine, MRS. M. J. CORSE. 60e. a for trial 4zn 25e. At til or scut postpaid by Limited Ottawa, Out be 'directed. "And HO I have nothing new to offer in the way oi' a solution of our diffi- culties in said the speaker, "nor do I purpose spending much time seeking a cure-all. Of course, every new idea, every new im- plement, arid every- new crop deserves a trial, but for the present 'we have fairly definite information on the crops that can be successfully grown and these are varied enough for all needa, we have sufficient experience to know ui rje lur ery UDVIUUB reasons wo nave sv been the hope of people interest- the proper implements to use, and we All nf which tn t 11 i j j ed in the problem, but at present the have definite information of proper A 1 of which points to the possibility of restocking herds depleted during. aurea8e is disappointingly small. The methods of cultivation, so that our toe. winter of 1919-20. It can be done cheaply, and there is every indication acreage devoted to rye (including both i present needs are not for new crops, that prices will run higher instead of lower from now on. There is another important phase of tho question to Southern Albertans, and that is the feeding of alfalfa to stock. This Is of especial importance to the hay growers of the Coaldale district. The Coaldale district raise; average of tons of alfalfa annually, of which probably tons have always been available for export. This winter the market for alfalfa Is low. though the- moel -disturbing- feature' is the restricted area in which there is any market at all. The pre-war price for alfalfa ranged around (10 to 515 per ton. A return to that price may be expected especially lince it Is likely that there- will be a considerable alfalfa acreage added ID the next few years with the development of Irrigation projects. What are the alfalfa farmers going to do? Are they going to quit growing" alfalfa, or are they going to provide some other market for it? It would appear that the logical thing to do would to prepare for a plan of feeding a great deal more of the alfalfa grown in the Coaldale district to steers and sheep, preparing them' for the market. During the past few years with feeding cattle and wethers high in price, and witn.a ready market lor alfalfa at from to a ton, there was little inducement to alfalfa growers to undertake feeding their product. From now on It will be differ- ent. If the alfalfa grower can feed his alfalfa on the farm when it is selling at or balad, t'.o.b. cars, he stands to make money if he can buy his feeders right. He saves the cost of haling and hauling, he can feed up aloug with the alfalfa a lot of roughage, and he has the manure value of the feeding stock to put back into his land. The Experimental Farm here has proved over a number of that steers can be fed on alfalfa, valued at that figure in the stack' at the farm, and make good money every year and big money some years. It is coming back to that this district, and it would be wise if the Farm Products, .Ltd., the U. P. A. locins and other interested bodies were to consider ways and means of developing the winter feeding industry. It is a big industry In other alfalfa growing districts, and it must be adopted here if the alfalfa growers are to continue making the money out of their farms that their investment warrants. A SHORT CUT TO HEALTH AND THE LEAST EXPENSIVE With but the companionship your coif-clubs, hike right twty to VANCOUVER ISLAND Every comfort best oi society salubrious atmosphere iwait you with fresh scenic betutlet (or renched by perfect rotds. A real oartdige for the motorist Excellent roll courses. C.P.R. takes you there through BOO miles of magnificent panorama CANADIAN PACIFIC ROCKIES Luxurious sleepers, Observation Cars. TWO TRAINS DAILY. Library Compartment Call, or any Arent of CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY spring and fall rye) in Saskatchewan are as follows: 1019 _ The winter of 1919-1820 was parti-1 province as a whole, lyit nor new implements, nor new methods of culture, but rather tho co-ordina- tion and putting into practice of our present knowledge, the systematiz- of our agriculture, not only in the cularly hard on fall sown rye and no j aivWiml farm. This be boiled doubt accounts for the falling off in down into -less 1920. There is Rood" reason to believe, however, that fall rye will withstand the winters in normal seasons, espe- cially in tho Southwestern part where soil drifting is most serious. A new device obtained by Professor Brack- en from the Kansas Agricultural Ex- periment Station, involving the idea of the corn i.e., sowing the seed -matio rotations." "syste- 'Soil Survey in Alberta .'..The Honorable Duficau Marshall in connection remarked that they expected to have arrangements made i 'before many weeks by which a Soil j Survey, would be undertaken jointly by the'Provincial and Dominion Gov- ernments. Some person from his De- _ "When Premier Stewart was East he was discussing this matter with the Prime Minister at Ottawa, and he gave his consent, and so far as our in deep furrows, one foot apart, is be- i.partment will be appointed to look ing tried at Saskatoon. An ordinary j-after this matter, drill is used, but with special at- tachments. Tillage 1 Tillage methods recommended in the past are now discarded. The dust- Government is concerned, we are prs- mulched idea was unfortunate, and! to pay one-half tho cost of was no doubt the cause of considerable i making this survey, and paying a man damage. Perhaps experience has been 'to look after the farmer's best teacher as to the I Ifc ls that a :Soil Survey.in best implements to use, the proper Itho Province of Alberta will be begun time and amount of cultivation to put i.'his spring and carried on throughout on tho land, etc., though our agricul- tural colleges, our experimental farms and the farm papers have assisted to influence practices into the right chan- nels. There ia still much to be done in the field, however, as we know but little of proper practices for our var- ious soil types, and as can bo readily be seen no set rules can be laid down because of thasc variations in condi- tions and soil types. But here again these cultural methods, including such drastic measures as plowing furrows through the fields are but temporary measures and merely defer the day of reckoning. Systematic Rotation Advocated Looking at the situation as a whole it is inconceivable that any one meth- od or any one crop will solve the dif- ficulty, but perhaps a combination of all. Undoubtedly more adequate sys- summer and fall. It iWill have far reaching effect on the teaching of Agriculture, and the development of Agriculture in this Province." Mr. Hanaen replied that in Saskatch- ewan they were contemplating Soil Surveys, but had not taken the mat-. ter up with the Dominion fiovernraent I and were taking it up with the Pro- j vincial Department. The University and Provincial Department will work in co-operation in making the sur- vey. It would fall on the Dominion.to pay at least one-halt tho cost of this survey. "That over acres of grain were destroyed in southern Alberta this summer as a result of soil drift- was. the statement made by W. H. Fairfield, speaking before tho so- ciety of agronomy'Wednesday. It is one of the greatest 'problems that 1 plowed ciutrty. 71m woods cumi' up. Thin riiltlviiUiHi, and this cultivation luft dry dust -mulch. i AH u result thu drit'UiiK mi tho sum- nun1 fallow during tho t'ollo'ivtng wint- er ami -ipHiix was tho fur years, Strips of winter wlieiil or winter rye seeded across the Held, WHS one IHGUU8. tho speaker mild, that, lie had found luncoKNfut in provuntiiiK drift- Ing on Biiiiinior-l'allow. The laud between the strips of grain could bo summor-t'itllinved and as u ruin did not blow. This as tho nforo- inentlonod motltoils of soil lie pointed out, was through tho raising of livestock, and adopting u more diversified form of agriculture in which hay crops played an Import- ant part. An Insudicient water supply and the .scanty or hay crops in some of the drier sections is the greatest draw-back to successfully and, profitably raising livestock tit the present lime, and to do it at IL profit in most dry areas1 it would bo neces- sary for tho majority of farmers to have farms larger than, a quarter see- ticu, as on that area it was out of the question. Rotary Rod James Murray, manager of tho Nobleford foundation farms, the larg- est system of farms owned by any one company in Alberta, strongly advocat- ed tho use the rotary rod cultivat- or or weedcr. Between 25 and 30 of these Implements are being used on the Noble ford foundation and up to tho present time have given very sat- isfactory results. The type that was the most effective is the square rod that revolves as .the weeder is being drawn across the field. The rod weed- cr twelve-foot wide require from six to eight horses to draw it. The rod travels from threa to four inches be- low the surface and does not'pulver- ize the top but loaves the crust in large pieces and destroys all the weeds. He recommended plowing July 1st, and packing with a surtace packer as soon as possible after. In some cases it was advisable to disc before plow- ing, as it killed a great many weeds and conserved a considerable mois- ture. Methods Breeding Forage Plants Dr. M. O. Malte, dominion agriso- logiat, in a lecture on "methods of breeding in forage advocated the use ol: escapes and native variet- ies of forage plants as breeding mater- ial in improving varieties. Many the supposed hardy varieties of grasses and legumes imported from other places, iu a great many instances, be pointed out, had been found lacking In hardiness. Orchard grass had been cultivated aUOttawa successfully for seven years, and in the seventh year winter killed it. The speaker advocated- inbreeding to secure uniform types. In a great many cases it was necessary to in- breed or-self fertilize the plants for several consecutive geuerations in order to fix the type. Many Farms Speaking of "Western Rye grass and timdtby he remarked that there were actually hundreds of different forms of these two different grasses growing in Canada at the present time, and the scope for the plant breeder with these plants was almost unlimited. In one day over two hundred and fifty plants had been collected at Edmonton some years ago, and it was possible, he said, that upwards of two hundred forms could be isolated out of this number. Dr. Malte illustrated his. address with a number oi' slides with which ho showed the difference between variet- ies of western .rye'grass. Both variet- ies were grown under the samo condi-l tions, yet one variety yielded fully live times as heavy as the other. Ths same condition existed in timothy. i Hardiness In Alfalfa A paper prepared by Prof. W. Kouthworth, Manitoba agricultural col- lage on a "study the Influence of the roto system in promoting hardi- ness in was read by J. H. Prof. Southworth, from the re- sults cf his experiments he pointed out, that hardiness in alfalfa, that is ability to withstand severe winter conditions, depends largely upon its root system. Plants possessing a branched- root system are much more able to with- stand mouths heaving than those having only a single tap root, no matter how great its length may ho. Those plants which have the pow- er to produce rooting underground filems arc able to renovate themselv- es, and after the deatli of the main rootstock are capable of keeping up a separate existence quite independ- ent of, the parent rootstock. Ho further pointed out that whuu alfalfa has tbo habit of spreading by moans of root proliferation, wo have a form of uurniulinK and multiplying in a manner which proin- Isea to give the plant greater powers of resistance to cold and also greater powers of laciiuerntfon from injury than Is possessed even by (rue rhy somes or roots that run along under tho surface and throw out shoota, and 'it U thftt _ will rentier It to in ftdvttru under which U would pible to rainj common Thouiib thit Mt 1 ert out, may u bM immense imporUnce ta luvrinff I In some been found tout the pl4Dt It dottc lent Iu other Breed Pure Cattle Get rid of the Scrub Sire. Use a pure-bred bull and build up a profitable herd, Scrub Bulls produce poverty. Pure-breds will bring you wealth.-CanaiJa needs pure-bred herds. IRe Royal Bank of Canada Total Resources..................... Lethbrldge E. MacXay, Manager. Branches also at Magratb, Cardston, and Taberi TRAVELLERS' CHEQUES Convenience, security and economy are secured by the use of Travellers' issued by this Bank. They enable the er to identify himself and are readily' converted into the current coin of any foreign country. THE CANADIAN BANK OF COMMERCE PAID-UP CAPITAL RESERVE FUND LETHBRIDGE .W, Reikie, Manager. tematic rotations will be evolved. Nat farmers in the drier sections of soutl: only would this go a long way toward I ern Alberta have to contend with, and solving the soil drifting problem, but (although individual farmers have tried would make for better yields, less haz- 'Io wllat tlley could do to combat ard, less waste of the soils fertility, as yet but little has been accom- and all In all a more profitable agri- culture.1 -Proper rotations, should in- clude the use of perennial grasses and particularly legumes. This means more other words mixed fanning. Under such systems undoubt- edly, corn for fodder purposes could be.used to great advantage, reducing at least our summerfallows which aro particularly dangerous, j Mixed farming, smaller fields, the use i of intertilled crops as fallow substi- tutes, more variation in crops, togeth- er with careful tillage proper should be the chan- KIDNEY PILLS J 0, r "ri' BANKING BY MAIL Write for our booltltt "Banking ky TO provide .banking facilities for our friends, who live in districts without the services of a local bank, special departments have been established at central points in Alberta, to handle oufc-of-town business. One dollar will open an account and the method of procedure is fully explained in this booklet. Trie MERCHANTS BANK Head Office: Montreal. OF CANADA Central Office! ttpedaty fqaippti EDMONTON BRANCH, FRANK CALGARY BRANCH, H. W. NESBITT, LETHBRIDGE BRANCH, R. J. DINNING, 1 BM. lt ly ABOLISH TJ n V FINANCIAL W IV JV I A CANADIAN GOVERNMENT ANNUITY Will DO IT Gives a larger return for life than ii obtainable from any other form of investment with security. Free from Dominion Income Tai. Any person resident or domiciled in Canada over theageofSmay purchase, to begin at once, or at any later date defired, an Annuity of from to to be paid in monthly or quarterly instalments. Any two persons may purchase jointly. Employers may purchase for their employees. Apply to your postmaster, or write, postage free, to S. Superintendent of Annuities, Ottawa, for new booklet information required. Mention age last birthday. S. T. and ether plished. Southern 'Alberta, however i not the only place .where the fann- ers suffer losses from soil drifting. In many other parts it lias caused a considerable damage. In tonics districts in the south the damage had amount- ed to only two or threa per cent., while in other areas, the damage amounted to over seventy-five per cent, of the total crop. Lack of Root Fibre The principal cause attributed to soil drifting the speaker said, was a lack of root fibre. In some cases there nover had been any, while in other cases the soil had become depleted of thiu valuable constituent through croii- ping. In discussing methods of controlling soil drifting, Mr. Fairfield emphasized that whatever methods were adopted should be adopted by tba whole com- munity. "It is essentially a community problem. One poor fanner in tho com- munity by farming his land carelcsa- ly a menacu to tlift whole community. Legislation to enforce pro- per methods of cultivation, he re- marked, .were by no means out of order, and on the whole advisable. Immediate Relief i Immediate relief in: some cases might lie brought about by plowing Llui t loll Bt the proper tlmo and taking pains not to form a dust iji lalci c-.'Itlvationy. One year the. farm- )n oue community In Southern Al- Small Beginnings MANY a man has laid the foundation of wealth ;md prosperity, by starting a savings account with small suras early in life. Even the of your twenty five cent pieces may start you on l.ho road to a successful future, A dollar will open an account for you in our Savings Department, THE BRITISH CANADIAN TRUST COT HEAD OFFICE, CONYBEARE BLOCK LETHBRIDGE, ALBERTA AUTHORIZED TO ACT AS EXECUTOR, ADMINISTRATOR, ASSIGNEE, GUARDIAN, TRUSTEE GENERAL FINANCIAL AGENTS AUTHORIZED TRUSTEE UNDER BANK- RUPTCY ACT OF CANADA C.flUl, Smpln.1 Ifndlcidol T, K. LOCKWOOD MANAMR 13TH STREET NORTH 0. E. BLETCHER 4TH AVENUE SOUTH P. BILUINGTON -MiNAoen NEW DAYTON AND STERLING ORAWCHM L. G. THOMAS MA.MAOM COALHURST BRANCH W. B. FERGUSON MANAOIR CQALPALe BRANCH C. T. McKINNON MAMAOSH HUHDCTT ORANCH EXPERIENCE necessary for the success of any undertaking, great or small, particularly so in handling the affairs of others. This Company is qualified by twenty-five years of successful experience in acting as Trustee in every capacity. WE WILL ACT AS YOUR EXECUTOR TRUSTS and GUARANTEE Company, Limited CALGARY ALBERTA ;