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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - February 27, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta 26 LETHBRIDGE HERALD Wednesday, February 27, 1974 Seat sharing an indicator 'petty' apartheid changing By MARTIN DICKSON JOHANNESBURG (Reuter) In a public park m central Johannesburg, a black man and a white man sit side by side on the same wooden bench. In most countries this would not rate a second glance, but in Johannesburg, the largest city of South Africa, the sight is a startling result of i city council decision to minimize so-called "petty" apartheid. Until recently, the park bench would have been labelled "Europeans only." If the African wanted to rest, he would have had to sit on the grass or find one of the few seats in the city reserved for "non-whites." The fact that blacks and whites now can share the same seat hardly amounts to a revolutionary change in white South Africa's beliefs, but it is a sign of small but growing fissures in the granite wall of apartheid built up by the Alberta watches treaty review FORT MCMURRAY, Alta. (CP) Headmen Seapotaki- num Cree and Adam Boucher scrawled their Xs on a gov- ernment treaty paper in a move reminiscent of the storned sale of Manhattan Island by the Indians for worth of beads. It was 273 years after the Dutch purchased Manhattan that representatives of 130 Crees and Chipewyans sold the Athabasca oil sands, one of the world's largest re- serves of petroleum, for But Alberta government of- ficials and Alberta Indians now are wondering whether the 1899 sale firmly trans- ferred ownership to the gov- ernment for good. The government is carefully watching negotiations in the Northwest Territories and in the James Bay area of Que- bec where the natives stand to collect millions in settlement money, ssid Al Adair. Alberta minister of northern development. Indian claims on land in the Northwest Territories are particularly pertinent because of a tattered 75-year-old docu- ment known as Treaty 8. It was this treaty, signed in 1899, and Treaty 11, nego- tiated 22 years later, which the treaty Indians of the North are challenging in their courtroom claim to square miles of the Mack- enzie Valley. Treaty 8 is particularly in- teresting to the Alberta In- dians because the territory in- volved includes the Athabasca oil sands of northeastern Al- berta. Last fall, Mr. Justice Wil- liam Morrow of the Supreme Court of the Northwest Terri- tories ruled that the North's 7.000 treaty Indians have an aboriginal interest in most of the Mackenzie Valley. He wrote that the Indians had a right to file a caveat- legal term for declaration of the property. The caveat would warn prospec- tive developers that the na- tives have an interest in the area. The caveat, however, was ordered held until all appeals in the precedent-setting case were exhausted. But simply because the foundation of Treaty 8 was shaken in the N.W.T. does not necessarily mean it could not stand up in Alberta. The Indians of the N.W.T. have always looked on their situation as unique. One of the basic platforms of the N.W.T. Indians' case was the fact that none of the natives ever set up reserves with the land offered to them in the treaties. In fact, the northern Indians have not even gone so far as to take advantage of the treaties' of- fer of one square mile of land for each family of five. The treaty Indians of the N.W.T. did collect their yearly allowance and their supplies of ammunition and fish nets but didn't take the land. This was the basis of the northern Indians' claim that when the treaties were nego- tiated, the Indians understood them to be peace treaties, not documents surrendering their land to the Crown. In Alberta, most Indian bands have set up reserves with the land they gained in the treaties. But Alberta Indians are in- terested in seeing whether they have any claims to the vast oil sands. Harold Cardinal, president of the Indian Association of Alberta, recently got together at a native conference in Parksville, B.C., with James Wah-Shee, president of the In- dian Brotherhood of the NW.T. The 28-year-old northern In- dian leader was seen describ- ing to his Alberta counterpart how the territorial Indians went about winning the first part of their court case on Treaties 8 and 11. National party government since it came to power nearly 26 years age. And the Johannesburg coun- cil's moves are not isolated ones. Several other major cities look as though they are following its example despite murmurings of government disapproval. Apart from desegregating public benches, Johannesburg has made municipal services multi-racial, opened to all color groups the parks previously reserved for whites and permitted blacks to join city libraries and visit mu- seums and art galleries at the same time as whites. The moves in the racially- obsessed South African context, are hailed as a major breakthrough. Coun. Johannds Oberholzer says that "this is the first time in history in this country where apartheid is in some form being demolished, where there is no extension of the restrictions and the hurt that it has inflicted over the years." Describing petty apartheid as "the greatest affront in history to the dignity of he says the council's moves are the beginning of an end to "the uncalled-for humiliation daily experienced by blacks." Oberholzer explains that if council had mounted its assault five years ago, "there would have been an outburst. I don't think people would have been ready for it. Now there's an acceptance that change is inevitable." There have been no unplea- sant incidents since the council began implementing its decision and 95 per cent of the letters he has received have supported the moves, but Oberholzer believes the council can go only so far without creating an angry white reaction. As a result, swimming pools and public toilets remain segregated. To bring down the color bar here would "create a flashpoint, a backlash right across what we're doing. It would destroy our entire effect." The government is not happy about the Johannesburg moves and similar changes being considered in Cape Town, Durban and Pietermaritzburg. All four city councils are controlled by the United party, which at a national level is the main parliamentary opposition. With a general election looming in April, Prime Minister John Vorster has warned the cities against using the petty apartheid issue as a "political football." Speaking in parliament, Vorster reiterated the govern- ment's belief that separate fa- cilities were necessary to pre- vent "racial friction" in the republic. He warned the city councils that if their moves did cause friction or disturb the peace, the government "will not hesi- tate to intervene and rectify the situation." Similar warnings have been issued by Punt Janson, the deputy minister of Bantu (African) administration. But for all the ministerial threats, it is by no means clear that the councils are acting against the more liberal spirit in which the government is now interpreting its apartheid pol- icies. Janson, for example, has built up a reputation for a humane approach to the segregation question. He recently overruled his civil servants to allow an African restaurant to be opened in the centre of Pretoria, the national capital. The Pretoria city council, which is controlled by the National party, has just scrapped a 70- year-old by-law which denied blacks entry to the capital's parks. Ironically, one of the fiercest opponents of the move was a United party councillor, Etienne Louw, who unsuccessfully demanded that a record be made "of the names of those who have given away the grounds of our forefathers." But despite the moves to lib- eralize apartheid, racial in- tegration still the exception to the rule which divides blacks and whites in every sphere of life. An African must live in an area set aside for Africans and travel to work on a non- white train or bus. At work he eats in a blacks-only restaurant and uses a non- whites toilet. If he wants to buy alcohol, he must enter a liquor store by a door marked "non-whites" and be served at a non-white counter. He can buy goods at many white shops but he always runs the risk of insult. Many stores discriminate in the credit facilities granted to blacks. One leading Johannes- burg department store does not allow Africans to try on swimsuits, while some have separate changing rooms for non-whites. Cinemas, theatres and crowds at sports stadiums are segregated. MEN'S Double You'll love these double knit sport jackets and blazers. They're wrinkle free so you stay neat all day. 2 but- ton, single breasted with centre back vent. Excellent colour selection. Sizes 36 to 46. Reg. 44.95 49.95 Comfortable and easy-going poly- ester doubleknits. Rich solid shades and some check patterns. Cross lop pockets. Sizes 30 to 44. Reg. to 19.95 Desolate hills yielding ancient traces By DAVID SALISBURY, Christian Science Monitor FORMER POLICEMAN JAILED NEW YORK (AP) A former New York detective with four citations was sentenced Monday to 15 years in prison for the rape at gunpoint of two women. James Farley had been sentenced earlier to 12 years in prison for three other rapes. Another case is pending in Suffolk County. NEW YORK, N.Y. New discoveries in Africa are both pushing back the known dates of man's origin and increasing the puzzle of his ancestry. A desolate stretch of hills and valleys in northern Ethiopia has yielded the oldest traces of ancient man yet discovered. There, washed from a layer of mudstone estimated to be more than 3 million years old, a young American paleoanthropologist, Carl Johansen, has found several leg bones and a skull fragment. He feels certain they are hominid, remnants of early man. Dr. Johansen's find is the latest in a series of discoveries that have blown man's family tree into disarray. He presented his discovery before 30 of the world's foremost authorities on the evolution of man. They met at New York University to discuss the problems the latest finds have created. Where once anthropologists assumed a straightforward progression from an" ancestral form to modern man, the fertile fossil fields of East Africa have revealed that early man came in a bewildering variety of types and sizes. The one person most responsible for the current confusion is Richard Leakey, director of the Kenya National Museum. Taking after his father, the late Louis B. Leakey, he has turned up more than 100 hominid fossils from the east shore of Lake Rudolf. Most astonishing of these was a nearly complete skull now dated between 2.9 million and 3.06 million years old found in 1972. The 1470 skull, as it is called, has a large brain capacity and looks remarkably like modern man. Leg bones also found at the site indicate that its owner walked upright. Since then, Richard Leakey's group, has found evidence of at least three types of modern man living side by side for almost 2 million years. Also he has turned up fragments of a skull perhaps even bigger than 1470, and of similiar age. Fragments Besides this "big brained" variety of early man, the East Rudolf site has yielded jawbones and skull fragments of two other distinct types. One is characterized by a small brain (500 cubic a large jaw, and molars indicating it may have been a vegetarian. The other, also with a small skull, has a slender jaw and teeth similar to modern man. "I don't know what to call them: species, genera, lineages. So I call them things. Thing A, Thing B, and Thing Mr. Leakey says. This isn't the only complication for those trying to fit together man's past. Barely 200 miles north of the Lake Rudolf site a group under the direction of Prof. Clark HoweH of the University of California at Berkeley is working. What the Howell party is finding there in the Omo Valley is baffingly different from what Mr. Leakey has discovered. This difference revolves around the problems of dating their finds. Paleontologists search for fossils in areas that originally built up beneath lakes or in river deltas. Not only is this where bones are preserved, but also the process of sedimentation lays down a sequence of well defined layers. These allows the scientists to place fossils in rough chronological order. The next step is to use modern methods for dating key features. One such method is based on radioactive decay of materials in the layers. Another matches the layers with reversals of earth's magnetic field in times past. Disagreement between Rudolf and Omo, whose sequences overlap and which have both been carefully dated, lies in the fossil record. The types of species found in the two locations at the same dated times do not match. "Our pigs tell us one thing, Omo's pigs tell us comments Mr. Leakey. Fossils of ancient pigs are plentiful at both sites. However, he feels this difference may be due to prehistorically different environments. Despite these and other difficulties it is becoming increasingly clear from the fossil record that from about 3 million to 1.5 million years ago there were several different types of early man. This was a time of environmental change, when the rain forest receded and was replaced by verdant savannah. As animals, including man, left the forests and moved into the savannahs, diversification began. Apparently because of the richness of this new environment several species of at least certain animals could survive. To find man's earliest beginnings, East African scientists are starting to look beyond 3 million years ago. This is the reason for the excitement about the Afar region being opened up by Dr. Johansen and the French scientist Maurice Tiabe. Although they have not yet been rigorously dated, the fossils these men have found indicate that this sequence of exposed layers reaches back from 3 million to 5 million years. In addition, the fossils found there are well preserved and often undisturbed. "It's better than my wildest says Dr. Johansen. FOLDS CHAIN WIDE SALE: THURS., FBI., SAT. FEB. 28. MARCH 1-2 318-6th St. S. Quantities Last CHAR6EX MASTER CHARGE SPECIAL PURCHASE LADIES' PANT SUITS Many styles, patterns and plains. blends and 100% nylon. S-M-L and some 38 to 44 Reg. to 10.98 99 INTRODUCTORY OFFER FIELDS OWN PANTYHOSE 89c pair Mirftr Exclusively made for Reids by one of Canada s top of fine quality pantyhose. 100% sheer nylon with top. Shades of: 'hint of brown', and 'hint of Sizes: "A" 5 ft. 95 Ibs. to "B" 5'4" and over -125 Jbs. to 155 Ibs. makers ntoroed smoke 12S ;