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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - February 23, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta 26 THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD Saturday, February 23, 1974 Ask Andy MAKING PAPER Andy sends a complete 20- volume set of the Merit Students Encyclopedia to Ralph McGinnis, age 14, cf Somerset, New Jersey, for his question: How do they make paper? It seems that every few years we face a large or small shortage of paper. While this provoking situation lasts, we want to probe behind the scenes, hoping for sensible explanations. Naturally, the first step is to learn how modern paper mills produce their vast supplies. Maybe some of the answers to shortages are there. However, paper-making has an age-old and some of the possible solutions may be hidden in the past. The basic paper-making ingredient is cellulose. And cellulose is the tough, fibrous material that plants create to build their boxy cell walls. The earth produces thousands of different plant species and at least hundreds of them produce cellulose that is suitable for making paper. In fact, about ten per cent of our paper supplies are manufactured from the cellulose fibers of plants such as hemp, jute and cotton and some is made from wheat straw or corn stalks. The other 90 per cent is made from the woody fibers of trees but it takes many years for a tree to grow big enough to be worthwhile. When forestry programs are neglected, there are not enough new trees to meet your paper needs. Since modern paper mills are designed to cope mainly with wood fibers, they run short of their basic ingredient. Basically, all paper is made by chomping fine cellulose fibers into short lengths, mixing them with water and drying the soupy pulp in flat, matted layers. The first pages were made by Ts'an Lun of China, way back in 105 A.D. He used the inner bark of mulberry trees and allowed his soupy mixture to dry in flat sieves. Later, Chinese paper makers used old fish nets, rags and fibrous stalks of hemp. For centuries, paper making was a slow operation, patiently done by hand. Linen, cotton and whatever fibrous materials were handy were mashed, mixed and dried to make paper. The first machines to make the work faster and easier were developed in the 1700s. The Dutch used a machine to shred rags. The French used a system of rollers to make it possible to dry and press larger batches of paper. Modern paper-making methods began in the 1800s when machines were invented to process wood fibers. Usually a modern paper mill is near a stream. Logs float to the door and lots of water is needed to convert them into paper. Machines stand ready to strip the logs and chomp them into chips. Digesters wait to mix and cook the chips with various chemicals. This breaks up the cellulose fibers into soupy pulp. Then the chemicals are washed out and bleaches and other substances may be added. Finally the wood pulp is rolled and dried, rolled and dried to make never ending sheets of finished paper and paper products. Paper making seems simple enough for anybody to make his own. But remember, our industrialized society uses different kinds of paper and each of us uses about 450 pounds of paper products a year. One answer to the shortage is recycling. Old newspapers, magazines and countless other used paper products can be re-used. That is, if we collect our waste paper and return it to a paper mill. In many cases, this economical re-made paper is just as good as it was the first time around. by child- ren of Herald be mailed to Ask Andy, P.O. Box. 765, Huntington Beach, California 92648. (Copyright Chronicle Publishing Co. 1973) Flashback By THE CANADIAN PRESS Feb. 23, 1974 The seige of the Alamo in San Antonio, Texas, began 138 years ago today in 1836 when about 180 Texans were attacked by Gen. Santa Ana's army of troops during the war of independence in the state. The walls of the Alamo mission were breached after 13 days of fighting and hand- to-hand combat ensued. Only five Texans lived through the fighting, but these were killed in cold blood on Santa Ana's orders. 1953 Britain granted amnesty to more than Second World War deserters. 1952 Following an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Western Canada, the United States placed an embargo on Canadian meat. 1945 Turkey declared war on Germany and Japan. 1918 The Red Army was founded in Russia. 1685 The architect Sir Christopher Wren died. SCARCE IN ONTARIO Ontario imports almost all its hickory wood for industrial use from the United States. Goren on Bridge BY CIIAKI.KS II. TW TriMt WEEKLY BRIDOK QUIZ Q. vulnerable, as South you hold: 0X72 The bidding has proceeded: North Kasl South West 1 4k Pass 2 V Pass 3 Pass What do you bid now? q. vulnerable, as South you hold: 4AJK54 J6 OAQ72 S The bidding has proceeded: North Kasl South Wrst Pass Pass 1 4k Pass 2 Pass What do you bid now? Q. vulnerable, as South you hold: AKJIOS3 .AS V9524W72 The bidding has proceeded: North East Smrth West I What do you bid? Q. South, vulnerable, you hoJd: AKQJ3 07 The bidding has proceeded: Smith Wrst North East 1 4k 2 Dblr. Pass What do you bid now? Q. vulnerable, as South you hold: 10 5 VK 7 AJ 7 6 4 2 The bidding has proceeded: South West North East 1 Pass 2 A Pass 2 4 Pass 3 4> 3