Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - February 15, 1975, Lethbridge, Alberta
20 THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD Slturdiy, February 15, 1975 Wilderness trips for delinquents may change life OTTAWA (CP) The federal health and welfare de- partment and an Ottawa organization, the Outdoor Learning Centre, have undertaken a research program to deter- mine the effect of wilderness trips on problem and un- derprivileged youths. The Wilderness Incentives for Learning and Development (WILD) program received from the federal welfare department and from the city of Ottawa. An additional needed to run the project for two years, is to come from Local Initiatives Project grants. "WILD refers to the kind of kids we take and to the areas where we take said the centre's executive director, Nick Pawley. Two groups, with about 48 young people aged 13 to 17 in each group, are taking part. One group will take at least four wilderness trips of five to seven days in one year. Their ac- tivities will include rockclimbing, white-water canoeing, sur: vival camping in winter and nature study. The other group will act as a control for comparison. School attendance, grades and police records will be watched over a two-year period. Similar research has been conducted in the United States. Many criminologists and psychologists say recividism, or repeated crime, can be reduced by exposing the youths to an en- vironment away from the confines of city life. John Partington, associate professor of psychology at Carleton University, is the principal investigator in the WILD project. He said many problem children lack respect for authority. "They feel they have no control over their lives." "Here they have to respect nature and at the same time they can have some control over their lives. They have no one to blame but themselves if they forget to chop enough wood and wake up freezing." Wilderness trips teach them interdependence. "It's an alternative to beat-the-other-guy-at-all-costs sports like football and he said. It also introduced young peo- ple to such physical activities as swimming and sailing, which they could carry on all their lives, unlike football and hockey. 4 TO 5 WEEKS 8 TO 9 WEEKS LOOK AT THESE WING FEATHERS TO ESTIMATE AGE OF JUVENILE 12 TO 13 WEEKS 16 TO 17 WEEKS OVER 23 WEEKS CHART OF PHEASANT WINGS HELPS DETERMINE AGE Brood surveys show bird strength By DENNIS McDONALD brood is estimated. The Alberta Fish and Wildlife number of chicks in the brood 28 of 45 parts is recorded and the observer Large numbers of breeding notes whether, in his opinion, pheasants in the spring do not all the chicks were seen. of The second year of the program may change, depending on results the first year. Some first-year children may return as instructors so researchers can study the effect this kind of responsibility has on them. This will also provide an opportunity to see how children res- pond to having a peer in authority over them. "Certain kinds of kids may be damaged by certain aspects of CUr in the first two or three the said Mr. Parkington. The stress of mountain hours after sunriJ climbing may, in their second year, be replaced by sailing or walks in the woods for nature study. guarantee a good crop pheasants in the fall. As explained in previous ar- ticles in this series, many fac- tors affect pheasant survival during nesting and afterward. Wildlife biologists use brood surveys to determine com- parative hatching success from one year to another. During the surveys, an observer drives slowly along roads in the survey area in early morning or late evening. Morning surveys usually oc- "We are prepared to recognize the negative aspects of the program. Some children may not be able to benefit at all from the experience." Local probation officers, judges and teachers have expressed support for the project. Although there is no Canadian legisla- tion comparable to the U.S. Environmental Education Act the Outdoor Learning Centre hopes for support from Recreation Canada and the federal environment department. IVIost broods are active at this time and therefore, they are easier to see. Once a brood is spotted, the observer stops his car and ex- amines it carefully with binoculars. 'Using various criteria such as differences in size, tail length and feather development, the age of the When possible the observer flushes the brood in an attempt to obtain a complete brood count. Surveys are continued throughout the brooding season. Data are then analyz- ed to determine the average number of chicks per hen and the percentage of liens accdm- panied by broods. Age data from broods provides an indication of hatching dates, peak hatching times and the length of the hatching period. Poor hatching conditions are indicated by small average brood sizes, a high proportion of hens without chicks or both. Average broods of eight or more in- dicate good hatching success. Commonly, one or more types of surveys are used by wildlife managers to deter- mine pheasant survival to fall and the age ratio of pheasants harvested by hunters. Perhaps the most familiar method is the hunter check stations. These stations are established in a pattern which enables a proportion of all hunters to be checked to determine the number, sex and age of all pheasants in their possession. The total number of pheasants harvested is then calculated by adjusting the check station results accor- dingly. For example, if check stations sample ten per cent of hunters in an area, then the total harvest of pheasants in the area is ten times the number counted at the check station. Pheasants are aged by check station personnel by ex- amining their wing feathers. Various age groups show different stages of wing feather development. Age data can then be used to deter- mine peak or poor hatching periods by back dating to find out when the birds were born. Juvenile pheasants can be accurately aged to within one week of their date of birth. The ratio of juvenile to adult pheasants in hunter bag checks indicates whether spr- ing production was good or poor. In a good year, the fall harvest should contain eight or more juveniles for each adult. If the proportion of juveniles is lower than this, then annual production has been poor. Check stations are costly in terms of the manpower and money required to operate them. As a result, a different method has been used to sam- ple the fall harvest in Alberta in recent years. A portion of hunters are provided with specially mark- ed envelopes. They are asked to return the outer portion of the wing from pheasants they shoot to the fish and wildlife division. These wings are then aged to determine the ratio of juveniles to adults and the birth dates of all juvenile Maritime tuna slow to nibble anglers9 bait By JAMES H. HUSSEY Canadian Press Correspondent ST. JOHN'S, Nfld. (CP) Tuna catchers had better luck in Newfoundland waters this year than in the 1973 season. A total of 21 bluefin were landed in Conception Bay compared with eight for the entire season last year but the almost-triple catch is not expected to push the provincial total above 42 the total catch in all waters last year. Figures for the sports tuna fishery in Notre Dame Bay the other major fishing ground for the big bluefin, are not yet of- ficial but fishing was reported slow all season. During July the bay was teeming with tuna but the big fish would not take the anglers' bait. The showing in Conception Bay this season restored some of the sparkle to the east coast bay's reputation as a big producer of tuna. F Until a few years ago, few bluefin were taken elsewhere in Newfoundland waters until Notre Dame Bay began to yield a larger barest than the more easterly bay. An added attraction in Conception Bay this season was the Newfoundland Tuna Derby, sponsored by the provincial tourism department and a tobacco company. A Spanish angler claimed the top prize of in silver with his catch of a 739-pound bluefin. A Newfoundlander landed a 732- pounder to claim in silver as the second prize while a U.S. woman reeled in a 725 pound tuna for the silver third prize. It is expected the derby will be continued next year. Since 1956, when tuna fishing was organized in the province on an experimental basis, rod-and-line fishermen have taken more than of the species from coastal waters. The biggest year was 1968 when anglers boated 635 bluefin most of them in Conception Bay. The following year the catch dropped to 580 and it kept falling each season to last year's record low of 42: The largest bluefin taken during the years was a 877-pounder boated by a Newfoundland angler in September, 1973 in Conception Bay. This year the Conception Bay season opened July 15 but it was late summer before any tuna fishing was done on Notre Dame Bay, where Arctic ice played havoc with commercial and sports fishermen and slowed activity considerably. first tuna taken in Conception Bay was one landed July The best of the season was over by mid-October but a few fishermen will continue to try their luck until the seas turn too rough late in the fall. At any rate, there is no likelihood that the season's quota of 410 will be reached this year. 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