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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - February 14, 1920, Lethbridge, Alberta TAGF F.lfiHT THE .LETHIMIIXJH DAILY HERALD SATURDAY; FEBRUARY OF INTEREST TO THE FARMER Petroleum and Gasoline As Used for Farm Power Tha following lecture ort petroleum i interesting aud should be understood, .power was given at the International the riirijon aucl the hydrogen Ir. the Harvesters' Co.'s school of Instruc- fuel separately unite with a portion Uon by Sir. Allan E, Xlillhouso of the of the air to (oral new substauces. Imperial Oil Company. Air is composed of a number of gases Petroleum was first discovered or which nitrogen is a peculiar Rumania about 1S57; two years later wlifeh refuses to combine cbemic- la the first oil well was funk ally with oilier substances except la the production was; under very extreme conditions. to the Appalachian fields gen another of the gases in air is very until 1S76. Tht> HeM lakes In Pennsyl-1 active ani! unites easily with many sub- Kentucky. Eastern Ohio. New stances. The air and fuel In aa engine Tortt West Virginia states, from present tour Imporlaat substances, we might say that gasoline consists of kindling wood, cord wood and lumps of coal, in the best gasoline The proportion of heavy ends or coal are very small, but represents a larger proportion when we use kerosene for motor fuel. The high gravity gasolines have one advantage as they Imve more of tho killing wood compounds which makes them essy to start, but on the Other baud when buying gasoline by the gallon you do not receive as much value for your money as In buying the lo'Ver gravity gasoline or as much power or heal units. 70 gravity gaso- line has a heat value at U'2.72l B.T.U. per gallon, while o3 gravity gssoiiuc on the area of operation spread rapidly over the United States and other countries. It will give us an Idea largo tho industry has grown to whsn we lake the U.S. reports for ten yearn. In 190S they produced barrels of crude and lu 1911 It grew to barrels. hydrogen, carbon oxygeu and oxygen come together under proper condi- tions they unite chemically and torui now oxide, monoxide or carbon dioxide; 'the first gas Is combustible, the second one is not. when the engine is in operation the presence of the tirsl gas is noticeable Tha railroads of tie U.S. used In 1918! by an odor anil by Iho fact that it tured gallons. gallons of million barrels of fuel oil. and IB the same year I hi a was minuiac- In JJ19 .....t gasoline were manufactured In the S. This some idea of the Im- portance of. the' petroleum .Industry. Crude petroleum as pumped from the wells Is made up of a mixture of com- pounds known as hydrocarbons, hav- ing a composition of from 12 to 14 per cent, hydrogen and 84 to 86 per cent, of carbon. These different com- pounds appear In the gaseous, liquid and solid state. Tha gases are trap- ped ,like air In v are poaked In the tare takes verpminule parts of these substances In different proportions; and from them forms the different oils, of which the principal ones are gasoline, kerosene, light lub, .oils, heavy lub. oils and residue. receive the different products gives us a headache, ihe odor indi- cates that the euglno Is not getting enough air or it is getting too much fuel which causes the formation of car- bon monoxide, in other there is not sufficient oxygen for tho volume of carbon: It Is better to have an anr cess of air than not enough., Oxygen and one pound' of- carbon burned completely B.T.U. Oxygen and one pound ;of hydrogen liberates 62.000 B.T.U. com- binations of carbon and hydrogen lib- erate relative quantities of heat uniis. One B.T.U. is the heat required to One pound degrees to 63 degrees, F. One n.T.U. will do 746 foot pounds of work and It require ater and the solids j tho, temperature, of pne lighter liquids. dijmied water from 62 deg 42.42 'B.T.U.' to produce one horse- power. Gasoline is a physical blend of low boiling hydro-carbons all of which are Mfflclently volatile to form an .ex- by separating the different.! plosive mixture '-with air In the proper In tho past the quality of jasoline was known by Its -gravity but present day developments have shown that this Is not a proper indica- tion of volatile fuel characteristics. poiure to an almost constant shower ot dust and dirt, which, if tbe soil con- tains much gritty nubjtance, attacks Ml sears and bearing surfAce'j not only those on tho exterior of machine, but also those Inside the en- gine unless au emctont filter la provided (or tbe Intake to the car- buretor. This excessive wear, due to dust, was a very seilous matter with the earlier models of tractors, but, great progress has been made during the Itut year or two In protecting lha machine In this respect. It Is obviously Impossible to deter- mine definitely the probable life of the latest model tractors, since none of them Is worn out, but the nearest, ap- proximation to the actual figure would unquestionably be tbe average of tha estimates given by a large number ot men who had used them for a season or two. Tractor owners were asked has 125 Kv B.T U. per gallon, giving! for an opinion as to Ibe number ol us more heat units per gallon years their own particular machines tor the lower gravity gasoline. A modern automobile engine should have a proper provision .for heating the Incoming charge- of gasoline and air. When properly iircbeated present day gasoline will give Just as many miles per gallon and as satisfactory service as tho more volatile gasolluo sold n few ye.irs ago. All engines are not yet equipped witfi proper preheat- ing devices or If so equipped thesa de- vices are not capable of their very necessary adjustment with change o' atmospheric temperature, Since the best of. seryjce and the muximnni number of miles per gallon .can. only, ,t (he fuel mi: Is important that be carefu 13 see.that his eiiglnete properly equip; 'pod before the Is condemned ns bad. now turn our attention.lo kerosene." Kerosene Kerosene differs from gasoline lo the extent that-it lacks the light ends or kindling wood but is made up en- tirely of the cord wood compounds. It has an initial boiling point ot about 31S degrees and end point of about 51S degrees which makes it necessary ]b'e obtained bv jiiebeattuE ixtiire. to a.certain E Fanners Will Have to Pay Per Bushel Wheat Board Decides would give satisfactory service. As would naturally ba expected, the aver- age of the estimates of men who have found the tractor satisfactory profitable was higher than of Ihpse, who gave- adverse reports on their machines. The average of the estl males ot the first-mentioned class ol owners was 9.4 and the latter 6.3 years. The fact should not be over- looked, however, that the percentage of favorable reports was considerably higher than the unfavorable, nearly 85 per cent of the owners reporting that their machines had proven profitable. Tha average -of all estimates on the life of a Is almost nine' years. The n'liruber of days these machhiDS'.iifjsre used annually tor both omo and'cwtprn work' was 51. These of-Jeburse> arc based upon the il- proportions of field 'and belt ork.- A -tractor wears much faster, rid in- more .parts when used in -the! eld than when. us J for belt power. 'here a lage percentage of the trac- r's work will bo at stationary opera- ons, Its life' In days of service will by tie process of refining other compounds or fractions by each fraction separating at a dlffef-' ent temperature or boiling'twin t, the (uoltaes having tbe lowest boiling potato, '.vaporize or separate first which gives us Inaction one: tiff I we get the kerosenes making (motion two; upon further heating the Imb- ricating oils'evaporate giving us .frac- tion there then .remains -in the still; the'residue. Refining; 1 will try the process of. refinlnc or what w'e 'mean ;by dUn tllltaj, etc. As the maln'lbpic; jjre to consider is fuel aud, lubricv tjon as used In the internal combus- tion 'engine we will turn our attoU' lion to kerosene, lubrication. Before going any farther we will re- .view what is claimed for petroleum when ft comes to heat .units or B.T.U. 1n fuels Whenever any burns'heatUs.given, off 'the. v.hieti depends upon the composition of the snbitance, there'.is no ksoiri: t common material which" has'available more Concentrated units JnVa given quantity than the hydrocarbons" er petroleum cah-be-buVh Gravity as applied to any petroleum product is of no value to user; but the refiner has found that the real test of quality was the boiling, and distillation test. to use a Ba for: starting. Kero- to JD test shows kerosel erent' constituents present 'rin.: the bydrc-carbdtt cp'rappuuds iKSt'm'ake up the gasoline. vlt necessary., .'thjif. thfe ..entlre'ibody' Of. ?th'e''gasoline 'bo sufficlenlly' volatile to readily eva- porate at engine temperatures. 'Motor gasoline is supposed to have a dis- tillation test ot about initial boiling point about 140 per cent; 20 per cent, distillation at 221 degrees; 50 per cent, distillation at 284 degrees; DO per cent: distillation degrees; end point distillation at 437 degrees, mean- scno has not been fouud satisfactory up to the present for engines running ot variable .speeds, but.has pro.ved satisfactory for farm tractor engines which operates at fairly bonsiant loads and speeds, and has several ad: vantages over gasoline, first Is less per gallon then also wo receive more heat units per gallon. of about 42 gravity has B. T. U. heat' units, per gallon showing we'. should he able 'o more work on a' gallon of ene. than gasoline, but to bo able this .then engine nian has to de- sign, jlis-engine dKfereut'ilo, what he Vouid.'for gasoline. As wS mentioned Ij'efore kerosene is made up of the tieavier compounds Kiving'il a heavier Ijody or viscosity than gasoline, there- fore the drops will be larger, making it more difficult to get tho proper mixture: To dvero-ome this we have to have a special mixer or carburetor, so that we can preh'eat our fuel thereby kindling wood In starting a fire. ,To cd completely This, burning is-very carry: this explanation'a little farther Alfalfa hais. been grown in the De- Field Husbandry, Unl- ersily of Alberta, now for two years. >iiring this' period, alfalfa lias been grown under widely different cbndj- in order to obtain the greatest regarding the reduction 6f hay, pasture and seeiK rim'm seed produced in Alberta was' s'ed for, all experiments.! he seed was cases treated wlthi ie: appropriate .bacterial cuIture..-TbeJ rap :was early in Jnne. The and was in all cases wejl prepared, being entirely free from I re'epmg rooted grasses. Other weeds uich. as however, were .were kept bad; it-.v----- back the first breaking up. the drops, which gives us t varpor lhat-wlll mil with air forming teroperature fye I "iril 1 cbnd the; 'cylinder walls thinning'out'tie lubricating .to the pressioh oh fuels. -We need a higher temperature to ignite kerosene, it is necessary that we have the'tempera lure and pressure high enough that I brings the fuel near lo the Ignition point thereby aiding, the explosion. The higher we have the tempera ture and compression the higher ccon oiny wo get from tho engines carry about So pounds pres sure, but be able to control temperature with this -high pressuf It is necessary that we inject wate with the kerosene, for if the lemper.i uro got too high it would intcrfer .'itb proper lubrication and also raus By pre-lgnillon we men he re-ci-ncking of tbe heavy corr which makes them more volu lie, and hcnco they will ignite from ho high temperature before the desi cd limn or the time at which tb ieavler compounds would Ignite ha .hey r.ot Veen charged or broken Fre-Ignttfon may also be caused b an excess of carbon or metal polni in the cylinder. to tU. The Highest Prices Ever Known What You'll Get m WAHV1M WOL PAY THE HUGE TO GET 'EM mimcim I wisriiu WOLF and COYOTE KM MM 28.09 to UN lUOttlSM 14JMN1UO 14JWI.12-M IIMle 5.00 H.OOIoS.00 to 5 00 MUSKRAT Spring Winter 8MK7M SJOfctH 2.75 33) 2.75 250 lo 1.75 3.00 2.00 MINK Fine, Usual Color Pale XtMttOM ttM b 2IMhKH 15.Wf.lSXK> 1ZMMII.N KM H 1UM 1JK IS.M Igg.OO 12.00 to (M S.OOtolOO iie. Ship sad it ezlrenely blili for Alberta Tm ire butd on the veil- "SHTJBKBT" frito( are quoted for fanmedUte tlilpmenf. Jit. 3, 4 otherwise kferior jt mutitet Tiliie. Shi ywr 'jit .YaaTI jst "ssort s -OIUBEKT" KTinNS WHX MAKE YOU HAPFY TODAY- AND KEEP 'EM COULW FAST 'iimrto e approximately d vacate. groatsr. Farmer's ALFALFA Alberta farmers who attended the U. F. A. eoaventlon In Calgary will remember A. B. Wilson, seed commissioner, made tho cheering un. hounccmeut that he was trying lo pre- vail upon tho Caoa'da Wheat Hoard to sell seed wheat to farmers In tho drought districts ut In countr) elevator points. At a recent meeting of the Can ad Ian wheat held In Winnipeg which was attended representa iives of the Saskatchewan and Al provincial governments, A. Wilson, Dominion seed grain pur chasing commissioner, made the re quest that the hoard should a reduction In lha price of wheat a country elevators required for seed purposes by farmers In the dried oui area of southern Saskatchewan an'. Alberta, lp'J2.40 per bushel, Fort W11 Ham basis, a reduction of forty cent! oa tho fixed price of J2.80. The board, however, advised tha the order-in-councll under which the> were operating, ruled that Ihe boan 'sell wheat the- highest pbssibli price, and did not allow any latltudi for a.reduction, at-the game time ex pressing sympathy with the Idea. Mr, Wilson sailed that the Can adian wheat board agreed to hold, b means of an embargo, the' prcscn stocks of wheat stored In countr: elevators in the dry districts unti March 15, and assurance was give that It 'the seed grain pnrchajin commission and the governments .0 Saskatchewan and, Alberta would ceTuila tho-seed requirements of. Ih two provinces, -sufficient wheat wout of gtwirfii. .'deductions and 6b- lij: (Tfi at Grim nij see d Al b erta pro j s ceding-: hi to- 30 inch .apart tie. hielMct -returns in-hay, ufe' ind'seed. VTbis applies especially .quality of. n; seasons of.light rainfall. 'G'f'.'JTtiat! iif .'ban be prpdnced. That 'ihfis'-seasoi like ;1hat of 919, fair yield of nice seed can be iroduced thisifar north. ,5. Tbo quality and yield of seed was in keeping with the distance be- ween the rows S Inches apart gave toorest results, and 30 inches gavo the lest results. I. 6. In producing seed it was, found hat to'get thojbest returns, seed must le taken fronx. tlie''first crop. 7i No seedyof at best a very light setting of seed'was obtained when the 'irat crop was removed for hay. S. A light rate of seeding must not ID taken as being the best rate for conditions such represented by :hls district, It doeVindlcnle, however, :hat light rates may be used in dis- tricts where the rainfall is noraull- lighter than at Edmonton. held to All all needs at country The couimlsalon buihehr of has purcliased seed wheat, of hich- approximately bushels re stored In the government oleva- orJM Dosuild Si Deptm Wi tin ipcg Canada The amount of service which a trac- tor will perform before H must be re- placed Is obviously an Important fao tor in fletcrnilnlng Its value for farm work. Gas tractors undergone so mnny changes ..In felr process of development that It Is Impossible to obtain any really definite figures ns lo the amount of work a tractor of modern design reasonably may bo expected lei iln before It-must lie re- placed. Among the factors influenc- ing the amount of service rendered liy n. given marlilnr-. liy fiir tho !ni- hand.? fit tbe 'operator. Tlic qtmllly of J Iho outfit, kinds n( wnrk for which i It is used, und the undo which It i? operated all [iKikTially al Ycct Its life. .Vearly nil tractors arc un ioi' i onilitions whfch are crc for any kintl of ninc'ritiia. Thf-y Iravol over rough and uneven Knjiuiii. j iind siibjcrtcil In re i-lini !in lin'h frniu In tV' mul frnni itie luart befiis iinllcil, A ?ttll: EXCHANGE AND LETTERS OF CREDIT This Bank offers peculiar advantages in handling I'oteign Kxchange and issuing Letters of Credit. With Branch's in every part of Canada, as well as 'in several titles elsewhere, and with corres- jioiiilciits of high of world, it U able to jilafte many advantages :it vf- THE CANADIAN BANK OF COMMERCE PAID-UP CAPITAL RESERVE FUND I'.RAXCil, U. T. Bryi tnt.r, i- Is A good see About disposing of your PELTS and FURS A slrony market prevails nt Get our any quantity. A. WYMAN CO. DEAI.f H8 IN HIDES. PELTS AMD FUKS -H2 ARORESS': 320 6th STREET R. P.O. BOX 5 ;