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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - February 10, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta Ihuridny, February 10, 1977 THE IETHSRIDGE HERAID S Robert Stephens Bringing the Ulster crisis into focus WAIIO is fighting whom in Northern I r e land and what are they fighting about? The questions may sound strange, almost insulting, but as the drama and the horror have increased so has the con- fusion. The answers being an- grily given now arc not always the same as those given by the same people two or three years or even monllis ago. For exam- ple, the picture now being in- creasingly spread around the world is of a struggle behveen the British Army and the Cath- olic minority community of Northern Ireland with Ihe Catholic aim being the unifi- cation of Ireland, with North- ern Ireland joining the Irish Republic. This may be how tlie conflict new looks but it is not Bt all how it began. Tlie British Army began to move into Ihe province ol Northern Ireland greater strength awl to lake over internal .security duties as a result of the attacks made by Protestant extremists on Catholic Civil Rights marchers and on Catholic areas in Lon- donderry and Belfast in Au- gust 1969. The Army's first task was to protect the Catholic areas. It was welcomed by the Catholics as an impartial re- placement for the suspect local Ulster security forces (mainly The Civil High's Movement liad been formed in and held its first demonstration marches peacefully in 1967. Its public aims were to reform the social, economic and political structure o[ Ulster so as to give Catholics equal rights with Protestants inside the province. Attention was focused on Catholic griev- ances over local government, public housing, Ihe composition and role of I lie police and lo- cal security forces, and the po- litical system. These included alleged gerrymandering of constituencies which assured the continued hegemony of the Protestant majority in Slor- monl, the provincial govern- ment and parliament, and in the main cilics. The last general rloiHion in Northern Ireland was in Feb- ruary 1903. Of the 52 scats. 23 are now held by the Unionists, the main Protestant party link- ed with tbe Conservative Party, 10 seals are held by livo other Protestant groups, Uio' Independent Unionists (eight) and the Protestant Unionists, the Reverend Ian Paisley'a group Ulster also sends 12 MPs to the Westminster Parliament. The Civil Rights Movement disclaimed concern with the traditional aims of Irish na- tionalism, Ihe unification of Northern and Southern Ireland or changes in the border ex- cept perhaps as a rcmole ideal. It appeared to accept the con- stitutional position of Ulster as part of the United Kingdom. But this was not Ihe posi- tion of the other force which the events of IDC'J brought once more into play, the Irish Re- publican Army. Tlie official IRA policy was lo try to unite the Catholic and Protestant workers on classical Marxist class lines. It rejected violence, partly because an earlier at- tempt at the violent overthrow of Ihe Ulster regime during 1S5B-63 had failed because of Book Review lack of popular support. But in a breakaway group, the was lormed with the double aim of provid- ing armed protection for Cath- olic areas against Protestant attack and also of destroying the Stormont regime as a sU'p towards the unification of Ire- land. The strategy of the "Provi- sional.s" was to use urban guer- rilla war to force the British government to assume "direct mle" over Ulster in place of Sloi-mont (in other words itself to remove (lie Stormont re- The conflict would then be turned into direct con- frontation with the British gov- ernment and army. This would force the British to withdraw and so open tlie way to Irish unity. An important part of the tactics was to destroy the eon- (idence of the Catholics in the British Army's impartiality and so compel them to look Lo the IRA as their sole protector and champion. Their tactics have, perhaps inevitably, been largely sue- Picture still unclear "M a y c r ling: the [acts lichinrt the legend" by Fritz Jlldlniann: translated from the German by Ewald Osers (George G. Ilarrap Co. Ltd. 309 pages, S13, distributed liy Clarke, Jnvin and Co. T AST year, while spending a week in Vienna, we drove out to Mayerling to see the famous hunting lodge, nes- tled in the green verdant val- ley beyond the noisy city. It was here, on Jan. 30. 1889, that the body of Archduke Rudolph, Crown Prince of Austria, only son of Emperor Francis Jo- seph, was found dead in his bedroom. By bis side lay Ihe body of 18ycar-old Baroness Mary Vetsera. Mayerling is a tourist "must" nowadays no foreign traveller worth his salt would leave Austria without a lock at the scene of one of the greatest scandals of Imperial history, even though one is not admitted to (lie apartments where the bodies were found. (Its present occupants are a group of very elderly nuns.) Austrian historians are un- derstandably mesmerized with Mayerling and its tragedy. Tales of all kinds and descrip- tions about the relationship of the Archduke and his in- amorata proliferate, some of them with a basis in fact, oth- ers simply higlily imaginative fiction. Fritz Judtmann, a German biographer, sets out to clear the whole thing up, documenting facts with letters, household ac- cmmls, and mueh previously unpublished relevant material. Unfortunately for the general reader, the mess of informa- tion is not only highly complex but poorly edited. It is a mas- sive research project, and it undoubtedly sheds light on one of tin? most famous love stories in history, but it makes in- ordinately dull reading for any- one but the specialist. JANE E. HUCKVALE. cessful. An escalating cycle of violence has been created, in which each official counter- measure against IRA shooting and bombing has alienated fur- ther the Catholic community as a w-hole. The first important turning point in tlie process was the revival last summer of the arrest and detention of IRA suspects with- out trial. A second turning- point was the deaths of 13 ci- vilians in Londonderry on Jan- uary 30 Tlie military escalation has been accompanied by an escalation of political demands. The original demands of the Civil Rights Movement were for: 1. One man, one vote in local elections. 2. The removal of gerry- mandered boundaries. Laws against discrim- ination by local government and tbe provision of machinery to deal with complaints. 4. Allocation of public hous- ing on a points system. n. Repeal of the S1 p e c i a I Powers Act. G. Tlie disbanding of the "B" Specials, an armed volunteer police reserve, regarded by Catholics as a Protestant po- litical instrument. Of these demands all have been implemented or are in process of being fulfilled, ex- cept for the repeal of the Spe- cial Powers Act which provides for internment. Local Government: One man, one vote in local elec- tions was established in No- verr.ber 19G9, i e. plural voting for business premises and addi- tional residences was abolish- ed. By-elections are already operating under this system. Tlie establishment of 26 dis- trict councils, based on the principal (owns and replacing the previous G7 bodies, was an- nounced in December 1970 and passed into law in March 1971. The precise boundaries are be- ing delimited by a distinguish- ed barrister and are to be ccln- plcted by the end of April ready for the first elections in No- vember this year. 11 is expect- ed that about a third of the new councils will prove to bo Catholic controlled. Ombudsman: Both a Parlia- mentary commissioner and a commissioner for complaints PART IV PICTURE QUIZ 5 POINTS 1 run a well-known British Member of Parliament from Northern Ireland. HOW DO YOU RATE? 91 to lOOpoinli- TOP 71 to BO point. Good. 81 to fOpolnll-hnllml. 61 lo 70 poinll 60 or HW FAMILY DISCUSSION QUESTION Do you think that people who work In n public In- ilii.-.lry Blunikl hnvc the right lo strike? Sovo Thii Practice Exnminntioni YOUR NEWS QUIZ PART I NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Give yourself 10 points for each correct answer. 1 Accoriling to the LeDaln Commission on drug abuse, alcoholism li the blggeet drug problem. True or 2 Pakistan recently withdrew from a-Unlted Nations b-SEATO c-the British Commonwealth 8 Rioting students In Egypt were demonstrating In support of their government's policy toward Israel. True or False? 4 Canada's new Finance Minister Is 7. a-Edgar Benson b-Slmon Relsman c-John Turner B The United States has decided to establish i separate bureau for Canadian allalrs In Us otate Department. True or False? PART II WORDS IN THE NEWS Taie 4 points for each word that you can match with Its correct meaning. 1.....Interim 2.....bilateral 3.....unanimous 4.....laser B.....frequency a-involving iwo sides or parties b-leruporery c-number of waves ar- riving per second d-havtng agreement of ell e-devlce generating In- tense beams of .light PART III NAMES IN THE NEWS Take 5 points for names that you can correctly match with the clues. 1.....Gunnflr V. Jarring Minister 2.....Jem Chretien b-new Premier of Egypt 3.....John Munro c-I.nbor Minister 4.....Martin O'Connell d-Indian Affairs Minister B.....Dr. Ailz Sidky -0772 c-speclnl UN envoy s VEC, Inc. f-rt r-k t Tf Sflvo Till! Praclice Examination? AH STUDENTS v.iMbi. Mama For ANSWERS ON REVERSE PAGE against local councils and oth- er public Ixrdies were set up in So were a community re- lations commission and a min- islry of community relations. Housing- A new housing ex- ecutive responsible for all pub- lic authority house-b u i 1 d i n g and allocation was established in March 1971 with one third of its members Catholic. Its chief officer was appointed from the Ijondon Borough of Lambeth. Nearly new houses have been built in Ulster since the war, which means that over 40 per cent of the population are now living in post-war homes. The figure for the year ended last March was a record for Ulster, equiv- alent to an annual total of 000 for the United Kingdom. Jobs: Part of the back- ground of violence is heavy and chronic unemployment. The province has out of work in a population of a mil- lion and a quarter. This is 8.7 per cent of the insured pop- ulation, twice Ihe rate for Bri- tain as a whole. But London- derry, with a Catholic majority, has 13.2 per cent unemployed compared with seven per cent in Belfast. Tte jobless would be higher but for special investment measures financed largely by the British government. Since the end of the Second World War about 290 new industries have been established provid- ing about ]obs. A fort- night ago the Ulster govern- ment announced Mri.200.000 of extra public investment in factory building, drainage schemes, roads, hospitals and urban and rural improvements. Police: The act giving effect to the recommendations of the Hunt Committee became law in March 1970. The Royal Ulster Constabulary no longer has a para-military role and is nor- mally unarmed. The "B" Spe- cials have been disbanded. The British Army is now respon- sible for security, assisted by the part-time Ulster Defence Regiment, which is not used for crowd control or riot duties. Constitutional proposals: Progress on reform of Stor- mont to give the Catholic mi- nority a more assured voice in the government of the province has been held up because Cath- oUc MPs walked out of the Northern Ireland Parliament after internment was re-intro- duced. Those, chiefly the Social Democrats linked with the British Labor party, who were ready in principle for constitu- tional talks, have refused to take part until internment is ended. To try to get around this obstacle. Mr. Harold Wilson proposed holding all-party talks with Westminster repre- sentatives which would include spokesmen for the Irish Cath- olics. Mr. Edward Heath, the prims minister, showed inter- est in the proposal but the talks have not so far been held. Before their walk-out, the So- cial Democrats had given a fa- vorable reception to a proposal by the Ulster government to set up parliamentary select com- mittees with two out of three chaired by Catholics. An Ulster government "Green Paper'1 had also suggested talks on proportional representation, the size of the Stcrmont House of Commons and the size and composition of the S'enate. Proportional representation ex- isted in Ulster until 1928. United Ireland: Successive British governments have re- affirmed the principle that the status of Ulster can be changed only with the consent of the irajorily of its people. For the Ulster Protestant Unionists, remaining part of the United Kingdom is an ar- ticle of faith but their leaders have in recent years shown more interest in closer co-op- eration with Ihe Irish Republic. A' Westminster Mr. Wilson has cxprc.sscd the belief that the ultimate aim of a settle- ment should iv the reunifica- tion of Ireland. Mr. Ilcalh has also snid thai would have no objection to reunifica- tion by consent, and has had talks with the Irish Prime Min- ister, .Mr. Jack Lynch Until recently the Dublin gov- ernment also said that while it n a t u r a 11 y favored Irish re- unification, this should not be bv force but lonsenl. It was concerned in the first place wiUi liir: removal of discrim- ination against Catholics in the North. Mr. Lynch look some mcasuivs to restrain the IKA in Ihe Synth, which also repre- sented a potential threat lo his own gin miincnl, and lo re- slricl the use of border lerri- Icry in the Republic for mili- operations against the North. Ihe Dcrry deaths IKIVG now forced Mr. Lynch and oth- er Catholic moderates in North as well as Smith lo put Irish reunifiivilion in tin1 forefront of their dem.mds, as it IMS always bt-cn (or the IRA. for Tlir Itrrnld and Tlie Observer, London) The courage of moderation The Inlenialional Herald Tribune lo know the truth of jorily. Many British have no TT is so hard the said Bishftp Neil Farrcn over Hie bodies of the 13 who died in Londonderry on "liloody "and men were standing between "two irrecon- cilable people on a single island." And out of these clear perceptions of differing this Is not the time to prejudge the causes truths came the buUets that killed thirteen of the events but simply to join with our "family men, young boys." fellow citizens of Hie Roman Catholic Church in sympathy with the sorrowful and in prayers." It look moral courage to speak these words before a people who had already passed judgment on the tragedy, and in a climate which had caused emotions to rise to fever pitch, and hatreds to pass Ihe point of no return. Such moral coin-age is rare today, any- where in the world. In racially torn Am- erica, it would pass for Uncle Tomism; among Ihe embattled intelligentsia it would be termed outworn, flabby liberalism; in Ireland it is rejected by Protestant and Catholic, by north and south, alike. Yet it is the heart of Chrislianily and the wis- dom of true human statesmanship. What killed the 13 in Londonderry? The southern Irish have no doubts: It was the British Army in its traditional role of nil- ing Ireland. The Ulster Protestants have Similar clarity will Ire found all around the negotiating table in Paris, among the shouting university students in Cairo, within the Israeli cabinet, in the Pakistani Army and the harried people of Bangla- desh. It is the prerogative of Tupamaros in Uruguay and of the Brazilian police. For Clausewitz's phrase, "The fog of is misleading except in the technical sense in which he employed it. Kipling came close to the mark of violence when he wrote of "the drumming guns that know no doubts." The world has suffered too much Irom this kind of rationale. It needs more doubt, more equivocation, more compromise. And if logic leads to irreconcilables, perhaps the world needs more of the kind of prayer Bishop Farren invoked "That out of the morass of bitterness and hatred, so under- standable in this moment, God may lead no doubts: It was the terror that sought, us into paths of reconciliation and peace with snipings and bombings, to bring all Ireland under tlie rule of Ihe Catholic ma- and a chance to build a happy and peace- ful land." Pandering to U.S. fear The Canadian Churchman (Anglican) P'VEN after considering where they come from, the articles in the No- vember and December issue of Reader's Digest on the World Council of Churches are specious and superficial. A happy little magazine with a huge cir- culation, the Digest in Canada is a prod- uct that reflects life in those United Stales and, as such, reflects middle America's fear of blacks, communism, social action and truth about themselves. With great abandon Digest editors deal out American corn, American cultural mediocrity, Am- erican political reaction along with gobs of treacle like favorite characters and do-it- yourself medical advice. The magazine asks in slirill tones if Christ taught a gospel of racial justice and if churches are justified (through the WCC Program to Combat Racism) in using their power and money to combat lliis evil wherever it arises. Obviously, the answer is no. Christ ap- pears as preaching a white, narrowly in- dividualist gospel a status quo gospel The merits of the racism program and ministry to draft-age refugees are still up for debate. Tlie Anglican Church of Can- ada has supported both. But the debate which has gone on for more than a year will not be clarified by blurring the real issues with distortion or downright sloppy reporting. To us, however, the malice of the Digest comes forth in the second article where McCartlryite smear tactics are used In hinting that everyone in Geneva is under the diabolical thumb of the Russian Ortho- dox Church and its cohorts from Eastern Europe. This is straight pandering to the fean of all who see a Communist plot in Chris- tian social concern. Tlie isolationist stance of fame of the major American churches wliich stay out of the WCC for these same reasons, cou- pled with the growing self-interest of tbe world's- richest nation keeps the U.S. from playing an important leadership role in the world and sullies deeply the gospel of Jesus. The plain truth on bilingualism Tlie Ottawa Citizen JT is a dinosaur issue. Uiat question of bilingualism in the public service, but there are those who will not tire of it. Only fitting, therefore, that the arch per- petrator of government bilingual strategy. Pubbc Service Commission chairman John Carson, should gallop forth armed with sliield and sword to dispatch this lumber- ing vertebrate back lo its resting place. To the extent that Mr. Carson asserts that in implementing a program of bi- lingualism he is carrying out Ihe will of Parliament (and not. as we hear so often, of a Quebec his words bear read- ing and comprehension by those who balk. To the extent he offers a progress report, they bear repeating. For example: Key occupations in tlie pubb'c service continue to be dominated by English- speaking workers 81.8 per cent of work- ers in the top categories are still English- speaking, though tliis group constitutes only 72 per cent of tlie population. The extra push being made to "parachute" French-speaking workers Into government jobs has come nowhere near redressing the balance. The merit system is not being tamper- ed with, or diluted, in the effort to placa French language recruits. Despite the highly vocal protests, re- latively few complaints have been filed in the three areas of appeal open to pub- lic sen-ants. Finally, the language training effort has been fruitful, Through this, and de- spite disappointing recruitment level! among French-Canadians, the public ser- vice is well over target for bilingual staff in all but executive occupations. Despite the smokescreen of protest, the public service has moved far in recent years in accepting bilingualism as a valid base for uniting tlie country and in adapU ing the machinery of tlie public service to attain it. The time has come for all public sen-ants to comprehend what is at stake and throw their energies behind making it By many other names Tlir Hamilton 'J'HE ONTAHIO Frail and Vegetable Growers Association has decreed that the Canadian turnip shall be American- ized. Henceforth, there shall be no more turnips just rutabagas, as they are known in the good old U.S.A. The reason: So sacks and boxes of tbe delicious Canadian vegetables being ex- ported to Hie United Suites could be la- belled a way that Americans nndorsiand. For uniformity, tlie farm organization has decided, turnips shall be called rutabagas in Canada, too, even though shoppers here may not know wither a rutabaga is a vegetable or an important sports car. Canadian consumers expect some Intc.-esting developments if other pro- Spectator riuccrs dedde to apply export labels to goods on the home market. Never mind wheat; ask for (arwe, trigo or Weizen. Contractors can for- get about lumber and order trastos or nout, instead. And dahy fanners mav pre- side over their herds of Bieb and ganado. Tlie prospect is enough to drive shop- pers from the marketplaces lo Ihe taverns. There, at least, tradition will survive, for one of Canada's most internationally-re- noKTiod products isn't vulnerable lo Ihoss who meddle with perfectly acccplablo names. Whisky (or whiskey) is whisky (or whiskey) the world over, roganile.'s how it's stilled, spoiled or spilled. Charming and astute Tlip Street Journal It is not only charming but n.stulo that Ralph Nader has decided lo sponsor a study of tilings that are done right. Cli.irming. of course, because Mr. N.ider has made his name by exjxisinp all the things be thinks are done wrong. And if lately the impression has been spreading that many of his slwly groups arc super- ficial and sensational, it also must he said not only he did dramalizo I ho very real problem of auto safety but thai his focus on targets identifiable enough to be discussed intelligently provided .1 rofrfsh- Asl.ulc because Mr. N'adcr i? quite right that a lot can be learned by studying ex- amples of successful pi-oprams. He ba.s in mind fair and miconpostod court systems, for or firms Ihrit disclose their anli pollution spending, or unions making efforts on Ix-half of Ihe If will bo interesting to w.ilch the Into of Mr. Nader's now sludy. though. Wo sus- pocl that finding what's right is a lot harder finding what's wrong. Perfec- tion is not exactly Ihe slalo of man. or of his iuslilulions. If Mi'. -arch for things done right bring ing contrast lo the ulopi.inism seems ,.os( to hnvo seized loday. of our reformers us. il teach IE a valunblo lossou in- deed ;