Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - February 10, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta
Thursday, February 10, 197J THE IETHSRIDGE HERAID 5 Robert Stephens Bringing the Ulster crisis into focus Vlf II0 is fighting whom i n Northern Ireland and what are they fighting about? The questions may sound strange, almost insulting, but as the drama and the horror have increased so has the con- fusion. The answers being an- grily given now ore not always the same as those given by the same people two or three years or even months ago. For exam- ple, the picture now being in- creasingly spread around the world is of a struggle between the British Army and the Cath- olic minority community of Northern Ireland with the Catholic aim being the unifi- cation of Ireland, with North- ern Ireland joining the Irish Republic. This may be how the conflict new looks but it is not at all how it. began. Tlie British Army began to move into the province of Northern Ireland greater strength ni'.d to lake over internal security duties as a result of the attacks made by Protestant extremists on Catholic Civil Rights marchers and on Catholic areas in Lon- donderry and Belfast in Au- gust 1909. The Army's first task was to protect the Catholic areas. It was welcomed by the Catholics as an impartial re- placement for the suspect local Ulster security forces (mainly The Civil High's Movement had been formed in W65 and held its first demonstration marches peacefully in 1967. Its public aims were to reform the social, economic and political structure oE Ulster so as to give Catholics equal rights with Protestants inside the province. Attention was focused on Catholic griev- ances over local government, public housing, Ihe composition and role of the police and lo- cal security forces, and the po- litical system. These included alleged gerrymandering of constituencies which assured the continued hegemony of the Protestant majority in Stor- mont, the provincial govern- ment and parliament, and ia the main cities. Tlie last general election in Northern Ireland was in Feb- ruary 1963. Of the 52 scats, 29 are now held by the Unionists, the main Protestant party link- ed with the Conservative Party, 10 seals are held by two other Protestant groups, tho' Independent Unionists (eight) and the Protestant Unionists, the Reverend Ian Paisley's group Ulster also sends 12 MPs to the Westminster Parliament. Hie Civil Rights Movement disclaimed concern with the traditional aims of Irish na- tionalism, the unification of Northern and Southern Ireland or changes in tlie border ex- cept perhaps as a remote ideal. It appeared to accept the con- stitutional position of Ulster as part of the United Kingdom. But this was not the posi- tion of the other force which the events of brought onca more into play, the Irish lie- publican Army. Tlie official IRA policy was to try to unite the Catholic and Protestant workers on classical Marxist class lines. It rejected violence, partly because an earlier at- tempt at the violent overthrow of Ihe Ulster regime during 195B-63 had failed because of Book Review lack of popular support. But in 1969 a breakaway group, tlie "Provisionals" was formed with the double aim of provid- ing armed protection for Cath- olic areas against Protestant attack and also of destroying the Stormont regime as a step towards the unification of Ire- land. The strategy of the "Provi- sionals" was to use urban guer- rilla war to force the British government to assume "direct nile" over Ulster in place of Stormont (in other words itself to remove the Stormont re- The conflict would then be turned into direct con- frontation with the British gov- ernment and army. This would force the British to withdraw and so open tlie way to Irish unity. An important part of the tactics was to destroy the con- fidence of the Catholics in the British Army's impartiality and so compel them to look to the IRA as their sole protector and champion. Their tactics have, perhaps inevitably, been largely sue- Picture still unclear "Maycrling: the facts behind the legend" by Frilz Judtniann: translated from the German by Ewald Osers (George G. Harrap Co. Ltd. 3B9 pages, S13, distributed by Clarke, Jrwin and Co. T AST year, while spending a week in Vienna, we drove out to Mayerling to see the famous hunting lodge, nes- tled in the green verdant val- ley bej'ond the noisy city. It was here, on Jan. 30, 1889, that the body of Archduke Rudolph, Crown Prince of Austria, only son of Emperor Francis Jo- seph, was found dead in his bedroom. By his side lay the body of 18-year-old Baroness Mary Vetsera. Mayerling is a tourist "must" nowadays no foreign traveller worth his salt would leave Austria without a lock at the scene of one of tlie greatest scandals of Imperial history, even though one is not admitted to the apartments where the bodies were found. (Its present occupants are a group of very elderly nuns.) Austrian historians are un- derstandably mesmerized with Maycrling and its tragedy. Tales of all kinds and descrip- tions about the relationship of the Archduke and his in- amorata proliferate, some of them with a basis in fact, oth- ers simply highly imaginative fiction. Fritz Judtmann, a Gorman biographer, sets out to clear the whole thing up, documenting facts with letters, household ac- counts, and much previously unpublished relevant material. Unfortunately for the general reader, the mess of informa- tion is not only highly complex but poorly edited. It is a mas- sive research project, and it undoubtedly sheds light on one of the most famous love stories in history, but it makes in- ordinately dull reading for any- one but the specialist. JANE E. BUCK VALE. cessful. An escalating cycle of violence has been created, in which each official counter- measure against IRA shooting and bombing has alienated fur- ther the Catholic community as a whole. The first important turning point in tlie process was the revival last summer of the arrest and detention of IRA suspects with- out trial. A second turning- point was the deaths of 13 ci- vilians in Londonderry on Jan- uary 30. Tlie military escalation has been accompanied by an escalation of political demands. The original demands of the Civil Rights Movement were for: 1. One man, one vote in local elections. 2. The removal of gerry- mandered boundaries. Laws against discrim- ination by local government and the provision of machinery to deal with complaints. 4. Allocation of public hous- ing on a points system. n. Repeal of the Special Powers Act. G. Tlie disbanding of the "B" Specials, an armed volunteer police reserve, regarded by Catholics as a Protestant po- litical instrument. Of these demands all have been implemented or are in process of being fulfilled, ex- cept for the repeal of the Spe- cial Pow'ers Act which provides for internment. Local Government: One man, one vote in local elec- tions was established in No- vember 19G9, i.e. plural voting for business premises and addi- tional residences was abolish- ed. By-elections are already operating under this system. Tlie establishment of 26 dis- trict councils, based on the principal towns and replacing the previous 67 bodies, was an- nounced in December 1970 and passed into law in March 1971. The precise boundaries are be- ing delimited by a distinguish- ed barrister and are to be com- pleted by the end of April ready for the first elections in No- vember this year. It is expect- ed that about a tliu-d of the new councils will prove to be Catholic controlled. Ombudsman: Both a Parlia- mentary commissioner and a commissioner for complaints PART IV PICTURE QUIZ 5 POINTS I am a well-known British Member of Parliament from Northern Ireland. HOW DO YOU RATE? 91 to 100 pcinl. TOP SCORE: 71 to BO point. Good. 81 to TO poinll Excellent. 61 lo 70 pointi Fair. 60 or HW FAMILY DISCUSSION QUESTION Do you think that people who work in a public In- iliislry should have the right to strike? YOUR NEWS QUIZ PART I NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Give yourself 10 points lor each correct answer. 1 According to the LeDain Commission on drug abuse, alcoholism is the biggest drug problem. True or False? 2 Pakistan recently withdrew from a-United Nations b-SEATO c-the British Commonwealth t Rioting students in Egypt were demonstrating In support of their government's policy toward Israel. True or False? 4 Canada's new Finance Minister Is 7. a-Edgar Benson b-Simon Relsman c-John Turner B The United States has decided to establish separate bureau for Canadian affairs In Its otate Department. True or False? PART II WORDS IN THE NEWS Taie 4 points for each word that you can match with its correct meaning. 1.....Interim 2.....bilateral 3.....unanimous 4.....laser B.....frequency a-involving two sides or parties b-temporary c-number of waves ar- riving per second d-havtng agreement of all e-devtce generating In- tense beams of light STUDENTS Tliis Practice PART III NAMES IN THE NEWS Take 5 points for names that you can correctly match with the clues. 1.....Gunnar V. Jarring Minister 3.....Jean Chretien b-new Premier of Egypt 3.....John Munro c-Labor Minister 4.....Martin O'Connell d-Indian Affaire Minister 6.....Dr. Aziz Sldky e-specinl UN envoy VEC, Inc. ANSWERS ON REVERSE PAGE UDQHI against local councils and oth- er public bodies were set up in So were a community re- lations commission and a min- istry of community relations. Housing: A new housing ex- ecutive responsible for all pub- lic authority house-b u i 1 d i n g and allocation was established in March 1971 with one third of its members Catholic. Its chief officer was appointed from the London Borough of Lambeth. Nearly new houses have been built in Ulster since the war, which means that over 40 per cent of tte population are now living in post-wrar homes. The figure for the year ended last March w-as a record for Ulster, equiv- alent to an annual total of 000 for the United Kingdom. Jobs: Part of the back- ground of violence is heavy and chronic unemployment. The province has out of work in a population of a mil- lion and a quarter. This is 8.7 per cent of the insured pop- ulation, twice the rate for Bri- tain as a whole. But London- derry, with a Catholic majority, has 13.2 per cent unemployed compared with seven per cent in Belfast. Tire jobless would be higher but for special investment measures financed largely by the British government. Since the end of the Second World War about 290 new industries have been established provid- ing about jobs. A fort- night ago the Ulster govern- ment announced S46.200.000 of extra public investment in factory building, drainage schemes, roads, hospitals and urban and rural improvements. Police: The act giving effect to the recommendations of the Hunt Committee became law in March 1970. The Royal Ulster Constabulary no longer has a para-military role and is nor- mally unarmed. The "B" Spe- cials have been disbanded. The British Army is now respon- sible for security, assisted by the part-time Ulster Defence Regiment, which is not used for crowd control or riot duties. C o n s t i t u tional proposals: Progress on reform of Stor- mont to give the Catholic nu- nority a more assured voice in the government of the province has been held up because Cath- olic MPs walked out of the Northern Ireland Parliament after internment was re-intro- duced. Those, chiefly the Social Democrats linked with the British Labor party, who were ready in principle for constitu- tional talks, have refused to take part until internment is ended. To try to get around this obstacle. Mr. Harold Wilson proposed holding all-party talks with Westminster repre- sentatives which would include spokesmen for the Irish Cath- olics. Mr. Edward Heath, the prime minister, showed inter- est in the proposal but the talks have not so far been held. Before their walk-out, the So- cial Democrats had given a fa- vorable reception to a proposal by the Ulster government to set up parliamentary select com- mittees with two out of three chaired by Catholics. An Ulster government "Green Paper" had also suggested talks on proportional representation, the size of the Stcrmont House of Commons and the size and composition of the Senate. Proportional representation ex- isted in Ulster until 1928. United Ireland: Successive British governments have re- affirmed the principle that the status of Ulster can be changed only with the consent of the rrajority of its people. For 'the Ulster Protestant Unionists, remaining part of the United Kingdom is an ar- ticle of faith but their leaders have in recent years shown more interest in closer co-op- eration with Ihe Irish Republic. A' Westminster Mr. Wilson has expressed the belief that the ultimate aim of a settle- ment shcukl the reunifica- tion of Ireland. Mr. Heath has also said tha! Britain would have no objection to reunifica- tion by consent, and has had talks with the Irish Prime Min- ister, Mr. Jack Lynch. Until recently the Dublin gov- ernment also said that while it n a t u r a 11 y favored Irish re- unification, this should not lie bv force but lonsent. It was concerned in the first place wiUi tho removal of discrim- ination against Catholics in the North. Mr. Lynch took some measures to restrain the IRA in the South, which also repre- sented a potential threat to his own government, and lo re- strict the use of border terri- tory in Ihe Republic for mili- tary operations against the North. the Derry deaths have now forml Mr. Lynch and oth- er Catholic moderates in North as well as Sinilh to put Irish reunification in tin1 forefront of their demands, as il lias always boon for the IRA. (Wrilten for The Herald and Tlie Observer, London) The courage of moderation The International Herald Tribune know the truth of jority. Many British have no TT is so hard to tlie said Bishop Neil Farren over the bodies of the 13 who died in Londonderry on "Bloody "and this is not the time to prejudge the causes of the events but simply to join with our fellow citizens of the Roman Catholic Church in sympathy with the sorrowful and in prayers." It took moral courage to speak these words before a people who had already passed judgment on the tragedy, and in a climate which had caused emotions to rise to fever pitch, and hatreds to pass the point of no return. Such moral courage is rare today, any- where in tlie world. In racially torn Am- erica, it would pass for Uncle Tomism; among the embattled intelligentsia it would be termed outworn, flabby liberalism; hi Ireland it is rejected by Protestant and Catholic, by north and south, alike. Yet it is the heart of Christianity and the wis- dom of true human statesmanship. What killed the 13 hi Londonderry? The southern Irish have no doubts: It was the British Army in its traditional role of rul- ing Ireland. Tlie Ulster Protestants have no doubts: It was the terror that sought, with snipings and bombings, to bring all Ireland under tlie rule of the Catholic nia- men were standing between "two irrecon- cilable people on a single island." And out of these clear perceptions of differing truths came the bullets that killed thirteen "family men, young boys." Similar clarity will Ire found all around the negotiating table in Paris, among the shouting university students in Cairo, within the Israeli cabinet, in the Pakistani Army and the harried people of Bangla- desh. It is the prerogative of Tupamaros in Uruguay and of the Brazilian police. For Clausewilz's phrase, "The fog of is misleading except in the technical sense in which he employed it. Kipling came close to the mark of violence when he wrote of "the drumming guns that know no doubts." The world has suffered too much from this kind of rationale. It needs more doubt, more equivocation, more compromise. And if logic leads to irreccncilables, perhaps the world needs more of the kind of prayer Bishop Farren invoked "That out of the morass of bitterness and hatred, so under- standable in this moment, God may lead us into paths of reconciliation and peace and a chance to build a happy and peace- ful land." Pandering to U.S. fear The Canadian Churchman (Anglican) after considering where they come from, the articles in the No- vember and December issue of Reader's Digest on the World Council of Churches are specious and superficial. A happy little magazine with a huge cir- culation, the Digest in Canada is a prod- uct that reflects life in those United States and, as such, reflects middle America's fear of blacks, communism, social action and truth about themselves. With great abandon Digest editors deal out American corn, American cultural mediocrity, Am- erican political reaction along with gobs of treacle like favorite characters and do-it- yourself medical advice. The magazine asks in shrill tones if Christ taught a gospel of racial justice and if churches are justified (through the WCC Program to Combat Racism) in using their power and money to combat this evil wherever it arises. Obviously, the answer is no. Christ ap- pears as preaching a white, narrowly in- dividualist gospel a status quo gospel The merits of the racism program and ministry' to draft-age refugees are still up for debate. Tlie Anglican Church of Can- ada has supported both. But the debate which has gone on for more than a year will not be clarified by blurring the real issues with distortion or downright sloppy reporting. To us, however, the malice of the Digest comes forth in the second article where McCarthyite smear tactics are used in hinting that everyone in Geneva is under the diabolical thumb of the Russian Ortho- dox Church and its cohorts from Eastern Europe. This is straight pandering to the fears of all who see a Communist plot in Chris- tian social concern. Tlie isolationist stance of some of tile major American churches wlu'ch stay out of the WCC for these same reasons, cou- pled with the growing serf-interest of tiw world's richest nation keeps the U.S. from playing an important leadership role in the world and sullies deeply tlie gospel d Jesus. The plain truth on bilingualism Tlie Ottawa Citizen JT is a dinosaur issue, that question of French-speaking workers into government bilingualism in the public service, but there are those who will not tire of it Only fitting, therefore, that the arch per- petrator of government bilingual strategy. Public Service Commission chairman John Carson, should gallop forth armed with sliield and sword to dispatch this lumber- ing vertebrate back to its resting place. To the extent that Mr. Carson asserts that in implementing a program of bi- lingualism he is carrying out the will of Parliament (and not, as we hear so often, of a Quebec his words bear read- ing and comprehension by those who balk. To the extent he offers a progress report, they bear repeating. For example: Key occupations in the public service continue to be dominated by English- speaking workers 81.8 per cent of work- ers in the top categories are still English- speaking, though this group constitutes only 72 per cent of tlie population. The extra push being made to "parachute" jobs has come nowhere near redressing the balance. The merit system is not being tamper- ed with, or diluted, hi the effort to place French language recruits. Despite the highly vocal protests, re- latively few complaints have been filed in the three areas of appeal open to pub- lic servants. Finally, the language training effort has been fruitful. Through this, and de- spite disappointing recruitment levels among French-Canadians, the public ser- vice is well over target for bilingual staff in all but executive occupations. Despite the smokescreen of protest, the public service has moved far in recent years in accepting bilingualism as a valid base for uniting tlie country and in adaptr ing the machinery of tlie public service to attain it. The time has come for all public servants to comprehend what is at stake and throw their energies behind making it work. By many other names The Hamilton fpHE ONTARIO Frail and Vegetable Growers Association has decreed that the Canadian turnip shall be American- ized. Henceforth, there shall be no more turnips just rutabagas, as they are known in the good old U.S.A. Tlie reason: So sacks and boxes of the delicious Canadian vegetables being ex- ported to tlie United States could be la- belled a way that Americans undersiand. For uniformity, tlie farm organization has decided, turnips shall be called rutabagas in Canada, too, even though shoppers here may not know whether a rutabaga is a vegetable or an important sports car. Canadian consumers expect some Inte.-esting developments if other pro- Spectator ducers decide to apply export labels to goods on the home market. Never mind wheat; ask for tarwe, trigo or Weizen. Contractors can for- ;et about lumber and order trastos or aout, instead. And dairy fanners may pre- side over their herds of Bieh and ganado. Tlie prospect is enough to drive shop- pers from the marketplaces to the taverns. There, at least, tradition will survive, for one of Canada's most internationally-re- nowned products isn't vulnerable to those who meddle with perfectly acceptable names. Whisky (or whiskey) is whisky (or whiskey) the world over, regardless how it's stilled, spelled or spilled. Clwrming and astute The Wall Sireet Journal It is not only charming but astute that Ralph Nader has decided to sponsor a study of tilings that arc done right. Charming, of course, teeause Mr. Nader has made his name by exposing all the things he thinks are done wrong. And if lately the impression has been spreading that many of his study groups are super- ficial and sensational, it also must be said not only that he did drnmntizr the very real problem of auto safety but that his focus on targets identifiable enough to be discussed intelligently provided a refresh- ing contrast to the utopianism that seems to have, seized M> many of our reformers today. Astute because Mr. is quite right that a lot can be learned by studying ex- amples of successful programs. He has in mind fair and imcongested court systems, for example, or firms th'it disclose thrir anli pollution spending, or unions making efforts on lioh.ilf of tlio poor. It will be interesting to watch the fale of Mr. Nader's new sludy, though. Wo sus- pect that finding what's right is a lot harder than finding what's wrong. Perfec- tion is not exactly the natural slate of man. or of his If Mr. NacJtr's search for things done right can briiiq home that much to him, and (ho rest of us, it will teach us a valuable lesson in- deed.