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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - February 6, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta Wednesday, February f, THE LETHBRiDQE HERALD 37 Natives working on project With Mackenzie Delta exploration activity now in high gear, 85 to 90 native people from four communities will be working on Gulf Canada projects centered around the company's supply base at Swimming Point near Inuvik, N.W.T. John Kohotok (left) and Jack Alonak are part of this group who put in a three-week work schedule and are then flown back for a week at home. Fusion-fission for electricity By JEFF CARRUTHERS Herald Ottawa Bureau OTTAWA By the year 2000, Canada could be harnessing fusion to produce electricity in large quantities across the country, according to a recently-completed study by federal nuclear scientists. But fusion in Canada will not likely be used to produce electricity directly, as the Russians and Americans would prefer to do. According to a more modest (and possibly more practical) Canadian scenario depicted by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. scientists, fusion in this country would be tapped as a source of neutrons and used to "breed" enriched thorium fuel. The thorium fuel, enriched with fissionable Uranium 233 by neutron bombardment, would be burned in already- developed fission nuclear reactors (like those now in operation at Pickering, near Toronto) to produce electricity more economically and in larger quantities than a direct fusion reaction. Using fusion plants in sym- biosis with fission nuclear plants in this manner would have the important side benefit of stretching Canada's thorium and uranium nuclear fuel resources hundreds or even thousands of years into the future, according to the AECL study. Fusion is the process which drives and sun and the stars. Fusion reactions involve the energy released when light elements (such as forms of hydrogen) are combined or fused to form heavier elements such as helium. The Hydrogen bomb is at present man's only fusion device. _ Fission, al -eady being har- nessed in Canadian-designed CANDU reactors which burn natural uranium fuel, involves the energy released when heavy elements like some types of uranium are split into lighter elements. Neutrons are nuclear par- ticles used as atom-Splitting bullets in'fission reactions. Fusion, it turns out, is a much better source of neutrons than of direct energy, according to the AECL analysis. Initially, fusion plants would be built separately from conventional fission nuclear plants. The fusion plants in the Canadian scheme would be a "poor, man's breeder." Ten small 60 megawatt fusion plants could supply 10 modified Pickering-type nuclear fission power plants with enough enriched thorium fuel to serve Canada's electrical needs for the rest of the century, according to AECL calculations. The target cost for the fusion plants in such a set-up would be If achieved, this would make such a system comparable to a uranium enrichment plant, but considerably less costly (enrichment plants start at about Thorium, the AECL study points out, is about three times as abundant as Canada's already abundant supplies of uranium. By enriching Canada's huge thorium resources with neutron-produced fissionable uranium 233, Canada would be able to stretch out her regular uranium resources hundreds or even thousands of years by mixing the enriched thorium with natural uranium in CANDU fission reactors. Initially, the fusion plants would be separate. But it seems technically feasible to' consider building fission reactors around fusion reactors, in a direct sym- biosis, according to AECL. As you might expect, there's a catch. As the AECL study points out, the scenario is dependent on someone proving that a contained and controlled fusion reaction is possible. Large sums of research money have been spent in recent years in Russia and the U.S., but so far no one-has been able to trigger a con- trolled fusion reaction in a laboratory experiment. Recent declassified military calculations show it should be feasible theoretically. Inventors turn to exotic items as cash haven NEW YORK (CP) In- vestors around the world are turning to such exotic items as antique weather vanes, etchings and clocks in their search for a safe haven for their funds. Money also is flowing into the purchase of drawings and pastels, rare postage stamps, antique art and Chinese art, books and manuscripts, rare coins, sculptures and pa- perweights These items, traditionally the preserve of the sophis- ticated world of the collector, have joined gold, silver, an- timony, zinc, copper and other metals as safe hedges for investors withdrawing from sagging stock and bond markets. Pick's World Currency Service, which reports on in- ternational money values, says in its annual survey that substantial shifts of funds into the so-called culture items was observed during the fourth quarter of 1973 as stock markets touched new lows. "As no calculations of earn- ings capacity or of dividends for such items as a 34-cen- turies old sphinx said Pick's, "and as no secjirity analyst can predict the trend of 18th-century Cremona vio- lins, the market for art ob- jects was relatively free from major mismanagement and not yet burdened by con- fiscatory government con- trols." The sphinx sold in the United States last year for as auction prices for antique art jumped 90 to 95 per cent above 1972 values. A 44-inch-high 10th- Multi-phase pipeline construction studied CALGARY (CP) For the last four years, the depart- ment of chemical engineering at University of Calgary has been conducting research aimed at solving the technical problems of multi-phase pipe- line construction. The oil industry is vitally interested in the research, be- cause the current state of transportation of crude oil and natural gas by pipelines is a contributing factor to the energy crisis in Canada. The industry has long maintained that there is no physical shortage of energy hi this country. For years, the industry has been designing and building pipelines capable of handling single-phase flow of either oil or gas. However, when both of these fluids flow in a pipeline as a two-phase mixture the design methods which work for either of them separately are inapplicable. The two persons most in- volved in the research are Dr. Khalid Aziz, 38, originally from Karachi, Pakistan, and Dr Garry Gregory, 32, a na- tive of New Liskeard, Ont. Both are professors of chem- ical engineering. REALIZE SAVINGS "It has been estimated that savings in pipe costs of up to 49 per cent can be realized by using a two-phase pipeline as opposed to a separate pipe for each said Dr. Gregory, a graduate of the University of Waterloo. "Furthermore, in many oil and gas gathering and trans- mission systems, two-phase flow is unavoidable, so that detailed knowledge of two- phase pipelines will aid in de- signing such systems." There can be further sav- ings using a multi-phase pipe- line, said who at- tended the universities of Ka- rachi, Michigan and Alberta and Rice University in Hous- ton, Texas. Using this system, oil and gas can be processed centrally, instead of process- ing them separately for the market. Another active partner in the research is Dr. George Govier, chairman1 of the Al- berta energy resources con- servation board and part-time professor at the university Dr Gregory calls this proj- ect "mission-oriented re- search" as opposed to purely academic research. Because of this, financial support has been received from the fed- eral and provincial govern- ments and a number of oil companies. Laboratory equipment in- cludes five 100-foot pipelines, measuring in diameter from half an inch to three inches. Certain field data is supplied by the industry, and Dr. Aziz said the university is grateful for the co-operation by the in- dustry. The laboratory pipelines, made of transparent plastics, can be adjusted to simulate different terrain as in application pipelines have to suit the geography. University of Calgary is a leader in such research and a recently-published book, The Flow of Complex Mixtures in Pipes, with co-authors Dr. Go- vier and Dr. Aziz, has been accepted internationally as a fundamental reference for multi-phase pipelines, said Dr. Gregory. The research also is a popu- lar field of post-graduate They Used To Put It In Meriting Doris Hopper takes a nostalgic look at how some famous Canadians kept 'the fires of love burning. In Weekend Magazine this Saturday. The Lethbridge Herald study at the university. To date, five students have com- pleted the requirements for master of science degrees with thesis projects based on two-phase flow ex- perimentation. One of them now is working toward a PhD on the same experimentation. The Flow of Complex Mix- tures in Pipes sums up re- search in multi-phase pipe- lines up to 1972. The team has been presenting later finds in a number of scientific papers, and Or. Gregory said some of the knowledge from the re- search has already been put into application by the in- distry. Some of the problems of multi-phase pipelines, accord- ing to Dr. Aziz, are the size of the pipeline, pumping pres- sure, flow formation and safety for the pur- pose of building pipelines ca- pable of doing the required job at the minimum cost. Dr. KreiseFs resignation accepted EDMONTON (CP) Dr. Henry Kreisel's resignation as academic vice-president has been accepted by the University of Alberta board of governors. Dr. Kreisel will step down Aug. at the end of his five-year appointment. He said he announced his decision early to allow ample time for the choice of a successor. He will return to teach literature in the arts faculty after taking a year's sabbatical. Policeman hit by car EDMONTON (CP) Glen Bruce Thomas, 16, of Winterburn, Alta., was convicted Wednesday on a charge of criminal negligence stemming from an incident in which a city policeman was hit by a car. He was remanded in custody until Feb. 19 for sentencing. Mr. Justice M. O'Bryne rejected Thomas' explanation that his artificial leg slipped onto the accelerator just before the car be was driving struck Airafy Semeniok, a police constable, October. Coast Semenink said be tried to flag down the car, which be believed was stolen, hi a hotel parking lot when it accelerated. century bronze piece depict- ing the Hindu deity Siva went for million while an 11th- century bronze chola figure fetched Etchings hit the top of the list with a rise of 400 per cent over 1972 prices. Top price was for Picasso's well-known 1904 etching Le Repas Frugal at a Swiss auc- tion. The Agony in the Gar- den, a small Rembrandt etch- ing measuring 4% by 4V4 inches, was. knocked down at which works out at a square inch. Weather vanes, rare at auc- tions until now, moved into an art class of their own. An American Statue of Liberty vane sold for and a vane with a miniature of a 1909 Hupmobile drew Postage stamps jumped a surprising 140 to ISO per cent. Stanley Gibbons, the London stamp firm, paid more than than any old master printing fetched in two album collec- tions containing only stamps older than 100 years. Gibbons also sold the famed Bermuda Penny Perot stamps to an American dealer for Watches and clocks moved up, with a 19th-century Impe- rial Russian gold, enamel and jewelled egg clock by Fe- berge, known as the "cuckoo selling for hi Geneva. A 1650 gold and enamel watch made by the famous Louis Barouneau of Paris brought in Zur- ich. Gold and silver continued to hold favor with foreign in- vestors. Sears Announcement DIM to tlM hMvy demand on certain and Hit IndiNtry shortage of materials, wo ragrot to announce that some Homo offend In our Homo Flyer being delivered Sat, Feb. 2, 1974 In The UtnbrMge Herald are not available at thle time, while other Hams wW bo substituted. Please chock with your local Soars store for Informa- Seara regrets any Inconvenience caused to its customers. Sears pre-season tractor sale Save 16 hp. Suburban tractor. A real cod operator! a-tt's our coolest operating tractor with power to take on the biggest mowing jobs. A tough all-season tractor with solid state ignition system, up-front controls, auto-type steering for easy handling Mechanical governor gives you instant extra power for big loads. Overhead valve engine means maximum combustion efficiency, long life with low maintenance cost 6 speeds forward plus 2 from slow crawl to fast dip with no extra pulleys or underdrives. With positive traction turf-saver tires. Reg. newtUMJt mower attachment Suction action sets up grass for smooth, even cutting. Beft-dnven blades with safety brake stop within 5 seconds after power shut-off. With stone deflector, height adjustment from 1Vz to 4V2 inches. Reg. BUY NOW PAY IN 8 horse power Reg. ItltJf al Swnpscm-Seaw you gel the ftnen guarantee and fret defivery Open dairy from am. to 5 30 p.m. Thursday and Friday a.m. to 9-00 p m Centre Village Mall Telephone 328-9231 ;