Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - February 5, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta
10 1HI inHMIDCE HUAU) Friday, Nbruarf 5, WI Future uncertain Canadian agriculture unpredictable The future role of the federal government in agriculture will almost certainly revolve around programs and policies designed to assist in farm adjustment, say Canada department of ag- riculture economists Dr. G. R. Puraell and V. A. Heighten. "Federal government inter- vention in agriculture is greater today than a decade ago and is probably greater than in SwSs-iiSaiW 5- IETHBRIDGE RESEARCH STATION Field com in south Albertci DR. STAN FREYMAN, Crop Physiologist In 1970 approximately acres of corn were grown for grain and for .silage in southern Alberta. It is antici- pated that this acreage will in- crease for the following rea- sons: Hybrids have been and are being developed that will yield well and mature in our climate. Many beef and dairy men are now growing corn for silage with very good results. There is an excellent mar- ket for grain corn in western Canada. The necessary corn-heads for attaching to combine har- vesters are now available in southern Alberta. The Lethbridge Research Station and the Alberta Corn Committee are working to pro- vide corn growers with infor- mation needed to grow the crop successfully. The Alberta Corn Committee is made up of representatives from the Lethbridge Research Station, personnel from the Al berta department of agricul ture, and corn growers. This committee coordinates the test ing and evaluation of corn by brids for both grain and silage production. Each year the; publish a leaflet that con tains a heat unit map of Al berta together with a list of by brids recommended for the dif ferent heat-unit areas. This leaflet may. be obtained from the Research Station or from district agriculturists. At the Research Station w are studying cultural practice with an aim to provide grower with a recipe for profitable production. We have fount tiat irrigated grain or silage corn should be planted tw inches deep in late April o early May. Approximately 30, 000 seeds should be planted per acre so as to provide an estab ished plant population of abou plants per acre. If th corn is planted for grain, the row width must match th spacing on the corn-head tha will be used to harvest th crop. For example, if a 3C nch, four-row head is to used, the crop should be plan ed with a four-row, 30-inc jlanter adjusted to drop see seven inches apart in the row High soil fertility is also n cessary for good yields. Th grain from a 100-bushel crop corn removes from the so about 80 pounds of nitrogen an 15 pounds of phosphorus. Sim ilarly, a 15-ton crop of silag removes 130 pounds of nitroge and 20 pounds of phosphorus Corn requires about 20 inch of water during the growin season. The greatest use curs during July and Augus A poor seed set will result soil moisture is in short supp during tasseling, pollen ding, or the period of rapid crease in grain weight. Her cides that may be used in co fields are summarized in t Alberta department of agrici ture bulletin No. 641-250. Unles weeds are a problem, there usually no need to cultivate. Corn that is to be harvest for grain must mature to moisture content not exceedin 35 per cent before the first Ml ing frost. Silage corn should nearly ripe by mid-Septemh and harvested in a well dent or dough stage. nany other sectors of the econ- say the economists in x current issue of the publi- tion Canadian Farm Econo- mics. They point to subsidies and quotas, the 1970 "lift" pro- rram to reduce wheat surpluses and to the proposed national arketmg boards as examples government involvement in forts to alleviate distressing roblems.' Today agriculture is faced ith the fact that its relative .iportance in the economy is eclining in terms of its share the total population, gross na- onal product, employment and In 1930 rural residents ac- for 46 per cent of the anadian population but by 1967 the country's populat i o n the 20 million mark they accounted for only 28 per And despite agriculture's ontribution to the GNP rising rom 5628 million in 1930 to 90 million in 1967, its relative hare of the GNP dropped from 1 per cent to five per cent in he same period. At the same me agricultural exports is reased in value from mil lion in 1930 to million in 967 but declined as a percen of exports from 43 pe xnt to 13 per cent. The economists say four fac ors are behind today's "farm low and unstable ne ncomes; unequal distribution o ncome among farmers an among regions; an imbalanc n resource use; an over-capa city of production relative to the demand for agricultural prod ucts. To cure agriculture's trou jles, the industry must estab ish targets to provide a prope foundation for policies and pn grains, they say. They recom mend four major goals. (1) Development and maint nance of agriculture as a v able sector of the economy. A riculture, like other Industrie must be'economically sound it is to exist. In Canada, th physical resources coupled wi the interests and drives of th people support this goal. (2) A significant contributii to Canada's gross national pr duct. With the growing wor opulation and the expanding omestk demand for food, it is jgical to expect that Canadian gricultur} will remain an im- >rtant element in the coun- ty's economy. (3) Efficient use of resources n agriculture. Land, labor, cap- al, management and technol- ogy should be combined to pro- uce efficient and economical Resource shifts within griculture and other sectors iiould aim at improved effici- ncy. (4) A standard of living for seople engaged in agriculture iat is comparable with the tandard enjoyed by those out- ide of agriculture. The living tandard should take into ac- count the necessities and con- of life, opportunities or educational and cultural ad and other factors in volved in creating a just society A great deal of structural re- rorm or adjustment already is :aking place in agriculture due o the economic push of rising costs and the pull of relative- y higher income prospects in non agricultural occupations say the economists. They point to decreasing farm numbers, expanding farm size and more specialization tha mark the scene not only in Can ada but also in many other de- veloped nations. But the rate of adjustment is not high enough, they warn. When trends of the past 2 years are projected in 1980, the indicate that farm numbers wi be down to still toe many in view of the fact tha today's farm income will onl support about farmer with wages of each. "Hence the need for acceler ating the transfer of people ou of agriculture, pro v i d e d tha want to leave agricu ture and provided that ther are off-farm opportunities f( say the economists. While the main objective accelerating agricultural adjus ment is the improvement of ne income for those leaving farm ing as well as those remainin hi agriculture, the process faced with several constrainin factors. These include the rel lively old age and low ed atracal levels of many farm- _, their lack of necessary skills for non farm employ- ..wnt, the scarcity of non-farm ob orjortunities, and lack of luormatioo on non-farm oppor- unities. Dr. Purnell and Mr. Heighten outline these principles in light the comments made by the ask Force on Agriculture, hich urged that Canadian ag- iculture put emphasis on effi- i e n c y, competitiveness anc lanning; work toward freer rade internationally, and move oward less government involve- ment. The report also called for cra- wl of surpluses with the gov- rnment providing temporary assistance to control them; the phasing out of ineffective sub- iidies; assistance for those leav- ing non viable farms, and im- irovement in farm manage- nent. While the report recommend- ed limited government involve- ment in agriculture in areas of subsidies, support prices and similar activities, it put heavy emphasis on the need for im- iroved and continued govern- ment participation in such areas as the forecasting of agricultur- al problems and opportunities, he planning and implementa- tion of policies and programs, and the evaluation and review of programs and budgets. The report said the govern- ment will need specific objec- tives and will need to solicit di- rection from the industry in identifying goals. It recommended the establish- ment of a National Agricultur- al Advisory Council to advise on policy 'and to serve as a two- way pipeline between govern- ment and the agricultural com- munity. The task force also called for voluntary land diversion pro- grams, a more liberalized gram marketing quota system, en- couragement of farm mobility, nation vide marketing co-or- dination, market oriented re- search, more flexible or com- petitive pricing policies for farm products, increased communi- cation, extension and informa- tion activities, and a strong em- phasis on production and mar- keting efficiency. Planning a must Machinery cost management MELVIN A. CAJ1EHON, Regional Farm Economist, Lethbridge. Farm machinery costs are a big expense item. In southern Alberta, cash op- erating costs range from about S3.50 per cultivated acre for a dryland grain farm to as high Beet operation-project oi independent Indian co-op By RIC SWIHART Herald Staff Writer CARDSTON A loan from the provincial gov- ernment co-op activities branch has enabled 10 men from the Blood Indian Reserve to set up the first co-operative indepen- dent of the band administra- tion. Bernard Fox, secretary-trea- surer of Foothills Cattle Co-op The remaining will be i crutch in order to get funds." left as a contingency fund. He said the long range plan "is for the co-op to establish The Royal Bank of Canada, through which the loan was ob- tained, has deferred the first year's principal payment, a fortunate decision on our part which will allow us to get our feet on the ground." "The interest charges of per member for the first year money from the calf sale to be Ltd.. said will be ear- j used to expand the said will be paid, allowing the nual meeting The co-op available to both native and The mcm- marked for purchase of cattle on a cow-calf system. "Depending on the going price, this money will buy about 25-30 cattle for each he said. The co-op will use for operating capital which will be needed from now to November the first principal Mr. Fox. He said payment of and for the contingency fund loan will be made in December 1972. The loan will be paid off in five years, in equal instalments. I Mr. Fox said it is hard for I one person to get established j members1 in the cattle industry. It will also serve as a prece- dent for other people to make the move to form some type of economic unit. The co-op iias been set up so the membership can be en- larged by a vote at each an- non-native people, bership was limited initially to ensure success of the operation. A purchasing committee of three members has been set up and 34 cattle have been pur- chased. The committee will at- tend various cattle sales when the first calf crop is sold, i but with a co-operative with 10 i This money will be used to members, it is easier. "This is i buy haying supplies, supple- i the first time a co-operative ments, minerals and to make' has been attempted on the re- improvements to the members' i serve that the group has not facilities. French edition i serve mat uiu giuup nas nui t i f I had to use the band fund as a Of Agri-business calendar February 8 Brooks Alberta Hog Producers Marketing Board February Clare.sbo'm Rural welding clinic February 9 Lethbridge Alberta Hog Producers Marketing Beard February 8-9 Calgary Meat Packers Council of Canada annual meeting February 10 flarcsholm Alnerl.i Hos Producers Market- ing Board February 12 Canislon A.I. annual mcctuiR February Koit Swine management series etimmf-nces February li; Mafiraih HMer 'fhuol February 22-21! 1 .oniw.it Rural we Mi 115 dime March 10-20- California Vegetable growers torn sponsored by Calvary Power March 22-2C filth Pesticide horbicitln applicator's train- as per acre for irrigated crops such as potatoes. Capital investment in machinery will range from to per acre for these farms with the result that annual ownership costs of depreciation and interest vary from to ?50 per cultivated acre. As a result, total annual ma- chinery ownership and operat- ing costs vary from to per cultivated acre depending on the type of farm. It is only natural that cost control is of upmost concern to a farm manager. Although least-cost machinery manage, ment is important, it is only part of the machinery question that the farmer must consider. All the benefits and costs of machine operation must be evaluated in order to achieve a balance that will assure satis- factory operating margins. Reduction of equipment costs at the expense of reduced pro- i duction is not a realistic solu- tion. Machine cost control must be considered in relation to the type of performruice that is ex- pected on the farm. The real- istic goal should be to achieve least-cost operations, and, at the same time, maintain a suit- able level of production. In order to fully appraise equipment costs, the manager must recognize the various ways in which machinery gives returns on its investment. Equipment pays for itself by substituting for expensive la bor, by insuring timeliness of operations, maintenance of a suitable level of yields, and quality of production. The ef- fect of machine use on each of these areas are basic consider- ations when the farm manager looks at machine costs. As the cost of farm labor in- creases, farmers find that many jobs can be economically mechanized. Decisions in this area must take into account the effect of high equipment costs versus the increased labor With generally excellent aut- umn condit ions, France has planted large acreages of win- ter cereals for the 1971 harvest. Overseas reports say that by December 1st. French farmers had shown 3.33 million hectares costs that are required to of soft v.lK-at, hectares of achicve a ]cv'cl of pro. hard wheat, hectares of barley and about the same area to other cereals. wheat a r r r a o in France is hack up to the levels planted before and winter barley acreage is also much in- creased. ,V. ERACiF, SPF.MH.SG British housewives spent an average two week during on fond for each p-T-.on in their household. duetion. The goal should be least-cost production 'using the right- combination of machinery and labor. A balance lhat achieves the least-cost for a de- sirable level of production should be the goal. Over-em- phasizing cost reduciion of either equipment or labor nil! destroy the balance and bring about lower profit margins. Ma- chine cost control cannot be considered independent of la- bor costs or levels of produc- lion. Fanners recognize the bens- APP01NTMF.NT 7.1 iss Lynn Johnston of Lcthhridge, has been appointed district home economist at Pinelicr Creek. In addition lo serving I'incher Creek, Miss Johnston will provide part-lime service at Canislon, BlairmorC and Coleman. She will provide ilis- Iricl homcmakers with the in- formation on iooiis and nutri- tion, clothing and textiles, home management, remodel- ling and interior design, Woetco its to be gained through well- imed operations on the farm. ,ate season seeding, cultivat- ing and harvesting all result in yield reductions. Again the goal should be a balance that will nsure the degree of timeliness 'hich will result in the widest profit margins. Skimping pn equipment may be just as dis- astrous as over mechanization is in reducing profit margins. A satisfactory degree of timeli- ness should be established anc :hen the machinery selectee iat will most economically achieve the desired results. An over-emphasis on machinery cost reduction at the ex- pense of timeliness of opera- tions is undesirable. The man- ager may lose more through reduced yields and poor quality product than the increased equipment cost needed to in- sure seasonable operations. The equipment cost problem cannot be considered indepen- dently. Substitution of labor and equipment, timeliness of operation, yield levels and the quality cf product are all im- portant in arriving at the right solution. Failure to recognize the benefits and costs in either of these areas will destroy the balance and profit margins will suffer. SATURDAY SPECTACULAR SAVE 2.49 to 4.99 ARTIFICIAL PLANTS Reg. Woolco Price 5.97 to 19.97 SALE 14.98 FREEZETTE FOOD CONTAINERS Ideal for refrigerator and freezer stor- age. Preserves flavor an'd freshness. Saves space, tool Reg. Woolco Price .29 to 1.29 SALE .19 to SAVE 1.96 MEN'S CASUAL PANTS Permanent press. Green, Brown, Willow, Block, Grey. Sizes 30 to 46. Reg. Wooico Price 7.95 SAVE .30 to .50 GIRLS' SEAMLESS TIGHTS Reg. Woolco Pricn 1.57 to 1.77 SALE 1.27 GIRLS' SWEATERS T-shirts, pullovers and cardigans. Solid colors or stripes. Sizes 8 to 14. EACH 1.76 or 2 for SALE ;5.99 SAVE MEN'S NORFOLK JACKETS Canvas and corduroy styles. Belted. Sizes 36 to 44 (Not in all Reg. Woolco Price 39.88 SALE 34.88 SAVE 1.05 MACTAC SELF ADHESIVE VINYL Wide selection of Discontinued yd. package. Reg. Wooleo Price 1.27 SALE 2 for I At SAVE .88 WEIDER FIGURE TRIMMER For ladies or men. Streamlines your waistline, tones up muscles, slenderizes legs and thighs. Reg. Wooko Price 5.87 SALE 4.99 1971 MODEL CAR KITS Assorted models to choose from. SALE Reg. Woolco Price 2.67 to 2.97. Kids! Don't forget lo enter the Hobby Contest thot ends at 2 p.m. on Saturday, Feb. 13, 1971. Junior and Senior competition. You could b. the winner of a big .hmy trophy. Enter Todayl STRETCH 'N SEAL The new stretch-on food wrap. 100' box Reg. Woolco Price .73. O 1 1 Q SALE fi for 1 W 50" box Reg. Woolco Price .37. 0 C4 SALE Cfor BIG VALUE ENVELOPES Ideal for home or offics. 150 per pack. Reg. Woolco Price .76 SALE .62 ROYAL ASSORTMENT COOKIES 3 delicious varieties per box. 2-lbs. Reg. Woolco Price 1.05 SALE .66 WOOLCO PHARMACY OPERATED BY JACK AUSTIN PHARMACY (ALTA.) LTD. A Division of the Dominion Citrus Co. Ltd. BAYER DECONGESTANT COLD CAPSULES Keg. Woolco Price 1.27. 10 capsules. I SAVE 1.47 LADIES' "BUNNY DARLING" SLIPPERS AM suede with foam soles. Brown, Grey or Green. Sizes: 5-8. Reg. Wooleo Price 3.44 SALE I I SAVE 1.64 MEN'S SUEDE SHOES Slip-on and tie styles, foam soles. Sizes. Reg. Woolco Price 7.97 SALE 6.33 INFANTS' SLIPPERS Vinyl with fur cufr, zipper front. Blue, Red or Brown. Sizes 2-9. Reg. Woolco Price 1.45 SALE 1.11 SAVE 1.96 MIXER ON STAND 3 speed. Nylon beaters. White, Gold or Avocado. Complete with bowl and stand, One year replacement guarantee. Reg. Woolco Price 14.95 SALE SALE 12.99 TIME SPECIALS SATURDAY 10 A.M. SPECIAL (ONE HOUR ONLY) BATH TOWELS Slight imperfections will not affect their wear. Solid colors of Gold, Blue, Gree.i, Pink and White. Reg. Woolco Price 1.31 00 SPECIAL .00 SATURDAY 2 P.M. SPECIAL (ONE HOUR ONLY) MISSES' 2-PCE. PANT SUITS Short sleeve and sleeveless styles. Sizes 10 to 16. Reg. Woolco Price 12.83 to 16.95 SPECIAL Open Monday and Tuesday 9 o.m. to 6 p.m.; Wednesday 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.; Thursday and Friday 9 a.m. lo 9 p.m.; Saturday 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.