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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - February 5, 1921, Lethbridge, Alberta SATURDAY. FEBRUARY 5.1921 THE LETHBRIDGE DAH.Y BEIiALD OF INTEREST TO THE FARMER CONTROL From "Dry Fanninf in Western by John B.S.A., President of M.A.C. are plinti which Interfere the growth of crop! or lower tho of (ruilnc or jur the appear- uc the aoil. is seldom a sufficient excuie for weeds in dry areas. The moisture saved through the prevention of on fallow is generally of more value to the soil than the organic matter weeds would produce. On some of our heavy soils In older districts where! lodges or rip- ens late, French weed or stink weed is frequently prevalent. No farmer there will -say he prefers an infested to a clean farm, but many a wheat grower, because of the fact that this weed in a fallow crop results in. ear- lier maturity and Jess lodging of the grain, eases his conscience by con- sidering only its advantages. Such men are usually better philosophers than farmers. of Control. "Weeds spread by means of seeds, or creeping root stalks, or by both, but in no other way. Weeds that spread by seeds can be controlled by preventing seed formation. Weeds that spread by creeping root stalks can be controlled by preventing seed formation and killing the plants al- ready established in tho soil. But a man gets weeds from outside his farm as as from his own land. Hence, If his plans are to bo efficient, he must also take st'eps to prevent the introduction of weeds to his farm from elsewhere. The principles of weed control may then he stated simply as follows: Prevent the weeds from developing i seeds; kill the perennial weeds; pre- vent the introduction of weed seeds. In the business of farming the cheapest and most efficient methods are the best. Under different soil" and climatic conditions, and with differ- ent weeds, different practises have naturally developed. Suitability of each method to any given farm or district must be determined by the man on the ground, and his judgment will be more reliable if he is inform- ed on the appearance of the noxious weeds and their seeds; the habits of growth of the common weeds and We Develop the Farmers Business Banking at any time is co-operation between the bank and the CUB. tomcr for the derelor> rocnt of the customers business. The better the bank cnderstands its customer1? business, the more read- ily and efficieru> can it assist him. Eighty-nine years of dealing with farmers in Canada has given The Bank of Nova Scotia a complete knowledge of farmers' banking needs. Call and talk the mat. ter over with the nearest branch manager. 1TB NOVA SCOTIA i B. M. Maclcod, Mgr. Lethbridge. how men ud tha suc- cessful method of comblUns etch type of wee4. Istentiflectlen. Space nst of including illustrations or firing1 descrlp- tloni of the more Important weeds I anil the weed of the west. formation the identifica- tion of these may, however, bo found In one or more of the following bul- let ina: "Farm Clark, Dominion department of agriculture; "Better Bulletin No. 31, Saskatche- wan department ot agriculture, Re- gina; of Alberta." Alberta department of agriculture, Edmon- ton; "Plants Injurious to Bulletin No. 7, department of agri- culture, Ottawa; "Weeds and Bulletin No. S.8, Dominion department of agriculture, Ottawa; 'Weeds Used ia Farmers' Bulletin No. 188, U.3.D.A., Washing- ton; "Lessons on Bulletin No. 30, Manitoba agricultural college, Winnipeg Duration of Growth. The duration of the growth of dif- ferent classes of weeds varies consid- erably, some completing their life cycle in one season, some in two or parts of two, while others live threo years or more. We have annual, bi- ennial, winter annual, and perennial weeds, each typo requiring a differ- ent treatment for Its control or eradi- cation. die at the end of the first season's growth, winter an- nuals start in the late summer or early fall and die the neit year; bien- nials die at the end of the second year, while perennials may lire an in- definite number of years. Annuals, winter annuals and bien- nials can be completely controlled by preventing seed formation and the introduction ot weed seeds to tho farm, but to control perennials not only must seed formation and the In- troduction of seed be prevented, but the plants already established must be killed. In addition to knowing the "dura- tion of growth" of'weeds, ft is essen- tial also to know the habit ot root growth of each, because on this point depends very largely the nature of the means of eradication. There are three more of less dis- tinct torms of roots: Fibrous roots, tap roots, and the ao-called "creeping or underground stems. An- nual weeds usually have fibrous or tap 'roots; biennial! generally have tap roots, while perennial weeds may have fibrous, tap or creeping roots. The following are typical weeds of each of these types: 'Fibrous rooted annual, wild oats, tap rooted annual, lamb's quarters and most mustards; tap root biennial, tansy mustard and blue Imrr; fibrous rooted perennial, wild barley; tap rooted perennial, curled dock; creeping rooted peren- nial, Canada thistle, BOW thistle and quack grass. How Waeda Spread. The creeping rooted perennials are the moat, difficult to kill because of the fact that from each Joint of the so-called "root" there may be sent up new plants even after the parent stem has been plowed down. Among the influences by which man aids weed distribution are: Importing weedy food stuffs, Including hay; sowing impure seed; neglecting road allow- ances, railway rights-of way and freight yards; using weed infested undecayed farm manure; custom threshing, and by tillage machinery in moving from dirty roads or fields to clean fields. The chief natural agencies result- ing In the distribution of weeds are tho wind, water, animals and hirds. The wind scatters fluffy or hairy seeds such as the dandelion, Canada thistle of sow thistle; winged seeds such as dock and parsnip; seeds hav- ing extended edges, such as penny cross, plants that roll like the Rus- sian thistle and tumbling mustard; sticky seed like plantain adhering to weeds that blow and weed seeds in drifting soils. Irrigation water, flood streams and rapid "run off" water also distribute many seeds. Barbed seeds such as burdoek and blue burr attach themselves to animals and are thus distributed' In the same way. In nndecayed manure many undigested seeds are spread around and many small seeds are disposed by dirt on the feet of birds. To Prevent Developing Seedc. A knowledge of the appearance of the different weeds, their duration, habits of growth and means of spreading, enables a man to outline intelligently the practice he should employ in controlling them, under the particular soil and climatic con ditlons that exist where he lives. Among the chief means that are now followed on western farms for preventing weeds from developing weeds are: Fallowing, to get the seeds in the soil germinated and the seedlings killed. "Duckfooting" the fallow in late fall if biennials are growing on it. Late spring cultiva- tion after weeds have started, and before early maturing crops are sown. Sowing annual hay crops such as oats or beardless barley, to be cut before -weed seeds mature. Using early maturing grain crops, such as winter rye and early six bar- ley, which ripens before many of the weed seeds. Harrowing growing crops or grain after they are up to kill the small weeds that may be starting. Early fall cultivation of stubble land to encourage germina- tion of seeds, which then may be destroyed by the low temperature of winter. Plowing stubble land in fall or spring if weeds are pre- valent. Sowing perennial hay crops which smother many weeds and arc cut before most weed seeds mature Mowing weeds on roads around fences and In waste places before seeds develop on them. fiome pcrennia Iweeds the most The Fat Years and the Lean difficult of alt to control, while HOIDA ire quite easily eradicated. Tho Lap or fibrous, rooted perennials can be killed by deep plowing and care- ful covering of all vegetation, follow- ed by surface cultlvatlm The crnnp- Inx routed not BO easily dealt with. OHO plowing IB sufllci- ent to kltl them, mud frequently eral du not succeed. In doing Throe of the common employed In controlling the rooted perennials ure UK follows: Shallow plowing In the fall anri deep plowing the neit summer after the weeds have madu a frtwh itart. The first plowing followed by the winter gives the plants a set-back and the deep plowing when they have not entirely recovered, gives thorn another. Surface cultivation as needed may then be given to prevont green leaves forming on any that may remain. This plan, or some modification of it, is generally used for the perennial sow thistle. Deep plowing as soon us the weatwer turns -warm ir. May, flowing thickly to a leafy r.rop like oats or hurley. This often gives very satisfactory results with quack grass. Mowing and removing the weeds just after blossoming when they are least able to stand a check, then deep plowing followed by a deep, thorough and frequent cultivation to keep the black. This is frequently used for the control of Canada thistle. To Prevent Introduction. With the exception of a few native weeds al' those now on our farms have grown from seeds that were brought in by human or other agen- cies. The prevention of weeds coming to the farm is the big problem of men on virgin soils, and not an unimport- ant problem for all other farmers. Among the means of prevention are: "Using only clean seed is chiefly responsible for the weed evil. Buying only sudi feed grain aa is free from wild oats, mustard and other weed seeds, and such forage grasses as free from Canada and perennial sow thistles. Controlling soil drifting. A man cannot, of j course, farm his neighbor's land, and he cannot keep the seeds from blowing about. Co-operative com- munity effort as well as better farm- ing must be enlisted in the fight against weeds. Cleaning the grain separator before it> comes on the farm. Preventing stray animals roaming over the dissem- ination of seeds in the manure of wandering stock is a common occur- rence. Preventing the Broadside weeds going to seed. The intelligent enforcement of weed control legisla- tion. The chief means at our disposal for controlling weeds already in the soil are tillage, crop rotations, smother- ing, hand pulling, pasturing and the use of chemicals. Tillage. Insofar as controlling weeds Is a function of fallowing it is accom- plished by tilling t' e latter in such a way as to germinate the weed seeds present, kill the weeds that grow, and if not successful in the latter, to prevent the weeds forming seeds. The use of lioed or Intertilled crops enables one, at some expense, to germinate seeds and to kill many we'eds without leaving the land idle. By plowing in the fall or spring every year, biennials can bo con- trolled absolutely and perennials can at least be held In check. By discing early in the fail annuals can be lessened but not entirely controlled. By using the duck foot cultivator small weeds of all types can be kill- ed. By harrowing, young weeds can often be lessened at a ra-y low cost whether they appear in the fallow or growing crop. Digigng by hand Is not a popular method of weed control, but when Canada or sow thistle are first ob- served in small patches they should be "eradicated" by hand if the area is too small to cultivate satisfactorily by machinery. Crop .Rotation. Ii! we had good crop rotations we coukl control our weeds at a small fraction of the present cost. In con- sidering this question four important j facts should be kept in mind. Perennial hay crops will control weeds having short lived seeds, such j as wild oats, providing tho introduc- tion of other wild oat seeds is pro- vented. An occasional fallow j courages germination of weed seeds] in the soil and permits killing tlm young plants shortly after they begin to grow. Intertilled crops will lessen the necessity Cor fallowing to kill weeds, but may not prove profit- able on a large acreage under pre- sent economic conditions. The use of early maturing crops that may be harvested before weeds ripen enables nnr, to prevent ficod development. Among these early crops are grain crops to be cut for forage, winter rye and early barley. Chemical Sprays. A twenty per cent, solution of iron sulphate (100 pounds to HO gal- Ions of water per aero) applied on bright sunny days to mustard coming into bloom will prevent much of it developing. Another solution used Is a two per cent, solution of copper sulphate (10 pounds to 50 gallons of water per acre.) These chemicals may be applied with either a hand all mustards, cow cockle, dandelion, or power sprayer. Some men claim that iron sulphate solution will kill Canada thistle, bindweed, plantain, ragweed and some t other weeds; other investigators are much less optimistic regarding the efficacy of chemical sprays. In any case, the practice of spraying for weed con- trol is expensive and has not yet, therefore, come into general use. When pasture is short, eheep aid in controlling mustard, plantain, thistles, lamb's quarters, shepherd's purse and many other weeds, but they seldom touch stlnkwced or Ijlue burr. Leafy crops on spring plowing aid in the control of quack grass by smothering. It is a also that many young weed plants aro prevent- ed from developing by the crowding and shading of a good stand of any cjop, This is why we find an many weeds whoro tha baa missed a A rtwM lUff In Barens onfer caption, "Wtw furnMiM iht ttxt for MHM homely Tht Item Wtt to the thai reildent of that town vlilttd tome time ago return- ing with Information that, while yeif of the Coal' date district hid so much money they didn't knew how to aptnd ttt thla while they have plenty to the price Is kaw, and "they haven't got so much kale to throw and consequently are yelling hard times Juvt like the rest. Whether or not there ii any truth In the statement that the Coal- dale a year ago had so much "kale" they could afford to "throw ft around" .without thought for leaner days coming, It Is the truth that them Isn't the spirit of saving for a rainy day among the farmers of Southern Alberta In general at there might and It would be well for the country that there should be. In saying this are not holding the farmers as a up as a horrible example to people In other Industries, for other workers, and men, too, display at times the same tendency. The fact has been noticeable however dur- ing the pact few years of high wages and high prices, and now with the period of readjustment corning we are all beginning to think of flush- days when we might have done with less and put away more. The farmers are by no means the only people who shewed an inclination to handle their money recklessly during the flush period. moral of the tale is this: In goud times, prepare for bad. There are business men today who are looking forward with the utrrtost confi- dence to the next few months during which they know they will take small profits, or even losses; for they are the men who created a reserve fund during the go'od years. There are ethers who "spread out" during the fat years, and now they have no surplus to draw upon. There are farmers, too, in districts which have bean mighty hard during the past three years who, though they have been making nothing on their farming operations, are still falriy well fixed financially because they established a reserve fund during the years of big crops and high prices. The conservative farmer who was satisfied to hoard his resources during good years to tide over the lean is in a much better position than hi? neighbor who had visions of making a fortune in a cjouple of years in big operations with attendant heavy expenses. The rule doesn't apply to all There are many farmers who had plain hard luck and n'othing else. But in a general way it applies, and because we are a comparatively new country yet with much of that adventurous, and some of the gambling, spirit which brought us here to carve out our fortune, it would be well for us to ponder the conservative spirit iaf the farmers in the older established countries where we were born; maybe they were slow and steady; maybe they didn't make a for- tune in one year; but when they did have a surplus they put It by where it would be available if necessary. It's that same spirit which will even- tually make this great western land. strip, and so few relatively where no skips in seeding occur. The fact if of great significance and should be appreciated by every grain grower. If we can succeed in giving our crops a good particularly after having given the weeds a "set-back" our problem will have been made of the winter annual and biennial weeds that have started. When dealing with either biennials or winter annuals it should be kept in mind that late fall cultivation Is essential whether early cultivation has beeii given or not and that the use of biennial crops, like winter rye and sweet clover, which aid In Hie control of annual weeds, only foster the development and spread bien- nial weeds. In some seasons some biennial weeds will germinate, and like an- nuals, produce seed in the same year. Fall cultivation will not control these. much easier, and a good even stand of grain with no skips or misses is important for the same reason. Hand Pulling. Hand pulling weeds is expensive, and with labor at present prices is impracticable except on small such as the seed plot, or as a pre- to "em- ventative measure on relatively clean othor annua, weeds how. land. When only a few weeds are e tlka caro o( them present iu a field "an ounce- of pre- vention is worth many pounds of and rogulng a field may be much less expensive than leaving the weeds to multiply and to add to the difficulties of futuro crop pro duction. The wild oat is a typical annual weed, and incidentally, one of the worst we have. The" first and most important measure of control is to stop sowing them, a measure that is easy to plan, but difficult to put into practice. The second is to prevent their Introduction to the farm in feed, in threshing machines, by wandering stock, etc. The third is to prevent them 1'roni going to seed by double' disking or plowing shallow early in the fall so as to encourage germination and subsequent death by freezing, killing us many as pos- sible in the fallow year by discing after the first growth starts in the spring and plowing alter the second growth starts, and growing a crop that may be harvested before the wild oats mature. The ahove practices may be follow- ed on any grain farm with no serious alterations of cropping plans and no lessening of the acreage sown. If the weeds are so prevalent that these methods are insufficient, several others may be followed. Winter rye may be sown on the fallow to smoth- er the nats tin; following year; or i( the stand of rye is thinned out and wild oats grow, the crop may be cut for hay before the oats ripen. Early barley may he sown in the spring after a crop of wild oats has heen killed by thorough discing or shallow plowing; and the barley may bo cut for hay, if the develop, or left for grain if they do not. Early fall cultivation after this crop pro- viding Uiere is sufficient moisture, will start many of the oats still left in the soil. -A com crop or a potato crop may be used instead of the hay or barley and with better results. If these measures do not result In or less complete eradication, tamu grasses should be sown and left down two years or more, and a year taken to break up tho land before the next crop is put in. The annual mustards and all other plants of simiiar habit may. be con- trolled by the practices outlined for wild oats. Harrowing the growing crop after it is up. a practice that will not kill wild oats is an additional means of killing the smaller seedlings of tliese annual plants. On account of the long time the hard seeds of many of these may live iu tho soil, the use of perennial crops has not proven as useful a means of control us in the case of wild oats. Annuals and Biennials. Most of Che so-called winter an- nuals, of which tumbling mustard and stinkweed are typical examples, may develop as annuals if they happen to get a start ealy enough in the sea- son. If they start In tho spring they may' be prevented from seeding hy the practices suggested for controll- ing annual weeds. Those that start in tho fall and those of the earlier pla'nts that, have not produced seed may be killed by the treatment out- lined in the next paragraph for bien- nials. Blr.fl Imrr and tansy mnsrard are typical biennial weeds. If clean seed is always sown, and If seeds of tansy mustard aru kept from blow- ing in, and those of blue burr from being carried in by stock or other- wise, theso weeds can be controlled hy late fall or early spring cultiva- tion of all fields whether fallow or stuhbie. Fail or spring plowing of stubble fields Is to he preferred. Discing will kill the young plants only if tho discs are sharp and the soil firm. Thorough cultivation of the fallow lain in "the fall with a cultivator will kill Host Perennial Weeds, The native quack grass fagropy- ron glaucum) is a typical perennial weed in many parts of the west. It is less difficult to control than the eastern species (agropyron The chief methods of combating It in breaking are: Plowing all the land and leaving no skips or misses. Plow- ing shallow early in June and plow- ing again deep late in the summer. On less "grassy" land in more dry areas, and particularly in dry sea- sons, deep breaking, followed by timely and sufficient surface culti- vation may kill the native quack, but seldom kills the sweot grass so fre- quently found in low moist places. The chief means for controlling quack or other creeping rooted grasses in stubble fields are: Plow- ing in the "dry" time. Plow- ing lii the spring and seeding at onco to a leafy crop such as oats or barley. When present iu the fallow, quack grass may be controlled by: Plowing and digging out the roots with a spring tooth cultivator al- ways costly and not always an ef- ficient method, but sometimes ad visable and necessary. Plowing twice, preferably shallow ia the fall and deep in the late June or early July following. bushes can be controlled in much the same way, but when back setting, or plowing stubble, or plow- ing fallow the second time, deeper work is necessary and more deep sur- face cultivation is desirable. Sow Thistle. The Canada thistle and the- peren- nial sow thistle iu stubble are also very difficult to control. In addition to the practices suggested above for quack grass, frequent and thorough surface cultivation with cultivators having sharp cutting blades is de sirable. serious After giving the plants as set-back as possible by good I times and bad times for JL the.past 45 3'ears this Bankhassteadilygivenitsbest efforts to the development and upbuilding of theagricultural, manufacturing and commer- cial business of this Country. Ourefficientserviceisavailable for the benefit of all JW THE STANDARD BANK OF CANADA C H 5T JOHN LCTHimOGE, ALTA. T. K. LOCK WOOD MANAQIft LETHBHIDGC, NORTH CMO ffitANcit. ALTA. P. BILLINGTON MANAOCn NEW DATTON, ALTA, a. J. EGERDIE MANAGER STIRLING, ALTA. L. G. THOMAS MANAOCft COALHUMT, ALTA, T. L. HALP1N MAMAOCfl COAL.OALV. ALTA. c. T. MCKINNOM ALTA. plowing, ono ihould dot TOT to the fcppeirtnce of icy young thlatleB above This roqutrm frtquent, thorough cultiva- tion, but liven favortble TTeither, will la the of the creeping root by starvation, not ba nourUihvd if ure prevented from form Inf. A fallow may be occasionally throughout the fillow for con- trolling vild old, bat "bltck" fallow Is essential for control of peren- nial weucla. M ii with wild onU and MW thistle, thi> fallow ihoulii be planntd to kill the moat prevalent illicit the two cannot be satisfactorily eradicat- ed in the came year. the A rul ud iMftlng throiiKh all hli conpiatett WM the falttrinf lore (or ft over a period of feftft been kind to It to talk to thli ho teemed to ptr and sanity. tkMM let it be an ml for our plaiu loudly, but tt UkM real calibre to are ueasoned with uml hope. A PIONEER'S VIEWPOINT (Farmers' Advocate.) 'We were privileged to have a Jong; Ulk the day with a farmer who operates half a section of land in Southern Manitoba. He is a good farmer, and his neighbor! have al- ready demonstrated their respect for his judgment. For several years this man hfti been hit hard hy drought and wind. When the threshing out- j fit left his farm last fall, he was face to face with the fcct that his grain did not pay for half the cost of pro- ducing it. Before he got his wheat marketed, it dropped in value twenty- yix cents a bushel. He has always kept a few good steers on his place, but, faced with a feed shortage this fall, and dismayed by the trend of the cattle market, he sent them to the shambles. The price he got for them was lower than the price he paid for them. "In all the years I have farmed in Manitoba." he stated, "I have never had to put up with so many discouragements." We hardly knew what to say to this old pioneer. There was one remark- able feature of his conversation, how- ever, that increased our respect for him, and that was its note ot optim- ism. True, he bit- some of the injustices un- der In common with other farmers, are laboring, but he outlined sane, constructive methods for remov- ing the injustices which he enumerat- ed. No loose statements came from his mouth. In spite of the buffeting which Fate has given him during tho past four years, he had no harsh things to say about Old Manitoba or THE FARMER'S OPPORTUNITY There is today a ready market for everything you can prodnca. Cultivate your land to the limit. Increase your production and yoar profits. A portion of your pro- fits deposited today in oar Savings Department Till have far greater purchas- ing power in the The Royal Bank of Canada Total ReaourcM Lethbridge E. MacKay, manager. Pay-Day Saving You we paid regularly.' Save regularly. When pay-day comes, put some of the money in a Savings Account in The Bank. One dollar five dollars ten whatever you can conve- niently afford. And put in the same K amount every pay-day. opens a depoiits of and upwards are welcomed. MERCHANTS DANK Head Office: Montreal. OF CANADA EaUbliarMd 1804. BRANCH. BrandiM at h open uul Fridays. SENDING MONEY ABROAD If you to send money abroad, pttf- chase draft from the Canadian Bank of Commerce. It is the safest method and the cost is small. Should the money be required at once we shall be pleased to arrange the matter by cable. THE CANADIAN BANK OF COMMERCE PAID-UP CAPITAL RESERVE FUND LETHBRIDGE BRANCHES. W. Heilue, Muuiger. BRITISH CANADIAN TRUST COT HEAD OFFICE, CONYBEARE BLOCK LETHBRIDGE, ALBERTA AUTHORIZED TO ACT AS EXECUTOR, ADMINISTRATOR, ASSIGNEE, GUARDIAN, TRUSTEE GENERAL FINANCIAL AGENTS AUTHORIZED TRUSTEE UNDER BANK- RUPTCY ACT It Costs Nothing to obtain our advice, based on twenty-five years of experience, in the distribution of your estate under your will. We inv-ito confidential inquiries in any matter pertaining to the administration of TRUSTS and GUARANTEE Company, Limited 220 AVE. W., CALGARY ALBERTA. LETHBRIDGE OFFICE, BANK OF COMMERCE BUILDING, J. W. MoMlcel, Innpeetor. ;