Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - February 3, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta
Thursday, February 3, 1972 THE IETHBRIDGE HEWUD 5 If. D. Addison ks or power in Canada's north? Mr. Addison, a forester and biologist, sppnl seven weeks in Uie South Nalinnni cnun- Iry in lie leaches school in Thunder Hay. COUTH NAIIANNI. What vi- sions does (hat name con- jure up? To most it will legends involving mystery, scenery beyond compare, a wild river and perhaps a Cana- dian Shangri-la. To some; it means harness- ing this unique river to gen- cral electric power. To olhers il is a vision o[ a unique part of Canada preserved forever as a national park. These latter dicholomous viewpoint have been quietly building into a controversy for at least 10 years. The South Nahanni remains one of the most inaccessible of Canada. The cost of reaching it has protected it from most travellers, except civil servants and geologists on official business. The controversy of parks versus power has been largely confined to the civil service. Furthermore, it has been al- most entirely confined to the department of Indian affairs and northern development, un- der Jean Chretien. The north- ern economic and development branch presents power and mining viewpoints to Mr. Chretien, while the national and historic parks branch gives him Ihe parks view- points. This pills Mr. Chretien in the unenviable ppsilion of resolving strong conflicts of in- terest within his department. Environmcntalisls, particu- larly the national and provin- cial parts association of Can- ada have been criti- cal of the conflicts in Mr. Chretien's department. NPPAC lias rcquc-slrd Hi" national parks branch be moved lo En- vironment Canada under Jack Davis. It has received strong cdilonal and public support- It has received equal support lor its suggestion lhat civil service reports and recommendations on cxisling and proposed na- tional parks be made public. Requests for access to these documents have been denied by Lire government. Thus the public has often had to argue from a poor factual base. Such is the case for the proposed South Nahanni National Park. In Ihe case of the South Nahanni, NPPAC was aware of a document outlining power proposals for the Liard River basin. The South Nahanni is tributary to the Liard. The re- port entitled Power Survey of Ihe Liard River Basin, Yukon and Northwest Territories, was prepared by T. Inglcdow Asso- ciates, consulting engineers for the northern and economic de- velopment branch. I was sent a ccpy through the prime min- ister's office as a result of ex- pressing inlcrcsl in Hie Nahan- ni. The South Nahanni is a river of spectacular scenery. It drops 31G feet over Virginia Falls, then drops another COO feet in the next BO miles as it flows through canyons up to -V 500 feet deep. Obviously, it has significant power potential. The river has some interesting flow chai-aclcrislics as well. From May to October, SO per cent of its water flows down- stream. This means that dur- ing winler the Nahanni is a minor river. Large-scale power generation requires Dial this disparate flow pattern be equalized by building large dams to store walcr which will (lien be released during periods of low How. The. Ingledow re- port discusses the feasibility of generating power at 12 sites on Uie Nahanni watershed, arriv- ing at two final plans for de- velopment of the river. The first plan, recommended by Ingledow, would sec devel- opment of a 10 MW (1 MW equals 1 megawatt equals I million watts) power plant at Virginia Falls. ThLs low-canac- ity plant will utilize only run- of-river flows. During the win- ter virtually the entire flow of the river would pass through the power plant. In the sum- mer, however, the plant would use only a fraction of the tolal flow. This leads Ingledow to con- clude a plant "utilizing only nin-of-river flows "would not in- fringe upon the natural beauty of the falls as it will not re- quire construction of a dam across the South Nahanni River." This is nonsense. The view of Virginia Falls will be mined by a powerhouse on the south bank beside the falls, by transmission lines running up the gorgeous limestone cliffs, by a surge lower and by a transformer and switchyard. The Ingledow report raises ether questions. The ultimate capacity of a run-of-river flow planl al Virginia Falls is given al 28 MW. Using the data from the Ingledow report and meth- ods outlined therein, NPPAC determines the ultimate capac- ity to be 20 MW. Where do the extra 8 MW come from? The initial 10 MW power plant is to supply a power load estimated at 8 MW which was expected to develop between 1970 and 1979. The Inglcdcw re- port is not explicit as to this load will develop, bu! it is at mines. Tiro are mentioned. Power be delivered at an estimated cost of 15.fi mills per KWH (kilowatt hour) lo Tung- sten, N.W.T., 100 miles north- west of Virginia Falls. Here Canada Tungsten Mining Corp. operates a small but rich lung- sIXT ore body. It has supplied its own pow- er from diesel generators. The Ingledow report suggests a second tungslen ore body in MacMillan Pass, 100 miles north of Tungsten, may be de- veloped into a mine by anolher company. The cost of Virginia Falls power delivered lo this silc is never specified but the extra distance should raise the cost lo about 25 mills per KWH. This estimate is competitive with the c-slimnloil cost of 26.3 mills per KWII for diesel pow- er. The cost of Ihe Virginia Falls power1 plant is amortized over a 40-year period in the Inele- dow estimates. Will (he mines operate that long? If not, then the amortization period must be shortened, thus further rais- ing power costs, perhaps to the point where they become com- petitive with diesel power. The, Ingledow report esli- matcs that a 23 MW plant, built at Virginia Falls at a cost of will produce power at 3.9 mills per KWH, excluding transmission costs. The cost for the proposed 10 plant is not given, hut it is estimated lo produce power at 7 mills per KWII or 15.5 mills per KWII delivered at Tung- sten. The cosls for these plants were estimated as follows- "Costs resulting primarily from labor and equipment were increased by 25 per crat over equivalent cosls in the more remote areas of southern Canada. Freight costs were es- timated feparalely and added to Ihoso items requiring signifi- cant Rinounls of imported ma- terials Cost estimates "allow for r c s e r v o i r-clcaring. con- structing access roads, prelim- inary site investigations, engi- neering, construction supcr- vi-ion. nrlmipislrnlion and inlcrr.'.t during conslrttc- tinn. A conliiigfici Fllowanre of 2o per cent of direct.cosls is included.'1 To reach Virginia Falls, about miles of access road must lie buil- from the exist- rordhcad at Tungslen. Hydro access roads in north- ern Ontario cost S30.000 to 000 per mile. Therefore costs for the Virginia Falls road should fall in the range of to per mile using the criteria of the Ingludow re- port. Thus the road alone should cost and SB.B-miuion. Some of the road will be through mountains and permafrost, ensuring the costs will be above Ihe base figure. Tlic Inglcdow report doesn't contain the methods or data used to arrive at cosls. There- fore accurate checks on its cost figures arc impossible. Bui it seems that with this much money being spent on roads alone, il would be for- tunate if it could stay within il.s cost estimates. There arc a number of other minor features ol Ihe Ingledow report which the critical scrver may find unusual. How- ever, the truly interesting pan of UIE report is the section de- voted to full development of the South Nahanni River. Ingledow identifies five sites in the South Nahanni waler- shed lo be developed in an in- tegrated fashion. Large water- storage dams are proposed at Virginia Falls and on the Flat River (Upper Seaplane the major tributary of (he Soulh Nahanni. While these dams, particularly the Virginia Falls dam, will generate sig- nificanl quantities of power, their main pin-pwe is lo store the large summer flow of wa- ter. Three oilier dams, whose prune purpose is lo create a head of water, will he con- structed below the Virginia Kails dam and the Upper Sea- plane dam. These latter Ibrce dams mil all be located in the magnificent canyons of to3 Piut'h Nalianni. One will be at The Gate, where the river nar- rov s lo aixiLit lo') yards ?iiirl flows between vertical walls nearly 1.050 feet high. The oth- er two dams will be located at the upstream (Kam Creek) and downstream (Latterly" s Riffle) ends of the First Can- yon on the South Xahanni. The First Canyon is the most spec- tacular and scenic of the Na- hanni's (liree canyons. Ingledow eslimales the com- bined power output of the five- Winds of change still blowing TF opinion or attitude polls have any validity and they usually do; and if 137 neo- phyte lawyers are representa- tive of their peers and they probably are: and if lawyers will continue lo play a predom- inant role in Ihe governance of society as they always have in the past, then the social changes we liave witnessed in recent years are mere zephyrs heralding hurricane winds of change lo come. The poll, conducted by the Gallup organization for Red- book magazine, was taken among 137 graduating law slu- denls at 20 of the nation's top law schools last spring. The just published results reveal lhat only 7 per cent of the students planned careers in a large corporation, while 40 per cent preferred "to serve the needs of all people" in a small general firm. Next most popular career choice was the faculty of a law school, follow- ed by the Legal Aid Society. A large majority 66 per cent favored easier divorce laws, and an even greater num- ber 84 per cent thought abortion should be legalized. On the subject of drugs, 77 per cent of the law students By DON OAKLEY, NEA Sen-ice favored legalizing marijuana, but most advocated stronger penalties for organized crime and pushers. The prevailing view was that drug addiction should be treated as a social problem and not a criminal one. By a majority of 72 per cent, the law students call- ed for the abolition of capital punishment. As indicated by other major- ities, there was little sympathy among Hie seniors for laws against pornography for adults. They were concerned, in all parts of the country, against Ihe use of Ihe law and law en- forcement to repress minorities and dissenlers, and about the inability of Ihe poor to get a fair shake under the law. As one means rf determining approval or disapproval of pres- So They Say The wind and Ihe ocean had a quarrel, but he who paid the price was the sailor in the boat. M. Baroody, Saudi Ar- abia's ambassador lo the U.N., quoting an Arab pro- verb afler Russian and Red Chinese delegates exchanged verbal insults. ent society, the students were asked to rate a list of well- known public figures. The man "least admired" was Attorney General John Mitchell. Over 50 per cent of tlie students characterized the nation's chief law enforcement officer as "repressive" and "to- talitarian.'1 By far the "most admired" public figure was Ralph Nader, who was praised by 07 per cent of the sludents, both conserva- tives and liberals, for liis cru- sades on behalf of the Ameri- can consumer against big cor- porations. These sludenls arc now grad- ualed and embarked on their careers. Some will go into pol- itics, laking feats in stale leg- islatures, and eventually Con- gress, where (Jiey will write the laws a future generation of Americans will live under. In a few- years, others will begin moving onlo benches in local and slale courts, and eventual- ly the federal system, where they will pass judgment on those laws and on lawbreak- ers. This is a real revolution, a continuation of Ihe revolution that was begun in America more lhan 130 years ago. Their Second Annual GIRL'S INVITATIONAL TOURNAMENT THIS WEEKEND February 4th and 5th! Travelling into the city to join Catholic Central's Cittens, Winston Churchill's Griffins and the reigning champions, the L.C.I.'s Clipper Queens are representative teams from Cran- brook. Eastglen and Strathcona (Edmonton) Lindsay TViurber (Red Deer) and the Grassy Lake Pantherettes. Tickets are available al llie L.C.I. Touincy Tickol tor 10 games ond Friday nialiVs cloncn featuring Billy Nichol "BE dam development at 954.6 MW, costing The cost of power al the sile, not yel delivered, is estimated to be expect of him in cabinet for Mr. Chretien is one of those oddities: a minister who holds conflicting obligations. As minister for northern development his duly is to seek development of (lie North. As responsible for parks his duty is lo fight against development whcro parks should be established. The public will nol be well served if he goes to Cabi- net ambivalent. He sltould decide now, pub- licly. and in favor of a South Nalianni Na- tional Park. Perspective on s peril Ily diaries King, in The Ottawa Citizen an 80-year-old lady in (own Cal study of (he rebellions. "Revolt in who shuns personal publicity, but sin- cerely believes The Citizen is Uie expres- sion of the devil. She writes frequently always marking her comments "personal" bo tell me tlie paper prints the lies il does only be- cause our chain owners will not permit us lo tell the truth. But when I telephone to offer her the opportunily of staling her convictions in prinl, she shies away. "I just like." she says, "to lei you know what I think Her great hangup is Africa, and black- vliile relations in particular. She keeps closely in touch with the Rhodesian situa- tion Uirough correspondence with friends there, and not surprisingly disagrees strongly with our edilorial point of view. "Most journalists she explains, "simply refuse to odirit lhat Uiere is a conspiracy to hand over Uie governments of uolh Rhodesia and South Africa, and their method is to stir up the blacks. Then of course these fr.cele.ss men can move In and grab all Ihe riches in those Iwo coun- Southern by T. 0. Ranger of Ihe University of California at Los An- geles. perhaps ironically the book is available for sale in Rhodesia today. But flic rebel regime of Ian Smith has banned its paper jacket, which shows a photograph of a caplurcd black rebel in chains superimposed over anolher photo- graph of whiles in a laager, or square of wagons, fighting olf a black allack. Ap- parently it is considered loo graphic for the taslcs of while power. The whites first occupied Rhodesia In 1890 when Cecil Rhodes, under a charier from the British government, sent a pioneer col- umn of 180 settlers and 500 police to lake Masbonaland the northern and eastern portions of what ifl Rhodesia loday from Ihe Shona people. Until 1893 the rest of tlie country, known as Matabeleland, remained in the hands of a warring tribe led by King Lobengula. But the whites invaded and louk it over. Three years later the blacks struck hack, tries. TTiey woiud Jind Ihe and fivc mlrths M7 _ than 10 per conl ot the total white popu- lation were killed or presumed dead. Brilnin dispatched troops to the area from Soulh Africa, and the killing increased. By October, seven monlhs after Uie uprising began, Uie blacks surrendered. The wlutes came out cf the rebellion easier to deal with lhan white men who understand their aims." Well, that's a convenient explanation for the racial unrest in those unhappy coun- tries, especially from tlie white minority point of view: Blame il all on (hs inler- nalional Communist conspiracy. But i! a mere youngster may presume lo disagree. with an octogenarian, I contend there is angry at the British for leaving Uiem un- more to it than thai. A reading of Rhodesia's relatively brief history it's only as old as our corres- pondenl herself indicates quite clearly that the black-white confrontation began to protected and moving too slowly lo rescus them. They determined lo look aflcr Ihem- selves. Deep hatreds between Ihe races porsiit to this day. Although relations have been relatively shape up long before communism took root peaceful for 75 years, Ihe recent rioting in in modern society. Scvenly-five years ago, when this con- cerned about to start school, Rho- desia's blacks slashed out al whiles in what probably was tile bloodiest rebellion against colonial rule in the hislory of Africa. Far more whites were killed in Uiat en- coimlcr than in any oilier African uprising, including the Man Man rebellion in Kenya half a century later. Tlie p-im facts are spelled out in what is regarded as Ihe mosl important histori- Rhodesia's towns and cities is a warning ol what could take place again if the black majority continues (o be denied equality with Ihe ruling minority. The story may not he palatable to thore who prefer lo believe Uiat Uie Africans are happy in Uicir semi-siavo state, and would remain so if Uie evil hand of Communist agitation were kepi away. But il jusl isn't so. And history Is there In prove il, if we will buf our eyes to the realilv. Bad Dream? By Pony Walker was a day recently when the slinrinp of bad dreams secmrd (o be in order, Helen Kovnes had dreamed Lhat (.heir pave hii'lli lo pips. We piicsscd Ihnl all those reports by Ric Swiharl on Ihe Imp mnrkcl'nifi proposal had laken her IHT .salnnilion point. Then our ,Imli related n IKT mother Invintf n henrl nltaek and lier extreme rmnoyaneo at me for boinp slow getting ;i call in lo our doeinr II Is difficult lo figure out why Judi would have a dream like (Kit Ihe par! that puts me in such a poor light. My dream was a really bad ono. I dreamed I was fiolfinn. My lee shot wont a mile up and Kindetl behind me. Then after a couple of dub shots, I uli.ickcd one into I ho trees. At dial point 1 (old my com- panions to credit me with n dozen and I'd I IT aiMhi on Ihe second ho'p. Mv hope is lli.il UT divain uas ;I of soir.e of my uorsl moments nf (he pns! and no! a premonition of IhU year's if we liave one!