Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - February 1, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta
lueidny, Fibruary 1, 1972 THI IETHSRIDOE HERAID 5 Eva Breicsler A fresh look at Israe 's progress LB CARID, Israel The prob- lems which have beset Is- rael, from tho establishment (if the state lo the present day, stagger the imagination and. as one Israeli friend put il: "I would nol wish Ihcm on my worst enemy." However, some- how, she has managed, so far, lo cope with difficulties of eco- nomics, immigralion nnd mi- norities, employing policies often contrary lo tlio.se applied by wealthier Western nations dealing with similar problems. To find out more about Is- rael's economic the first person I went lo :-cc was Sdilomo Kosen, financial wiz- ard and economic adviser to the Knesset He has been a member of Kibbutz Sarid for 46 years and, as us- ual, was home for the week- end. I had known him and his wife, Zilla, for the past 20 years, yet, when they invited me to their house recently I could not find them, simply be- cause it never occurred to me to look for them in Ihe small. one-roomed house they had lived in for as long as I can remember. Knowing the posi- tion he holds, the many vis- ilors he has to receive even at home, I searched all Ihe lux- urious new buildings that had sprung up since my last visit three years ago. "Please don't apologize." he said when I finally found him in the communal dining hall. "Come for afternoon coffee and I'll try and make up to you for your search." Zilla and Schlomo Rosen's house is t'ne same as everybody else's. The one and only difference is his private telephone and a few extraordinarily lovely paint- ings he collected in foreign countries he traveled to in his official capacities. That he is also an extraor- dinary person, cams out in our one hour lone; convrrsalinn in English, French HIT! He never IP rcp.- ords and not only Is- rael's fads and figures in hii head, but those of any oilier country you care lo mention. He gives me so much interest- ing information, it made my head spin, but here are just a few bits I found particularly fascinating: At the last census, early in 1971, Israel's less than 8.000 square miles (nol including occupied territories) held a population of and is now well over the three million mark. Since Independence, when there were only the Jewish population has quad- rupled and two lllirdh of lliat increase is due lo immigralion. The Arab population has tripled since partly by natural increase, partly by ad- mission of relatives from Arab countries and parlly due to the re-unification of Jerusalem Of tJic Jews, less than half arc native born; Ihe rest came from a hundred different coun- tries in Europe, North and South Amrrica, Africa, Asia ar.d Pacific Islands. Israel regards it as tha right of every Jew, from wherever he may cnmc, lo live in Ihe country. Thus, every immi- grant is accorded immediate and automatic citizenship. The ministry of immigralion en- sures there is no "red tape" slowing down (he process of immigration, no age limit or .selectivity with regard lo skills, professions, personal properly or even physical health. In short, there are none of Ihe limitations even the big- gest and wealthiest western nations, including Canada and the U.S. find it necessary to impose. The integration of so many people in EO small a country would, in itself, pose an almost insurmounla b 1 e problem else- where. Adding to the difficul- ties is the fact thai the immi- grants' cullural and educa- tional background is as varied as ihcir lands o! origin anrf Ihe color of Lheir skin. All they have in common is (heir Jew- ish heritage, the Rihlc. but that seems lo lie sufficient to bind them togellicr into one proud nation. During the last decade, by far Ihe greatest number of peo- ple have come from Asian and African countries and were often, in education and c i v i 1 i z a lion, centuries behind their European and American brothers. To help these immigrants who lacked means and skills, Israel, with the assistance of funds subscribed by Jews all over the world, provided them with free transport from their lands of origin and spent vast sums to receive, house and train them, lo give them im- mediate employment and steady jobs in agriculture and industry. Villages and small tnwns were buil1 and public, social and educational services were expanded The Asian and African immi- gration was at first motivated by hardships, persecution or duress. Now, most immigrants come entirely voluntarily and motivated by idealism. Most have skills and professions making their integration eas- Book Review icr. However, they too need in- formalion and advice, mostly obtained from Jewish agencies abroad and have to be re- ceived in hostels and absorp- lion centres on arrival. They have the right lo free housing and employment and (he gov- ernment helps them lo find both. They also receive cus- toms am tax concessions as well as aid in higher cducalion for I h e i r ciiildren. Special leaching facilities to learn He- brew arc provided lo all new- comers and various organiza- tions arrange courses, youth clntr, meetings and entertain- ment for Ihem. The latest wave of immi- grants, coming from Russia, poses a new problem: Con- trary to popular belief, Rus- sian Jews are used to and ex- pect far more consideration and physical comfort than any group of newcomers Ijefore them. Not for them Ihe discom- fort of absorption centres. Lux- ury apartments are built and ready for them on arrival. They find every comfort the majority of people have work- ed for for years and lhat causes a certain amount of bad feeling amongst the less fortunate. However, on the whole, they are made welcome as is cverylMdy who chooses to make Israe! his home. A lot of fuss has been made over a few who want to return lo Iheir land of origin but il is only a very few of the Russians, ap- parently, n-ho are homesick. Victims of injustice "No One Will Listen" hy Lois G. Forcr (John Day Co. Inc. anil reprinted by The Universal Library, 352 pages, distributed by George J. McLeod, bouk tlirpcls the myth America is flic hind of Ihe free. 31 rs. r'orcr takes a critical look at the American justice system from Ihe inside and what she sees is shocking, cruel, almost unlwlievable. The "turnstile justice" in Ju- venile courts sees children rail- roaded inlo jails for indefinite periods for such "crimes" as truancy, incomgibility or steal- ing a Tootsie Roll. In almost all cases, the vic- tims of the injustices that take place in the juvenile courts are poor, black children. These children can be arresi- ed without a warrant, tried without a lawyer and sen- tenced on hearsay Ihey are of llwir legal rights. Many times, these same chil- dren are arrested and im- prisoned for crimes the; did nol commit. During the years she spent as a hwyer for the poor in Phil- adelphia. Mrs. Forcr uncover- ed one instance after another where children have been wronged by the system that is supposed to protect them. Her book demands an ac- counting by those who arc re- sponsible for the system it demands t h e system be cor- rected. RON CALDWELL. Although, by the very na- ture of hostile relations be- tween Israel and her Arab neighbors, there arc bound to be some difficulties. Israel does her level best lo ensure, by law and action, equality for all her non Jewish communi- ties. Thus, vast sums and a lot of effort have been spent lo create equal prosperity and lo pioviclc thnn with public ser- vices on the national level. Almost half cf the Arab pop- ulation lives in about ]00 vil- lages and two fifth in towns. The resl are semi-nomadic Bedouins. Arabs who voluntarily stay- ed in Israel when others were encouraged by neigh boring stales to flee Die counlry, are now well integrated politically and economically. They play an active role in Parliament where they have seven seats, Iwo deputy ministers and a deputy What we mean by "Tbgether we're both stronger." Id's set the stage. And, let's stan with you. You grow up.You set cercain goals for yourself. And thcn; after some come ihc little you's. And with them, a goals. A home, a a collage.You want llie pood ihings. And. seeing that you work hard for your money, why nofj Bui, where do we fit in? Well, we fee! nvo heads are better than oncAVe fipurc u f.vo people set out to achieve the same poals, they might come a link sooner. And easier. You ice, in the money business.We invest money 10 make money, so lhat we can lend you money. But all of it isn't worth a plugged nickel if somebody doesn't use it, or our services, or our facilities, No, wcVe not trying to talk yon into a loan or a deposit. It's not like that. We feel these things will come naturally wiLh what we have to offer. And that offer is partnership in achieving goals. Your goals, and our goals. Let's call it something like, Us, You Sons. We know you work hard for your money.We understand things don't come easy. For any oi us. And that's what we mean by. "You and the Commercc.Together we're both stronger" Because together, we are. You and the Commerce, together we're both stronger. speaker. Both, Hebrew and Arabic are official languages and can both used in Par- liament and in the courts. Stamps, coins and banknotes [j2ar Arabic inscriptions nd Eummiies of supreme court decisions are issutxl in Arabic to Aral) lawyers. Arabs have their own local and municipal governments. The government has already completed one I i v e-year plan lo provide services such as roads, piped water, telephones, electricity and schools for Arab villages. A second one is now in progress lo expand housing in areas where employment, educational and health ser- vices are available. All this is over and above the expendi- ture on projects Benefiting the population as a whole. Belonging to the same labor organizations as Jewish work- ers, they receive the same pay for equal work and 'the aver- age yearly income of the Arab family is about the same as that of a Jewish family. Thsir number in the civil service is growing steadily and the sta- tus of their women has im- proved too since abolition of polygamy and child marriage. In agriculture as well, the output of Uie Arab farmer has increased sixfold due to finan- cial and technical aid from the government which has also fi- nanced irrigation and land reclamation schemes as well as modern, mechanical farm- ir.g methods and agricultural training. In spite of the tremendous cost of all these projects and despite the enormous burden of defence which amounts to about 25 per cent of the gross national product, Israel's eco- nomy has grown rapidly since Independence. The annual in- crease in the GNP of nine per cent in 1970-71, compares fa- vorably with that of the Uni- ted .States three per cent, V.'est Germany 5.3 per cent, tupped only by Japan's fl'.G per rcnl. This year the increase in GNP has dropped to 7.5 pa- cent which is still enor- mous considering the other countries mentioned above have fared very much worse in world economics if not, as in West Germany, for instance, come to a virtual standstill. This economic growth was due mainly to the vast and speedy expansion of the labor force which has increased to over a million, more than dou- ble the number employed in 1950, to government initiative and to large capital imports. Other factors were improve- ments in efficiency and better utilization of capital This per- mitted a considerably higher standard of living throughout the country and a liigli rate of investment. Naturally, heavy defence ex- penditure and quick expansion led to a considerable deficit in the balance of payments. To stabilize the economy, a pack- age deal was concluded be- tween the government, em- ployers and trade unions in 1970. Wages, frozen since 1966, were to be raised no more than eight per cent (now up to 14 per half of which to be paid in government bonds. Employers were to buy bonds for a further four per cent of the wage bill and peg prices. The government in return would peg taxes except on some luxury items but na- tional irsurance contributions were raised and compulsory defence loans instituted. Defence costs made it neces- sary to borrow from abroad and also to secure necessary sums by higher indirect taxa- tion and cuts in subsidies, but low-income families were com- pensated for consequent price rises which were, in spite of everything, slight. It is hoped that these measures will slow down growth in personal in- comes and thus reduce local demand, stimulate industry to expand exports "p last ypa' by 23 per cent) arm imports by local mamifac- lurers. Tnc fact lhal there is no unemployment and a defi- ciency still in the labor force of. at least, another men, skilled and unskilled, seems to indicate the success in these measures. If some people think that all this amounts lo excessive gov- ernment control, they are soon convinced otherwise by visible resulls, the dynamic enthusi- asm and volnnlary restraint of the Israeli people to whom sur- vival of the st.nle means de- livery from centuries of bond- age and persecution and the revival of a persona] nntl na- tional pride second lo none. Only h i s I o r y will show whether Israel with her rev- oluti lary methods of policies from immigration lo eco- nomics and from application of biblical principles in peace, and war lo communal farming, is the maverick, Don Quixote, or Scarlet Pimpernel! amongst flic nations of the world. Conservatives in Quebec Trois Uivk'rcs Lc TWE national leader of Ihe Progressive Conservative parly, Robert Slanfield, bar, just placed in Quebec a (Earn of 26 parly members invented with the providen- tial mission o[ laying the foundations for a Progressive Conservative presence in our province. A quick glance at the list of these Con- servslive proponents lets us noie mat new blood is not the trade mark of this all- star team. In effect we find only the names of veterans who have not succeeded in the past in lighting the spark of vic- tory. loot's be realistic for a moment. In 1968, when Mr. Slanfield basked in the halo of all his prestige as new leader, when an exceptional team of very select candi- dates defended the party colors in Quebec, only one-quarter received the favors of the electoral body. We cannot honestly imagine thai four years later a miracle can be produced. Mr. Stanfield has surely not proved in Opposi- tion he presents a valid answer as a re- placement. Moreover, the party in Quebec has suf- fered serious unrest which has led to Inn resignations of Fcmaiid Alie and Koch La- salle. On the other hand, the end of Trudean- mania could to a certain extent favor Ihe Conservatives. However, they should cer- tainly know they will not UM only ones to gather Ihe debris of the idol. New Demo- crats and Credilislcs will join in. We must recognize the qualities of Mr. Stanfield his honesty, his capacity for work, his sincerity, l.'nfortun.'ilely, good men rarely miXc p-eat politicians. If Mr. Slanfield really wants the of his own supporters, if Ire really wants to help the cause of Ihe Conservatives, he will resign his post as leader. We arc convinced the Progressive Con- sen'ative parly easily dethrone the Trudcau team if il had the courage to give itself a new leader, dynamic and capable of understanding Quebec. In the meantime, they remain Iv'ping Mr a miracle. No easy way to do it The Financial Tost TTO the exclusion of all other considera- tions, the world's 10 or 15 richest na- tions are jockeying to preserve their own interests while reorganizing world trade and currency relationships. But what about the poor? Over the pDjt decade, per capila income in the developed countries has increased by more than 5650. In the developing coun- tries, by contrast the per capita increase was Tlie burden of foreign debt on poor coun- try is growing at an alarming rate. By 19G9, it had reached S60.000 million. Although the GXP of rich countries is increasing, the percentage of GNT allo- cated to financial aid is decreasing. The technological gap between rich and poor continues lo widen. These fach were recounted recently be- fore a Montreal audience by Paul Gerin- Lajoie, president of the Canadian Interna- tional Development Agency They don't angur at all well for the future of the trade world within which we live or even for the maintenance of the status quo Gerin-Lajoie lays squarely on I h e line what has to be done to preserve us all: "Development in the so-called Third World depends more on fair trade policies than on foreign aid. The kind of interna- tional development assistance dispensed by CIDA cannot be a permanent source of in- come." There is, in short, a price to be paid. "The means to help diversify production in developing nations and increase their exports cannot be created without disturb- ing certain customs of the Canadian people and of the industrialized nations as a whole.'' In other words, it could cost us some jobs and some real money in tire short run. This, of course, is not something many Canadians are disposed lo countenance at any lime, particularly now when unemploy- ment is high, when inflation is pervasive and when Niion's economic moves have upset the rich man's world. Nevertheless can we afford lo do nothing more than we now do? Canada's largesse in foreign aid is not above criticism. While Ihe CIDA Iv.idjcl in 1P71 al Si21 million appears handsome, il is hardly a big slocking. Abou: SIOO million of our aid budget buys Canadian agricultural products for the Third World. Another S218 million goes to purchase primary resources or manufac- tured goods from Candian producers. And quite a few additional aid millions are spent on fees for the services of Canadian consulting engineers and architects. Most of our aid is tied. II is not charity. It helps Canada as well as the recipient countries. These facts should be kept in mind when next year's UN conference on trade and development pounds home the need for the rich to open up in trade to help the de- veloping countries. Salt water pollution The Hamilton Spectator QNTARIO Environment Minister Kerr again has asked municipalities to co- operate in his anti-pollution campaign against dumping salt-laced snow in Ontario lakes and slrcams. If Ihe municipalities continue to ignore the ministers common- sense approach, Queen's Park would be fully justified in taking legal action. Like most objectives in Uie war on pol- lution, safe snow removal isn't easy. Even salted snow dumped on the ground even- tually fillers through into (he water courses though the process is more gradual than direct dumping inlo the water. But attempts have lo be made and they should he made hy the municipal govern- menls which are responsible for local lead- ership as they are responsible for snow re- moval. Hamilton's streets and sanitation depart- ment has performed comparatively well in dumping its streel snow on land sites and in reducing the salt content in the sand lhat gels sprinkled on city roads. Tills is a sharp contrast with Toronto's dumping of some Iruckloads of sailed snow in the harbor, after Mr. Kerr's first request for co-operation. As the minister noled. the problem is province-wide. Having adopted an anti-pollution policy against dumping salt-laden snow in Ontar- io's waters, (lie province has to back it up. Otherwise the government mil find itself in the hypocritical position of enforcing pol- lution controls on private industry but let- ting public agencies pollute at will. Dumping controls, though necessary, can't be considered the final answer lo the road salt problem. More research is needed to find a harmless yet practical substitute or a safe means of disposal. One suggcsiion has been to dump sr.l'ed sr.ow on sand beds so lhat sand, with Irapped salt, might be used for street sand nig the following winter. Experiments aimed at combining pollu- tion control with economy could be carried cut at the local level, in addition lo pro- vincial research. Unionism and politics Quebec L'Aclion QUEBEC Prime Minister Trudeau and Jean Marchand, regional eco- nomic expansion minister, spoke on a com- mon subject at a Liberal galhering her.; recently, saying Lhal luiion leaders are loo involved in politics and use tile workers for political ends. Tliey raised a thorny issue which has bot'icred a lot of people for several years because of the definite orientation of cer- tain union federations toward the political field. Most colleclive agreements leave a work- er no clioice of one union over ariother. When a pci-son finds work in an industry wlierc everyone belongs to the union, and that Is Ihe situation in most cases, Ix1 must belong to and support the uiuon lo main- tain his job. Sonic workers do so wilh cn- Ihusiasm lwc.nii.se Ihey wholeheartedly sup- port all Ihe aims and policies of the union: otlxrs do so with indifference so they can work regularly; while still ollira's do so with biHarness Tlie Iheory ;lial everyone must belong has brought security and well-being lo un- ions It is ralhei curious thai in a time wlwn everyone is demanding liberties in racial, religious, matrimonial and other areas, few are prole-sling a piMciirr which re- qmrcs a free man to J.MII onr union rather than another Many unioniwd workers are nol in agree- ment with the great decisions taken by their union federations but this does not disturb certain leaders who back up their statements by saying Iti3y represent, and are supported by a considerable num- ber of workers, whether or nol Ihe work- crs have been asked. Now can a union leader come out in porl of a candidate in an election and lhat candidate in the name of the union? If a poll were to be conducled among Ihe workers, quite often another candidate would receive union support We admit that unionism can play a con- structive role in making UK public aware and improving the lot of (he worker but many unions risk forgclling their (inn objective is to defend the workers' common interests. The remarks of Mr. Tnidcau and Mr. Marchand will probably nit change Uia currrjit .'.iliialjon much, tlioy may people reflect on whahor certain union leaders slxinlrf ro.spwl the majority opin- ion of their members a lillle more.