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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - December 29, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta Wednesday, December 29, 1971 THE UTHBRIDGE HERAIG _ 5 John Burns Canadian trade prospects with Ckina 19EKING It is not known whether the members of the Canadian Wheat Board del- egation brought their golf clubs with them when they arrived in the Chinese capital late last month. But if they did they al- most certainly never had a chance to use them, for they succeeded in wrapping up a contract in the record time of three weeks an achievement some foreign businessmen would find hard to credit, with their experience of waiting months to sign contracts worth a fraction of the Canadian deal. The deal, calling for the de- livery of another million worth of wheat in 1972, pro- vided a fitting climax to a year which saw Canadian trade with China reaching an alltime high while the founda- tions were being laid for a sus- tained and possibly even more dramatic growth in the future. Year-end figures will show sales of non-wheat items total- ling about S30 million. Togeth- er wilh the S120 million worth of wheat delivered during the year this should push total sales past the million mark for the first time, vault- ing Canada from fifth to third place among China's trading partners, behind only Japan and West Germany. The increase m sales the previous high of million was recorded in 1966, be- fore the outbreak of the Cul- tural Revolution has been matched by increased Cana- dian purchases of Chinese goods. These should total about S25 million for the year, up from ?20 million in 1970. Undoubtedly the establish- ment of diplomatic relations 14 months ago played a part in the increased trade, creating a friendly climate which made it easier for Canadian traders to do business. But the full benefits of the diplomatic ex- change lie in the future, when contacts established during the past year have had time to ma- ture. The principal contacts were made during the mid-summer visit to Peking by Trade and Commerce Minister Jean-Luc Pepin, who left with Premier Chou's personal assurance of China's interest in increased trade with Canada. Mr. Pepin also carried away with him a joint communique declaring that China would continue to look to Canada first for its wheat requirements. The communique source of an acute political con- troversy in Australia, which lost its'wheat market in Chins when Canberra failed to follow Ottawa's lead in recognizing Peking also presaged two other opportunities for trade promotion which Canada was to take up before the end of the year. One, calling for periodic con- sultations between the two countries on trade matters, led to the arrival in Peking earlier this month of a delegation led by Frank Pelrie, head _ of Mr. Pepin's bureau of Asian af- fairs, who held detailed talks with Chinese officials including Foreign Trade Minister Pai Hsiang-Kuo. The other opportunity pre- sented by the communique was the agreement to mount two trade exhibitions, one of Cana- dian goods in Peking and the other of Chinese goods in To- ronto. By the end of the year planning was well advanced for the exhibitions, with the Chinese set to display their goods in a pavilion at the Ca- nadian National Exhibition next: August. The Canadian display, prob- ably the best opportunity Ca- nadian business ever have to show its wares to Chinese buyers, will be held in the Pe- king Exhibition Hall from Aug. 21 to Sept. 2. With Ottawa bud- geting over a million dollars for the display it will be the largest trade exhibition Can- ada has ever mounted over- seas. Alrerdy Canadian manufac- turers are knocking at the door of its China task force eager to book space in the exhibition and, in most cases, to receive federal financial assistance to defray the costs of their par- ticipation. The attractions of participa- tion in the exhibition are com- pelling, for past experience with trade fairs in Peking in- dicates thai the Chinese aro ready to make substantial on- Ihc-spol. orders for goods that meet, their requirements. Next year, with Denmark, Sweden and Italy all booked for displays ot their own, the Canadians may find it hard to r- Fiihslantial orders. But (vcn Ihosi' manufacturers who .'I nothing have Ihc so- of knowing thai llu-ir i parlinnalion has given thnu a solid advantage over nimprtilors from countries un- able or unwilling to mount ex- hibitions ni their own. Kci far trade exhibitions have proven to be the only reliable means ol overcoming a major obstacle that Chinese official- dom has built into the China trade the insistence that all negotiations wilh foreign com- panies be handled by the stale trading corporations and not by the end-users of the prod- ucts that the corporations buy. R G. Godson, commercial counselor at the Canadian Em- bassy in Peking, says "the ex- hibition is really too good an opportunity for Canadian sup- pliers with a serious interest in the China trade to miss. It pre- sents them with their only op- portunity to meet Chinese end- users and technical personnel and to find out directly from them precisely what China wants." Attractive as the exhibition is to Canadian suppliers some of them may find the road to Peking impassable. Though no firm guidelines have been laid down as yet it is clear that at least some Canadian corpora- tions will be denied entry be- cause of ownership or pail- ownership by U.S. interests, a factor to which the Chinese re- Book Reviews main highly sensitive even as they prepare to receive the president of the United States in Peking. If the Chinese were to apply to Canada the same sst of rules that they apply to Japan trade with any corpora- tion with U.S. affiliations the exhibition would be a very pale reflection of Canadian manu- facturing, much of which is American-owned. However Pe- king has made it clear in the past that the standards it ap- plies to friendly governments like Canada's are different from those applied to govern- ments, like Japan's, judged to be hostile, so thai some kind of quiel accommodation on the question of U.S. ownership ap- pears likely. In the past, representatives of Canadian corporations with a relatively small percentage of known U.S. ownership have teen invited to attend the bi- annual Canton trade fairs and some of them have even done some business. By contrast representatives of wholly-own- ed U.S. subsidiaries have rou- tinely been turned down. So the relevant question is clearly how much of a corporation's stock is in U.S. hands. The expectation here is that the Chinese will once again take a middle path, admitting some corporations and barring others on an essentially ad hoc basis. From past experience with the Japanese it is clear that they will not be fooled by any corporation which seeks to circumvent the rules by set- ting up a trading dummy. While an acceptable com- promise will likely he found for tlie purposes of the fair, U.S. ownership of Canadian cor- porations will remain the big- gest single roadblock in the way of expanded .trade with China. The Chinese have made it clear that the roadblock will not be removed until the U.S. has met certain essential con- ditions, among them abandon- ment of all ties with the Na- tionalist government on Tai- wan so that the short to me- dium term prospects for U.S.- Exploring the mysteries of life "Biology and the Future of Man" edited by Philip Hand- ler (Oxford University Press, 936 pages, TTUS book should have been drawn to the attention of readers long before this. I kept intending to dig into it but didn't. More than a year has passed since its publication and it was in preparation for four years prior to that. At the rate progress is made in research in the life sciences a book re- porting on what is known there- in soon is out of date. Despite that, anyone who takes the trouble to acquaint himself with the contents of this book can consider himself very well in- formed. I only skimmed this book but it was enough to fill me with a sense of awe. It covers an amazing range of topics: gene- tics, evolution, the classifica- tion of life forms, agriculture, medicine, the use of the digital computer, ecology, the popula- tion explosion and pollution, etc. Pvcniijrkable strides have been made in exploring the my- steries of life and the support systems, yet much remains un- known. Both what has been discovered and what remains to be investigated are covered in this seemingly exhaustive book. Even tlmse who have had some awareness of the great diversity of life forms are likely to be surprised by the state- ment that "More than 99 per cent of all evolutionary lines that once existed are now ex- tinct." Just as surprising is the fact that existing forms of life are so numerous that they are Exciting discovery "B a r-Kokhba" by Yigael Yadin (Random House, 271 pages, TJAR-KOKHBA was (lie lead- er of the second Jewish revolt against Rome in the third decade of the second cen- tury AD. For a brief period he established himself as presi- dent, of Israel but the Roman legions once again won control, and Bar-Kokhba and his follow- ers perished. In 1960 and 1961 some very remarkable archaeological dis- coveries were made in a cave near the Dead Sea. A group of Bar-Kokhba's followers, men, women and children, sought refuge in the cave and perish- ed there. Some of their posses- sions had been secreted in crevaces and carefully covered. These include household uten- sils, baskets, clothing, a wom- an's vanity case, and a collec- Books in brief "John Slrachan" by John Flint (Oxford University Press, S3.50, 1GII HPHIS is about that teacher, clergyman, later politi- cian, who came to Upper Can- ada from Scotland in the early days prior to Confederation. S'tracban was a man of in- fluence, whose zeal for getting things done sometimes brought him unpopularity in the areas he served. The au- thor sets down a very readable story and in doing so gives a clear account of early colonial life in the 19th century. lion of letters from Bar-Kokhba himself. Yigael Yadin in this excellent book describes the finds and their significance. The excite- ment of the archaeologists does not have to Ire imagined be- cause it is conveyed so well in the writing. This is a non-technical treat- ment of the research. It has been prepared in the form of an illustrated lecture with splen- did color and black and white photographs accompanying the text in great profusion. A finer book for laymen in- terested in archaeological dis- coveries would be hard to im- agine. DOUG WALKER. far from being inventoried. For instance, some or previously unknown spe- cies of insects arc being dis- covered every year to add to the species already de- scribed. It would be hopeless to try to do justice to the contents of such a comprehensive book as this one. I would not want to miss commenting on the note of ethical concern that hit me even in the skimming. In the section on evolution, for in- stance, this fine passage oc- cures, "The evolutionary view gives man not only a sense of humility but also a sense of responsibility. The question is not whether man is to influence evolution or not; he is already doing so and indeed changing things so that evolution is tak- ing place more rapidly that at any time in recent history. He now has not only the opportu- nity to influence the other spe- cies, as he has done in the past with domestic plants and ani- mals, but also the opportunity perhaps the .obligation to influence his own future evolu- tion. The capacity of biologists to develop ways by which man can determine his future evolu- tion is undoubted. The more difficult question is whether he will choose to make such deci- sions, and with what wisdom." That this is an overriding theme for the editor seems clear when he brings the vol- ume to a conclusion with these words, "From a product of cir- cumstances, he (man) has risen to responsibility. At last, he is Man, May he behave DOUG WALKER. Settlers vs natives "Still the Wind Blows" by Pi. Symons (Prairie Books, Saskatoon, 209 pages, nPHIS book, based on the problems which triggered the Riel Rebellion is what is generally known as a non-fic- tion novel. That is to say, the accounts are as true as actual records can provide, the peo- ple, with the exception of the central character, really lived at one time, and the thing that makes the book read like a story as against a history is that the characters speak and move from day to day rather than just from event to event. The novel spans the years 1860 to 1916 and tries to eval- uate the many differences which became issues between the white settlers and the frightened, confused native. For more and more the Indians were forced to either adapt to white man's ways or in mod- em terminology, "get lost." The novel weaves in such well-known pioneere of the west as Father Lacombe, Pound- maker, Colonel Macleod and others. The narrative is en- hanced by the author's own il- lustrations and I always think pictures help make a story more alive and interesting. This book would be a good one to put on every reading list, for both children and adults. MARGARET LUCKHURST. owned subsidiaries are not good. Even for those corporations wilh no U.S. ownership there are certain built-in limitations to the China trade. Kagcr executives may well talk in terms of a market of ROO mil- lion people, but the figure is deceptive as even a casual ex- amination will show. Firstly over 80 per cent of China's population are peas- ants, with little taste or pocket for most of the goods Canadian manufacturers have to offer. But more important than that is the Chinese tendency to he as self-reliant as they can. As a result China produces many products which she might more economically buy from abroad, thereby keeping her foreign trade down to unusually small proportions. Last year this policy result- ed in a total trade value ex- ports and imports of only slightly over four billion dol- lars at a time when the coun- try's gross national product was said to be miming at about S120 billion. By comparison the figures for Canada were about and ?80- billion. At its cur- rent rate of growth Taiwan, with a population of only 14 million, is expected to outstrip the mainland in total foreign, trade next year. All the same the Chinese are stepping up their trade, exports as well as imports, and are showing an increasing readi- ness to adjust to the realities of world trade. This was much in evidence at the fall fair in Canton where foreign buyers reported a new sensitivity on the C h i n e s e side of their re- quirements, especially on ques- tions of packaging and label- ling, long the Achilles Heel of. Chinese industry. The 170 Canadians who at- tended the fair up from 140 at the spring event had mix- ed fortunes. Generally buyers did wall, as the Chinese sought to redress the trading imbal- ance resulting from heavy buy- ing last year. Sellers found the market 'tight, but even they were able to make some valu- able deals. Looking back at the year, Mr. Godson felt Canada had crossed an important water- shed, moving away from the wheat-centred trade of recent years towards a new and more diversified exchange. Though non-wlreat items still account- ed for a mere 15 per cent of the total they were up about 15 per cent over last year and had opened up fields metals, chemicals, specialized machin- ery and breeding stock among offered good po- tential for growth. "The climate has changed, no doubt about says Mr. Godson, who was a Hong Kong- based China trade man before the diplomatic exchange. "There is a real willingness on the part of the Chinese to con- sider the Canadian market as a source of supply for their im- port requirements, provided we are competitive." What of China's sales to Can- ada, still lagging a whopping million behind her pur- chases? It is a question that ths Chinese themselves are wont to ask, given their repeated asser- tion that trading relations must be characterized by equality. Mr. Godson, who says tire Chi- nese are already supplying Ca- nadian consumers with "every- thing from flashlight batteries to is hopeful on this score too. "They could sell million worth of consumer goods in Canada with no trouble if the supplies were available and if their designs were adjusted to meet the demands of the Ca- nadian consumer. And, given time, they will." (Toronto Globt and Mall) The American influence nternalional Herald Tribune IN that dusk of the half-gods, when Uie Second World War was exploding to its conclusion, American publicists began to speak of the "American which was to dawn on a shattered world. The United States had infinitely the most powerful Navy, Uie strongest long-range air force, a first-rate army led by highly com- petent commanders and a monopoly on atomic weapons. Economically, its facto- ries and fields were not only unharmed by war, but had reached new, and startling, heights of productivity. The dollar stood alone in apparently impregnable stability. Politically, the ideal of democracy and in- ternational co-operation enunciated from Washington seemed embodied by the gov- ernments all around the globe that were raised in the wake of the defeated con- querors, and in the United Nations, new- bom in San Francisco, surely there were auguries of world hegemony for many years to come. Yet barely a quarter-century later, the United States finds itself impotent in a con- flict between two of the largest nations in Asia. It is unable to impose a settlement in the Middle East. It is the target of fulmina- tions from capitals as diverse in size as Havana and Moscow, as Algiers and Pe- king. A complex socio-economic crisis at home has raised an urgent call for new priorities in national effort. And the dollar, long the most consistent index of Ameri- can power, has definitely been relegated to a more modest position among the world's currencies. Is this tiie record of a great opportunity missed, as many might contend? Or cf power abused beyond the practicable lim- its of power, as others argue? Or was tire whole idea of the American century sim- ply the megalomanic delusion of men who did not recognize the limitations which a vast diversity of cultures, interests and in- nate strengths would impose upon the ugly American who sought to mold them in lu's own image? None of these conclusions arc necessarily true. The United Stales made many mis- takes in its years of virtually unchallenged power. But it also shaped many institu- tions and moods, durably. Tha stability and prosperity which the vanquished na- tions of the Second World War possess to- day owes very, very much to American forbearance and active assistance. The em- erging Europe took form under American protection and with American help. Am- erican and last- ing, despite the aberrations which mark- ed some actions at the turn of the cen- a climate in which nations come into being, in Asia and Africa. Even the experiments and the questing which mark the American's approach to his prob- lems at home may well have permanent values for other nations moving into the same technological nexus. The American's capacity for sclf-castiga- tion is well known. His mistakes loom larger on the world scene than those of other peoples, just as his moralizing can be more high-flown, and exasperating. But if his nation's unique position of authority has disappeared, if it has become one among many, it is still hugely important in the world, both for what it has accomplish- ed, and what it will yet achieve. Wheat sale Winnipeg Free Press announcement that China has agreed to buy 117 million bushels of Canadian wheat, to be delivered over the next 12 months, has virtually assured that grain exports for the present crop-year (ending July 31, 1972) will exceed the rec- ord 700 bushels achieved in the year just past. It also augurs well for the crop-year 1972-73, since part of the China sale will lop over into that period. It might be a mistake, to as- sume that grain sales to China will con- tinue at tlie high level of the past few years. Canadi has had a preferred posi- tion with China but, with American over- tures to Peking (despite U.S. opposition to the seating of China in UK that sit- uation could change. If the U.S'. gets in on the Chinese grain market, Canadian sales wouid suffer; and this is by no means beyond the bounds of possibility. Nevertheless, the wheat board, which has come in for much criticism in recent years particularly Commissioners Charles Gibbings and Bob Esdale who negotiated the sale is to be complimented on the success of its program this year. As far as grain exports are concerned, the picture- in immediate terms is much brighter than we were led to expect as recently as a few months ago, and the farmers' cash- income situation will be considerably im- proved. The China sale alone will pump some million into the Prairie eco- nomy. Record grain sales, however, should not blind us to the fact that the farmer's po- sition is still perilous, and will remain so until there is a closing of Hie gap between farm income and costs. At the moment this, rather than gram exports (which are admittedly should be a. chief concern of government. Advice to 1972 WASHINGTON The Old Man who was listed at the end of the hospital bed simply as "1971" was fast expiring in the intensive care unit of the hospital. There was a sign on the door which said Ab- solutely No Visitors. But the little boy who was called 1972 sneaked into the room when no one was looking. He went up to Uie bed. "How are he asked Uie old man. 1971 croaked. "I think I've had it. I knew it would be bad, but I didn't know how bad it really was going to be." "What's the "Can't Uie old man said. "The air is getting so foul out there. Water's not much better. It gets to you after a while." "You have a lot of bandages all over the boy named 1972 said. "I was mugged in New York, bombed in Vietnam, knifed in Pakistan, shot in Bel- fast, stepped on a land mine in Jordan, was kidnapped in South America and hi- jacked to Cuba. I can't remember a day of peace." "You wanted to sec the boy asked. the old man said. "I hear you're going out Iherc." "That's right and I'm really excited about Uie boy said. "1 was 1971 sighed. "I figured I was going to be a great year. I had so many dreams. I was going to remake the world." The old man started coughing and the boy stood in embarrassed silence. He was trying to figure a way to get out of the room. "I thought you could use some the old man said. "It might make it easier for you." "Yes, sir." the boy said politely. "Don't go out in the street at the old man said. "And keep your doors locked. Here's a gas mask. And over there is a bulletproof vest. Wear it at all times. Don't go swimming in polluted water, and buckle your safety belt whenever you get into a car." "Thank you very the boy said. "I wish I could Uke you around and show you what to expect. But they won't let me out of here. They think I've only got a couple of days to live." "I can't believe Uie boy said. "You'll probably be around a long time." The old man shook his head. "It will all be over for me the first of the year." "Maybe they'll find a cure for the boy said. "No the old man replied. "Per- haps it will be different for you. You're young and eager and maybe you can make them understand they're killing Uiemselvcs. I tried, God knows I tried." "Yes, sir. I have a plan. I'm going to go out there and say to everybody, 'Knock it off.' I'm going to say. 'You wrnt a good 12 months? Than you lave to help me. I can't do it all by myself.' I'm going to appeal to Uieir better instincts. I'm going to put it to Uiem straight. If they mess up Uiey're going to have one lousy year." Tire old man sighed. "It's a good plan. I wish I had Uiought of it." The young boy said, "Well, I have to be going now. It's been fun talking to you and you really cheered me up." "Don't mention it. I like to lie of help." The boy took the gas mask and the bulletproof vest and left tho But as soon as he found a trash can he dumped them in. Then he ran through the corri- dors completely naked, flung upon the door and shouted, "Here I come ready or (Toronto Sun News Service) FiRo flattery By Doug Walker lo.ik for the filers m Landers." That deflated me somewhat I recalled e mi IT hi. 65 1571 V "Even if rfoesn'i appeal Jo you think "Now, if you RCALI.Y want somcfWng thol'll stand out, about this, wild natural-ihauldcr, narrow gray ihnt-bvtton sait wifft tvtls m the pouts? I had Uie opportunity to meet some of Then she "I Elspeth's coffee cronies recently. As even before I read Ann Landers." It, turned out, the occasion had elements of cgo-e.nrichmenl for me because Jucli Fillo confessed to being a filler fan. "Tire first thing I do when the paper said Judi, "is turn to tire a lady coming to my office and asking how she could set the machinery in motion for tlic elimination of Aral Landers from torial page to sec if there is a filler." The Herald. ;