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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - December 18, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta THE IETHBRIDGE HERALD Friday, December 18, 1970 Carl Roivan U.S. to restore relations with Cuba? What's brewing in Prague? The former premier of Czechoslo- vakia Oklrich Carnik, is no longer a member of the Communist party. He was given his walking papers a short time ago, although in actual fact lie had not held office in the government since last spring, when lie retired as minister of technical and investment development. His dismissal from party member- ship comes as no great surprise. Cer- nik held on as Premier for 22 months after the expulsion of Alexander Dub- cek, because, unlike JMr. Dubcek lie confessed his sins and engaged in self criticism. But the comparative- ly hard line taken by the Husak gov- ernment apparently became too much for him, and it now seems probable that he later engaged in the mortal sin of criticism. There may be more to Mr. Cernik's expulsion at this time than meets the eye. Reports from "unofficial sources" say that there is a division in the Czechoslovak leadership be- tween the hard liners and the party members who follow (he direction of present party leader Mr. Husak. Mr. Husak would like to see Antonin Nov- otny, the Stalinist who preceded Alex- ander Dubcek as leader of the party, totally discredited, and much of the blame for the 1968 uprising placed upon him, rather than on the now disgraced Mr. Dubcek. So far it's all unofficial and spec- ulative. But something's brewing in Czechoslovakia, there is no doubt of that. Unfortunately the world may have to wait for some time to find out the details. As long as Russian troops are around to put down dis- sent before it starts, the Czech peo- ple remain voiceless and their gov- ernment at the mercy of Moscow. WASHINGTON It is well known just about every- where that, after 20 years, mil- lions of Americans of all poli- tical persuasions have con- cluded that our "cold shoulder" altitude toward Communist China has been less than a roaring success. With many of the United Stale's most ardent friends rushing to cozy up to the Pe- king regime, Washington has been groping for some time to find a not-too-embarrassing way to bring about a new rcla- tionsliip with Red China. Not so well known is the growing attitude, in officialdom here and in American academ- ic circles, that our "cold shoul- der" attempt to quarantine Fidel Castro's Cuba lias also been a failure. While it does not get the publicity the China question does, a lot of key Americans have begun to stick their necks out in calling for a new rela- tionship with Cuba. In a little-publicized recent speech. Sen. Frank Church, the Idaho Democrat who is chair- man of the Senate Foreign Re- lations Subcommittee on West- ern Hemisphere Affairs, called for a reassessment of U.S. policy toward Cuba. The U.S., he said, is "too uptight about Cuba. We ought to cool it." Church made his suggestion during a speech to the Ameri- can Assembly, a gathering of scholars and experts from gov- ernment and industry who were taking a close look at U.S. pol- icies in the Caribbean. At the end of its three-day meeting at Columbia Univer- sity's Arden House, the assem- bly came to an even stronger conclusion. Its final report de- clared: "There is merit in seeking a fresh relationship with Cuba The U.S. should be prepared in conjunction with the Organization of Amer- ican Slates lo normalize relations and facilitate the rc- incorporatior of Cuba into hem- ispheric mechanisms. This would represent quite a change. American policy gen- erally has sought lo isolate Cuba both ideologically and economically. The present Cu- ban government was excluded from the inter-American sys- tem in 1962, and two years later the OAS called on its members lo break diplomatic relations and suspend all but "humanitarian" trade until Cuba "ceased lo be a danger to the peace and security of the hemisphere." The trade boycott was under- mined when Canada, Western Europe, and Japan, along with Russia and Eastern European nations, continued to deal with Castro. So did Mexico, and Chile joined in recently. On the political side, a growing num- ber of hemisphere nations have indicated a desire lo seek bet- ter relations with Cuba. Two of the most recent were neighboring Caribbean islands. Trinidad-Tobagu's Prime Min- ister Eiic Williams last Feb- ruary urged the hemisphere to reconsider its political ostra- cism of Castro. Jamaican Prime Minister Hugh Shearer suggested a few months later that the OAS establish some contacts with Cuba. A bill was introduced in the Jamaican Senate to upgrade relations with Cuba from consular to full diplomatic level and to ex- change trade missions with Havana. There is little doubt that the desire to edge Cuba back into the hemisphere family is grow- ing. Therefore, Church said, it would be wise for the United States to "test the waters now, rather than getting drowned later." Lack of confidence? Whatever help can be given to un- employed employables in finding and keeping jobs must surely be wel- comed. But the appointment of a n employment opportunity worker under the department of social de- velopment is puzzling nonetheless. The job description of the worker sounds like what one imagines to be the role of the counsellors at Canada Manpower, ff "working closely with unemployed persons and employers in order to place people in jobs" is not the function of Manpower's offi- cers, what is? Some of Manpower's efforts lately have been directed toward getting people into retraining programs. But basically Manpower's purpose is to help people with their employment problems. And that is the justifica- tion, behind the emphasis on re- training. Why, if Manpower has this pur- pose, is it necessary for the depart- ment of social develooment to move into the field'.1 Does it mean that the counsellors at Manpower have been top busy to give the kind of person- alized and persistent attention neces- sary? If that is so, how could one worker be expected to do what the many have been unable to accom- plish? The social development worker will not be functioning in any way contrary to the aims of Manpower. Rather, she will be working com- plementarily. Yet the public cannot be blamed for seeing a criticism of Manpower in the new appointment. Jt suggests inevitably a lack of con- fidence in Manpower to fulfil its pur- pose. Unemployment is very likely to be a continuing serious problem, as the social development regional office director, Cam Bracken, warns. This means that Manpower may be as successful in the discharge of its res- ponsibilities as is possible, but social development doesn't seem, quite ready to concede the point. Sentence hard labor The FLQ kidnappers will probably be assigned to hard manual labor after they appear before a Cuban tribunal which decides whether they are political or criminal cases. Cana- dians think they fall into both cate- gories and hope that the manual la- bor will be insufferably heavy. Cer- tainly they didn't get a heroes' wel- come. The Cubans said they accept- them only as a favor to Canada, with whom Cuba carries on a brisk trade. The fact is that Cuba is growing tired of exiles, except those from Latin America who can broadcast Castroism to their native lands, in their own language. Political asylum continues to be -granted in Cuba, mainly for negative, reasons. To refuse would destroy the revolutionary image But hijackings, for instance, have brought all kinds of undesirables into Castro land. The London Economist reports that at a meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization, a Cuban dele- gate complained of the untimely ar- rival in his country of "common crim- inals, corrupt individuals, menta 11 y unbalanced and socially unadapted persons anxious to change their coun- try of residence or prompted by strictly personal motivations." Hijackings to Cuba have not ceas- ed, but there are less of them this year than there were in a similar period last year. Some of those who have arrived are now desperately trying to leave and finding it diffi- cult. Significantly the 40 Brazilians who were exchanged for the kid- napped West German ambassador last summer, chose Algeria as their new home. Algeria is becoming the favored place for malcontents. There is no emphasis on hard labor there- yet. "Wants a written affirmation that his two bits won't go towards the World Church Councils' proposed fund for U.S. draft dodgers and deserters However much some nray dislike the (bought, Castro ap- pears to be Irare to stay. Our policy of economic denial and political isolation may have made his life more difficult, but it also has provided the bearded dictator with a con- venient scapegoat an easy emotional excuse for the fail- ures of Iiis regime. The 'first steps in thawing re- lations with Cuba will surely not be giant ones. Church sug- gests we start by making it simpler for Americans to trav- el to that island. It presently is easier to get your passport validated for a trip to Commu- nist China than for a trip to Cuba. A second step might be to ex- pand cultural contacts and ex- changes. Obviously, there are dangers and problems connecled with readmitting Cuba to the hemi- sphere family. One is political- ideological a fear that Cuba will try lo export Communist i evolution to other Latin Amer- ican nations and even to the United States through student radicals. Most evidence today, however, indicates that Castro has slowed down his guerrilla- type revolutionary activities after failures in Bolivia, Vene- zuela, and other South Ameri- can nations. He may see Chile's new elected Marxist govern- ment as an example of what shrewder tactic and that in new A Another If Cuban ucts were to 'return to hemi- sphere markets, other Carib- bean nations whose fragile eco- nomies depend on the s a m exports might suffer. This is a legitimate concern, but does it then follow that Cuba can never again be allowed to trade freely in the hemisphere? Further- more, wiry would Trinidad-To- bago and Jamaica, two neigh- bors who stand to be affected, press for change? One answer may be that they see Cuba not only as a competitor but as a market. In making its recommenda- tion for a "fresh the American Assembly noted that the two critical aspects of Cuba its internal political- social policies and its relations to the Soviet Union are sep- arable and can be dealt with separately. Advocates of a new policy also insist that small moves toward easing relations need not commit the U.S. to a full- fledged "abrazo" for Fidel Cas- tro and his ways of life. As Church pointed out, "We don't have to commit ourselves on how far we shall go down the road before we take the first step. We can stop any time we see our interests hurt." (Field Enterprises Inc.) achieve, ght dictate s. economic. other prod- E. S. Corbett Portugal's African colonies test partial autonomy The bitter Basques It is not surprising that the Span- of the Basque traditional place of as- ish Basque provinces should be the sembly in Guernica focus of unrest and dissent----- now con- vulsing Spain. For centuries the Basques, who inhabit the northern region of the country bordering the Bay of Biscay, and encompassing the western foothills of the Pyrenees, have fought and struggled for auton- omy with little success, though tremendous courage. Their origin is a subject of speculation, and their language is the only living one in Europe which does not belong to the Indo-European family. It is still spoken in some parts of northern Spain, although it has never had offi- cial status. As far back as Charle- magne's time, Basque people exhibit- ed their nationalist tendencies. It was the Basques, for instance, who cut the rear guard of Charlemagne's army to pieces at Roncesvalles in 778 A.D. At the end of the political turmoil of the middle ages Basque country was divided between France and Kpain, but the people were able to maintain some degree of local auton- omy and privilege in matters of trade, taxation and military service, in a body of law known as fueros. These laws were abolished by France during the Revolution, but 'in Spain things worked out rather differently. 'The Basques resisted the attempts nf the state to encroach on local privi- come will be. but fhe unrigs leges, and this led them to their over have support cl the Carlisle at the end of the last century, a disaster for their cause from which it has never quite recovered. They took the (lur- ing the Spanish civil and Kran- co's victory in Iliis bliiodv batlle was a heavy blow. (It was ilir. bombing that inspired Pablo Picasso to paint his most fa- mous picture of war's destruction and horror. It now hangs in the Museum of Modern Art in New York.) The ETA is generally known as the terrorist group of Basque nation- alists. But in actual fact ETA is di- vided in itself among factions who have somewhat varied aims an- archy, marxism, maoism and fringe "ideologies." The Basque nationalist group, opposed to violence, but seek- ing autonomy, remains the most prominent, but by no means the most violent, of the forces opposing Franco. The Basque cause has now be- come the focal issue around which all Spanish protest has rallied. The regime's insensitive handling of the problem, has catalyzed Spanish op- ponents of the Falangists into an outpouring of dissent which has been festering beneath the body politic in, all of Spain for many years. It is a tragedy that the terrorist group should have chosen kidnapping as their method of protest. This has given Franco an excuse lo reinstate his cruel methods of restraint of liberty, which had been compara- tively relaxed in the past few years. No one knows what the eventual out- come will be. but fhe uprisings all over Spsi-i have discredited the re- gime and brought home to the world the fact that genuine freedom of speech, of access to the courts, and human rights do not exist in a land which ihirly odd years ago was bnliird in the blood of millions who fought for the cause of liber and lust. CONDON Whether or not Dr. Marcello Caetano's an- nouncement of greater auton- omy for Portugal's African ter- ritories, with a promise that there would be no apartheid, was a calculated step to pla- cate hostile opinion towards his country's alleged involvement in the recent invasion of Hie Republic of Guinea, too much should not be read into it at this stage. Under the Portuguese Pre- mier's proposals, which still have to be ratified by the Na- tional Assembly, Angola, Portu- guese Guinea and Mozambique will be able to pass their own laws, negotiate contracts, en- joy greater representation in the Lisbon National Assembly and handle their own domestic finances. One vital issue, how- ever, on which tiie Lisbon Gov- ernment remains omnipotent is defence. In no part of Caetano's speech was any mention made of talks with the guerrilla move- ments in the three territories. And unless he has had a change of heart fince July, when lie nearly broke off diplomatic re- lations with the Vatican after the Pope had an audience with three guerrilla leaders, the col- onies are not negotiable. Portugal's defence program, now running over mil- lion a year and nearly 45 per cent of the budget, is not re- stricted to fighting guerrillas hut is a moral commitment lo protect the rights of foreign in- vestors who have provided mil- lions of dollars for Ihc dcvelp- ment of Angola and .Mozambi- que. In the Cahinrla enclave of Angola the U.S. Gulf oil Com- pany has invested SI41 million in oil exploration and the Ger- man steel firm of Knipj. con- trols the potentially rich Cas- singa mines. The British own- ed Benguela Railway, which is a frequent target for guerrilla attacks, lias a share capital of over S.'i.l million. In Mozambique, where ir.ining is in an even more embryonic slags thau Angola, millions of. pounds are being poured in for exploration by the Japanese Su- mitomo group, the French Bu- reau de Recherches Geologiques ct Minieres and the Johannes- burg Consolidated Investments. At least four American com- panies and three from West Germany, France and South Africa arc prospecting for oil. In Portuguese Giu'nea Esso has a S9 million oil exploration con- tract. Substantially more import- ant than these investments are the two giant projects of Ca- bora Bassa million) in Mozambique and the Cun one Hiver scheme in Angola. Both are international concerns, although the latter is a single tie-up with South Afri- ca for the mutual development of hectares, and'both have been threatened with at- tacks from guerrillas. Since work began on Cabora Basa this year Ihe Portuguese have carried out massive assau 11 s against FRELIMO (the Mozam- bique independence movement) with admitted losses in killed fnd wounded averaging 60 a month. More intense activity was re- porled on all northern fronts this month. Dr. Cactano is doubtless sin- will "reach statehood when their development is such that they deserve it." But at the moment there is no Portuguese political machinery to achieve this. Only one per cent of Portuguese Af- ricans have the vole or any say in Ihc manner I heir coun- try is governed. 'Iliis means only one per cent arc lilcrnle, despite the fact that new schools arc being built and an estimated 50 per cent of Afri- cans of school age do have some sort of instruction. However, any legislative body at I his stage must include a majority nf whiles and lliose few uho luivc made the grade up the European lad- der. Government policy is integrate black wilJi white wl to increase the number of white settlers, not withdraw them. The white Portuguese in Africa en- joys a very high standard of liv- ing and forfeiture of this would not be palatable, so even if there is no legislated apartheid, economic discrimination is like- ly lo remain. It prevails in Por- tugal itself, where the average industrial income of lower than in Spain or Greece, is dis- tributed with enormous inequal- ity. Dr. Caetano's proposed mea- sures for greater autonomy are not the first to emerge in Por- tugal during the last decade. In 1961, six months after the An- gola uprising began, Dr. Adri- ano Moreira, a fairly forward- looking Minister for Overs e a s Provinces announced the aboli- tion of the term assimilado. by which Portuguese Afri cans, through good conduct and mini- mum educ a t i o n achieved the status of "Portuguese." Hence- forth all were Portuguese, whe- ther they wished or not. More creditable was the repeal of the Statute of Native Labor under which Africans could be con- Letter to the editor Animal farm Decently I went to Dr. Slew- art's animal farm where I took my pet rabbit. He will stay there with other rabbits, ducks,, peacock and Canadian Ciccsc. There were also red fox, porcupine, bear, coyote, racoon, monkeys, chinchilla, buffalo, goals, horses, eagles and even a skunk. The caretaker was very nice, showing us all these animals. I suggest if you have any ani- mals to give, they would he ap- preciated very much. I liked Ihe farm so well I'm going again someday. JOA.NNL' ELLKHMAN (It Lelhbridso. scripted for public service or plantations. In 1965 the number of deputies from Africa to the National Assembly was increas- ed from three to seven in An- gola and Mozambique and two to three in Guinea. Premier Cactano has now promised that this figure will be further in- creased. More autonomy should see the long awaited normalization of cscuclo convertibility bet ween Portugal and her African terri- tories. Angola and Mozambique have their own currencies but these escudos are not generally accepted in Lisbon except at a discount. This has vexed trad- ers for years. Lisbon also controls agricul- tural policy in Africa. To pro- tect Portuguese wine growers, a regulation forbids grape-grow- ing in Angola and a similar one prevents Mozambique and An- gola from developing a cotton industry. Both wine and finish- ed cotton have to be imported from Portugal at prices in ex- cess of those the colonies could charge for goods they produced themselves. It is anomalies like Dlese that are receiving the attention of Portugal's Prime Minister. But few of them are likely to affect the Africans in their fight for complete freedom from Por- tuguese rule. (Written for The Herald and The Observer, London) Looking backward THROUGH THE HERALD 1920 Alberta has no sani- torium for the treatment of tuberculosis and therefore docs not offer any assistance lo anyone contracting the disease, which at the present time is the most common of human ailments. 1930-For the first time in the h i s t o r y of the dog race from The Pas to Flin Fion and return, a distance of 200 miles, a woman musher has entered the race. She is Miss Thula Geelan of McCall, Idaho. iWO-IIon. C. D. Howe, min- ister of supply, has arrived safely at a Brilish port. He was a passenger on the liner West- em Prince, reported torpedoed in the eastern Atlantic ocean. 1950 Ten countries have been asked lo lift Ihe burden of the Sons of Freedom Douk- hobors from Canadian shoul- ders, but only one country has answered these feelers, and the answer was prices will be from 10 to 12 cents a pound higher this year than last. It will cost the consumer 57 cents a pound for turkeys under 16 pounds. The Letltbridge Herald 50) 7lh SI. S., Letlibridge, Albcrla LETHBRIDGE HERALD CO. LTD., Proprietors and Publishers Published 1S05-195J, by Hon. W. A. BUCHANAN Second Class Mall Registration No. 001! Tfle Canadian Press and (ho Canadian Dailv Publishers' Association and Ihe Audit Bureau CLEO W. MOWERS, Editor and Publi-tar THOMAS M. ADAMS, F5AI.IA ROY r-. Advertising Manager WIU.rAM MAY Associate Edilor DOUGLAS K, WAI KFTR editorial Pags Edilor "THf- HERALD SCRVCS 7Hf; SOUTH" ;