Lethbridge Herald (Newspaper) - December 9, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta
Wedneiday, Dtctmbcr 9, 1970 - THE LETHBRIDCI HERALD ~ S Ray Goodall What is a 'university education'? I" DETECT a giouiKlswcll �- which may be preliminary to a storm wliich could threaten Uie "ivory tower." There is talk of shoring up defences, throwing out buttresses in the direction of greater "relevance," which tends to be interpreted in terms of Job preparation. University education, we are told, should be more utilitarian; it should be more concerned with preparing young people for an economically productive function. Let us examine this proposition. Since there are more than 20,000 job categories in North America it is difficult to see how any one institutional type could adequately prepare students for all these areas of economic productivity or service. So, if not for all 20,000 Job categories, for what proportion? The fact Is of course, thnt universities are ah-eady directly and indirectly preparing students for a great variety of jobs; universities have numerous affiliated schools and institutes - engineering, social Mwk, education, medicine, dentistry, forestry, divinity, architecture, community planning etc. etc. So universities are, right now, being economically rdevant. However, I hear a suggestion that much which is currently being taught in universities does not have a direct relationship to the prospective careers of students; there is too much tliat is divorced from "real life." If "real life" is in-tci-preted simply in brcad-and- Avoid Smoke From NEA Service 'FHE LIST of maladies for which cigarettes are supposedly responsible seems to be endless. A Redding, Calif., pliysician claims that habitual smoking causes crow's-feet and other wrinkling of the facial skin. Dr. Harry W. Danicll also says that tJireals of crow's-feet are more effective in making his female patients give up smoking than warnings about somc-Uiing minor like hmg cancer. As the commercial for a now ladies' cigarette puts it, "You've come a long way, baby" - and you look it. butter terms then much of what happens in universities may be irrelevant, gloriously irrelevant, shice I am convinced that there is more to life than bread-and-butter concerns. There's a searehing, inquiring, exploring, which has no immediate and direct relevance to job situations and career opportimities. If people want an education which is simply concerned with utilitarian matters they can move to trade scliools, technical uisliluties, or community colleges, all excellent institutions, but they don't do the job which the university does. University education is not utilitarian in any narrow sense, but it does have utility; it is useful in so far as it helps some students to become aware of our priceless human heritage; it helps some students towards a deeper understanding of the significance of living, human living m general and their own living in particular; it is useful in so far as it opens up various fields of inquiry which students can pursue througliout their lifetime; it is useful because, although It is concerned with "content" it is even more concerned with "process" - the "how" of inquiry not just the "what." Universities have had an honored place in the education sy.s-tem of most well developed Taking away wives' independence r\TTAWA - The personal ^ capacity to be both playboy and professor is the basis of Pierre Elliott Trudeau's immense political appeal. He has wooed the women with his charm while winning the men with reason. The political weaknesa of hLs white paper on income security is that it aska women to respond like men. Instead of the glamorous Pierre kissing tlieir cheeks, the women are suddenly faced with Dr. Trudeau lecturing them on logic. To make things worse, the Prime Minister is coming between women and their husbands at that most sensitive point of marital relations, money. Sex is one thing, dollars are far more serious. For thousands of middlevay is to raise ta.^es on tlio By Anthony WcstcU broad middle class, where all the money is. The other way is to cut back on eome of the benefits going to the middle-class people who don't really need them, and to redirect these resources to the poor. Plenty of land From NliA Service AMERICA has plenty of land to meet its farming, ranching, forestry and living space needs for the foreseeable future, according to a aurvey by government soil s:ientista and conservationists in 3,087 ol the nation's 3,135 counties. Jf-wc take care of it. A "Conservation Needs In-venlor>'" reveals tliat tlie nation's land. Uianks to continually increasing efficiency, is feeding and clothing an increashig population even will reduced acreages. Since tlie previous inventory in 1958, population has increased 24 million, yet cropland has declined by 10 million acres and privately owned pasture and range has decreased by three million acres. In the same period, II million acres were added to urban and built-up areas and- a fig-ure to warm a conservationist's heart-9.5 million acres were added to forests. On the other hand, the scientists warn that three-fifths of the present cropland, 67 per cent of pasture and range and 62 per c e n t of private forest-land is not being treated with proper conservation measures. 3MiM�Slc^oice for entertaining! Nature's own bubbles ... nalurally light, lively flavour... and our traditional wine-making process, make this the one wine you can serve with confidence anytime! Calona Crackling Rose. Try this sparkling pink, champagne- quality wine next time you entertain. Your guests will appreciate your good taste... and ours! Calona - Western Canada's leading winemaker. And try these other I fine Calona Wines Crackling Rose Crackling While Royal Red Red Dry Royal White Sweet Sherry Muscatel White Poll Italian Vermouth Double Jack Cherry Jack The middle class is already grumbling about the weight of taxation so Mr. Trudeau did not want to increase that burden. The alternative was to cut off family allowances to the relatively well - off, and to double allowances to the poor. Logical? Of course it is. But the plan treats a man and his y/Mt as one unit for financial purposes, and many families are not that way at all. An increase in taxes would fall mainly on the husband and wage^amer. Taking away the family allowance falls mainly on the wife. And tens of thousands of middle - class wives - the sort of people who most admire Mr. Trudeau and go conscientiously to the polls to vote Liberal - will bittcriy resent the loss of their cheques. Tltis political danger was clearly recognized by Health and Welfare Minister John Mtmro and others in the cabinet who fought for a different t>-pe of guaranteed income scheme but who lost that battle. Another major political weakness in the white paper is the disappointment of about 800,000 old age pensioners - or one-half the total. Canadian politicians have been bidding against each other for years by raistag pensions and thfi elderly have come to expect a steady improvement in income. Much of the speculation before publication of the white paper led old people to believe that they could expect a raise. But Mr. Trudeau had much the same choice here as ho faced with family allowances. To pay more to ijiose in niecd, he had to raise taxes or cut back on tliose not in need. His solution in the case of pensions is a compromise. The government will find some of the extra cash, by taxing or borrowing, and the rest will be found by putting a ceiling of $80 a month on payments to old people not in need. So the 800,000 pensioners who are not in need because Oiey have some private income are cut off from tlie increase in benefits tlicy expected. Fiu*-Uier, the>' will not in future receive increases in .step with tlie cost of living, so the value of thou* pension may actually decline. Mr. Munro and others in the cabinet argued against this political folly, too, and lost. The counter - argument, of course, is that more people wll gain from the white paper proposals than will lose. But the gains in many cases \dll be so small that they will arouse appetites rather than satisfy. Tlie real political question is whetlier Mr. Trudeau, with his potent mixture of charm and intellect, can now reason with the disillusioned women and charm the questioning men. (Toronto Star Syndicate) ccanilrics, sometimes, no doubl, a.s a result of a rather narrow elitist appeal; lliey have been havens of privilege; i)ul even so, they have produced innumerable leaders in all fields of human endeavor. In any country which aspkes to a level of leadership beyond that of mere mediocrity, universities must still have an honored place because they do aim to produce individuals who are capable of making a strongly positive contribution to soc al life, indi\iduals who can analyze problems and suggest solutions. Some contemporary governments seem to find it difficult to appreciate the fundamental non - utilitarian orientation of universities. This, of course, ia quite natural, since govern-menla are immersed in bread-and-butter consideratloni, and they are responsive to bread-and-butter demands of their consitutents. But some of our "God - oriented government*" at least (and surely Mr. Bennett is not the only politician with a pipeline to (Jod!) should realize tliat "man docs not live by bread alone" - nor butter! There are more things to an education than preparing to get a job. Universities are for peopl* who are concerned with expanding theu- horizons, enlarging their understanding, sharpening their mental perceptions, cultivating their feelings, interacting on more Uian a physical level. Personally T am of tlic opinion that a university education should be FUEELV available for all wiio want this kind of education; and moreover, this kind of education should be a pveretiuisitc for all those people who are moving into peoplo-centred professions, e.g., medi-ome, social work, politics, business management, education, etc. Also, I suggest that any government with vision and true concern for the people will be prepared to give a strong lead and support imiversity education maximally because of the long-term social benefits which accrue from such education. The social benefits of university education do not have to be PROVED; they have been demonstrated tlirough centuries of imiversity operation. The benefits of course, do have to be applied today. Universities aim at producing, and have produced tliroughout the centuries, people who are equipped to deal with this thing called life, who are able to adapt to situations and ci^ange situations, and provide leadership without which the people would certainly perish. Those who wish for a different IjTje of e'Sleni as the universities, but servuig a different function. These arc tlie institutions which can act as brokers on the job market, but, as I sec it, this is definitely NOT the function of the universitj'. Quebec's immigrants From the Winnipeg Free Press THERE IS nothing new in Quebec's latest complaints about Canadian immigration policy and the province's demands for changes that would suit its pui-poses better. Tliree years ago. Premier Daniel ijolinson made it clear that his Union Nationale government was putting pressure on the federal government to give Quebec a greater voice in immigration recruitment. At tliat time it was reported that an agreement had been I'eaclied by Quebec's provincial secretary and Jean Marehand, then manpower minister, which would result in "a great break-tlirough" for prm'incially organized immigration schemes. If Uiere was such an agreement, clearly it has not worked out, for now tlie Bourassa gov-errnment is reported to want changes to the immigration act whereby Ottawa would turn back immigrants intending to come to Quebec unless thev were willing to become part of the French-speaking community. Tiie provincial govei'nmenl is disturbBd because so many people coming to Quebec from abroad apparently see less advantage in becoming French-speaking Quebecers than in becoming part of the English-speaking community. Not long ago a survey showed that 80 per cent of the 3,000 immigrant children who arrived in Montreal in 1969 voted for english education, after being enrolled in French "integration" classes. The reason given for this "leaning" of the chilA-en was wrong information given to immigrants before they left their homeland. Plainly tlie federal go\'crn-ment would be ill advised to do anjUiiiig about (Juotiec's r*-quesl, olJier Uiaii perhaps to correct any misinformation Uiat may be given and to use the art of persuasion on would-be immigrants to Quebec. For what would happen if the law were changed and immigrants to Quebec at some later time opted to become English-speaking, or leave for other parts? Tlio request simply does not make sense, and Ottawa would do well to ignore it. wmm unwm IVoii; thai the shouting is over From The Financiiil Post i''M\Al)\ emerged from Uic recent UUks ^ with U.S. cabinet ministers wilh some notable gains, some losses and the usual tliick file of unsettled issues. Considering the large number and the nature of economic and trade problems up for discussion in two days, it was a productive session. There can be no question that in the vital area of access to U.S. oil markets, Canada won solid, immediately recognizable gains. Although Ottawa seems vague about any quid pro quo, the way seems to have been cleared for Canada to export increasing amounts of surplus oil to the U.S. This assiu-ance of markets will clearly spark exploration activity in Canada, just as it has already sparked' a dramatic climb in tlie price of somo Western oil slocks. There was discernible, if less conclusive, progress on other sticky fronts. Canada, for example, won U.S. agreement to look more closely at problems involving the extension of U.S. laws into Canada. There was agreement to try to influence Common Market negotiators to consider tliird party interests during current talks on British enti-y. Both sides, as expected, found that on sonic issues nuiclossiblc. 'llic future terms of tlie North American Auto Pact will conthiue to be negotiated in an effort to find a middle ground between safeguards for Canada and free trade. Tl� U.S. embargo on Canadian uranium will not likely be lifted quickly. Canadian fears over rising U.S. protectionism in Congress were not realistically allayed, despite numerous assurances by the U.S. side tliat protectionism did nol, in most cases, have administration support. There were other topics - pollution, balance of payments - wiiere ministers after much straight table talk, agreed to disagree and perhaps find ways to close tlie gap in coming months and years. TOs, in itself, is no mean achievement. William Rogers, U.S. Secretary of State, said following the talks that tlie U.S. never forgets that it shares Ibe continent with Canada and that "our most vital national interests will be best served if Canada is economically and politically strong." It is important that U.S. ministers like Rogers remember that they never forget, at least once a year. Canadian textbooks From the Winnipeg Free Press IN all the furore about the use (or non-use) of Canadian textbooks in Canadian schools because of the purchase of Canadian publishing houses by American companies, it is usually forgotten that it is not ttic publishing houses which have the ulU-nialc say in tlie choice of school texts but the pro\inciaI departments of education. It is also easy to become so excited about the textbook industry as to overlook the facta. These, for those who arc Interested enough to want to know them, are available in detail in the most recent issue of the Canadian book trade publication, Quill and Quire. That Uie Canadian textbook market is big Is obvious from the over - all figure: in 1969 textbooks in Canada realized a total of from $35 to 40 million. Naturally American as well as Canadian houses were interested in thi? business - and they received a reasonable, but not excessive, share. Non-Canadian texts, according to Quill and Quire, coiralled 26.42 per cent of the market; but that left 73.58 per cent still in O nadian liands. On the basis of these figures it does not seem that Canadian publisliing houses are doing too badly, and those who are raising the cry of a lack of Canadian content in textbooks are doing so without too much consideration of the fads. Pot and the laiv From the Christian Century '�IMfERE IS no more vexing intersection of law and morality these days tlian tlie drug scene. The use and abuse of drugs are matters which deeply concern parents, educators, doctors, clergjTnen, the miUtai7, the police, tlie judiciary and- not least-yoimg people facing what they \'iew as Ihe moral confusion and hypocrisy ot tlieir elders. With dreadful frequency, concern is converted into grief. In declaring our support for the legalization of marijuana on a provisional basis, we hope to make at Icisl a modest con-tiibution to greater moral clarity. It is not wilh any disregard for the problems of law enforcement that we urge the repeal of most present statutes relating to pot: it is precisely because present laws are impediments to legal justice and unrealistic in their demands on public authorities that we have come to this position. Wc do not deny the existence of a growing drug problem of life-and-death seriousness. But that very problem has been badly obscured by the indiscriminate lumping of marijuana with such hard drugs and jiroven menaces as heroin. Hie turning to sucli hard drugs by increasing numi-bcrs of young people is not simply a consequence of tlie tensions involved in trying out new life styles in a society they regaixi as sick: it is, at least in part, a result of the harsh penalties for pot at the diffusion of effective law enforcement under present laws. TTiere is as yet no conclusive medical evidence concerning the liarmful effects of pot smoking. Tliere is more persuasive evidence that nicotine and alcohol are harmful - but our society does not incarcerate people for selling or smoking "straight" cigarettes or, in very many places, for the sale or consumption of li- quor. Tliousands of Americans are now in jail simply because they have used marijuana. Tlie number is very large when one reckons the lives and families and careers involved. Legalization of marijuana ought to provide immediate amnesty for such persons. But tlie incarcerated tliousands are only a very small fraction of the total of man-juana users in the U.S., wliich n:ay be aa high as 20 million. It is that kind of statistic, somw'hej-e 'way up in tlic millions, which puts the problem ot equitable law enforcement in perspective. Tliere can be scant respect for the dignity of law when millions regularly violate its provisions, which they believe to be unjust, while a few thousand unfortunates languish in jail convinced that they have been victimized by a government which is arbitrarily punitive and pathologically disordered in it* own priorities. It is ah^ady very late for the church to muster any show of moral wisdom on the matijuana issue. Ethical timidity, prohibitionist panic and blatant ignorance have characterized too much of the leadership of tlie religious community when it ad-di'esses itself to the fast-moving dnjg scene. We're not at all persuaded that there ia any ultimately good use for marijuana. Nobody will get any encouragement from us to smoke pot - or to smoke anything, for that matter. Our position, as we said, is provisional. If and when clear and persuasive evidence is available that marijuana per se is a very serious threat to the health and welfare of the nation, we'll want to say something about tliat. Somo laws are in order for dealing with the distribution of pot and the social consequences of its excessive use, just as they are for liquor. The issue is language From Qaebec Le Soleil fTHE language confict between 2,400 workers and General Motors at Ste. Therese threatens to delay seriously a solution to a strike that is well into its third month, Proof is growing tliat metliods other than polite persuasion will have to be em-ploj'ed to convince tlie American collosus to recognize fundamental riglits such as the working language. If Uie wwkers' demands were exaggerated, as has happened too often in union demands, wo could attempt to explain General Motors' atUtude. But now, and this is what appears to be most frustrating, the demands are sui-prisingly moderate and are restricted in sum to respect for French inside the plant. In brief, the demands are for tlie abolition of discriminaUon toward Frencb-lan-guage workers. Tliey ask that Freiich-.speaking persons have access to all occupations under jmisidclion of the negotia- tions . . . They ask that foremen be able to communicate in French wilh their subordinates and, finaUy, that grievances be debated and resolved in French. It is a policy of language integrated in work. However, despite Uie repeated objurgations of Premier Bourassa, of Labor Minister Jean CJoumoyer and Uie three large Quebec unions, (General Motors persists in being stubboni and seems to be ignoring the fact that in coming to Quebec, it was fundamentally, in the words of Mr. Bourassa, to "become a Quebecer" and accept to .-speak the language of the majority, which is French. As long as it (GM) will not... admit Uiat despite the judicial bilingual cliaracter of Quebec, the majority of the population speak French and must work in Uiat language ... It will become more and moi-e lu-gcnl to oppose its attitude by legislative measujes. What DO you know? By Dong Walker I ATE one afternoon recently I stepped into the back shop at The Herald and out of Uie gloom Cliarles Bauer emerged gnnnbling about an apparent power failure. .Spying n-.e he .said, "do you know anything alml tile clecUic.il currents in tliis place?" Wlien I admitted that Uiat was somctliing outside my ken, Charlie resignedly said, "I know you don't know anjUiing about building fences, but 1 llwugiit you niifihl hapiicn to know somcUiing aboul electricity , . , don't you know anything?"