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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald (Newspaper) - December 3, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta 26 - THE LETHBKIDGE HERALD - Friday, December 3, 1971 Your horoscope By Jeane Dixon SATUBDAY. PEO. 4 Your birthday today: TJiis coming y e a r's experience may present little of news value, yet incliuies profound and subtle groNvth changes in your nature, yoiu- vieus of life and destiny. The larger truth has a way of coming about whether yo-.i seek it or not. Tocay's natives often pursue practical arts, athletic hobbies. ARIES (March 21-April 19): Bring along any means of recording the bright ideas and sights of the "oekend. E.vperi-ence now can he memorable. TAURUS (April 20-May 20): Almost any activity pursued with good humor and high e.v pectations produces res ults. Find time also for serious study. GEMINt (.May 21 - June 20): It seems there's even more to do than during the weelc. You've likely skipped too many chores lately. Leave some of the tasks for still later. CANCER (.lune 21-July 22): Diligence and thoughtful consideration yield good returns. Seek out people and projects you've neglected for a while. LEO (.July 23 - Aug, 22): Past experience should become just that, filed and left unmsn-tioned, as you open a new drive for fresh achievements. VIRGO (Aug. 23  Sept. 22): Yolu- alertness reveals a discrepancy. A sense of humor helps cover the scene while you adjust matters. LIBRA (Sept, 23 - Oct. 22): Begin your day with objectives firmly set and alternate methods in mind if conditions shift. Put together a lively gi-oup for a party. .SCORPFO (Oct. 23-Nov. 21): Decisions are quick, anades asd ono �^^B^'lO'^'^, Absolute zero Andy sends a complete 20-V 01 u m e set of the World Book Encyclopedia to Barbara Ames, age 12, of Newport News, Virgmia, for her question: What is meant by absolute zero? The word zero gets around In our everyday world. We use three zeros, $0.(X) to report a penniless condition. Zero degrees (Centigrade, is the freezing point of water. Dry ice is about 80 degrees colder than this, or minus 80 degrees centigrade. But things can get a lot colder than dry ice, at least in the lab. Absolute zero is a temperature rating, invented to give the absolute limit of how cold things can get. * � * When temperature scales first were mvented, their degrees were based on the freezing point and the boiling point of water. On the old Fahrenheit scale, water freezes to solid ice at 32 degrees. It boils to steam at 212 degrees. This is a difference of 180 Fahrenheit degrees. On the more streamlined Centigrade scale, the same difference is a neat 100 degrees. AVater freezes at 0. and boils at 100. This scale made it easier for scientists to figure things on the metric scale. But it gave no clues to the real nature of heat and cold. These clues are related to what really happens when temperatures rise and fall. Heat is a form of energy. Its energy is actually the speed of moving molecules and atoms. As water gets hotter, its molecules slide around faster. As it cools, the loss of heat energy slows down t h e molecules. At 0 degrees centigrade, they fit together in crystals of ice. But they still have enough heat to jog and vibrate. Some motion remains until a substance reaches the heatless limit of absolute zero. There seems no limit as to how a hot subsance can get. But it reaches a limit of coldness when its temperature drops to minus 273.15 degrees centigrade. This is about 273 degrees below the zero degi-ee of' freezing water on the Centigrade scale. It is the same temperature as minus 459.67 degrees Fahrenheit, which is about 427 degrees colder than the zero on the Fahrenheit scale. Cryogenicists, who study the effects of super-cold tempera-tiH-es, obviously needed to simplify this zero confusion. It was decided to forget the old Fahrenheit scale altogetlier. The new absolute scale, alias the Kelvin scale, is based on the n&at centigrade degrees. But its zero is absolute zero, and on the absolute scale, water freezes at 273 degrees above zero. Cryogenics is rather a new branch ot science. It is full of stmprises and rewards. For all sorts of things happen when ordinary substances become cold-er-than-cold. However, removing the last fraction of heat from a substance is very-very difficult. So far, the cryogenicists have not chilled anything right down to the bones of absolute zero. But they have come within a small fraction of one degree. At super-c o 1 d temperatures, many n o n-magnets become magnetic. Lead and other stub-bom metals conduct electricity. Cryogenics research has led to improvements in metallurgy, rocket fuels and new electrical devices. One experiment slow-ecl down the bewildering spin of electrons and helped to solve an important nuclear problem. In this case, a temperature of one tenth of a degree above absolute zero was held for ten second periods. Questions asked by cMTdtcD of Herald readers should be maUed to Ask Andy, P.O. Box 765, Huntington Beacii, California 92648. (Copyright Chronicle Publishing Co. 1971) A -R^QU^ST. I'M mUTTO S�T TOHm-mB WAPTeR im my momBmvf ARCHIE-By Bob Montana BUGS BUNNY ;