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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - August 14, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta Vasf dilemma faces prosecutors of Richard Nixon By LESLEY OELSNER New York Times Service WASHINGTON "No Amnesty for Nixon." The bumper stickers have already started to appear, blue letters on a white background, their message harsh and unequivocal. Lawyers and politicians and ordinary citizens alike are speaking out with a similar message. The American Bar Association, at its convention in Hawaii, is considering a resolution to the same effect. Analysis The pressure is understandable, for there are good arguments in favor of prosecuting Richard M. Nixon, and, adding to the immediacy, there is also a pending prosecution with a Sept. 9 trial date for six former Nixon subordinates charged with the same crime in which Nixon has admitted a role. There are good arguments against prosecuting Nixon. Also, the pressure, at the moment, is directed at one man, Leon Jaworski, the special Watergate prosecutor; and there are those who believe that the decision should be made elsewhere. And there is some feeling that the decision should be postponed, emotions are high now, and the question is momentous. The present situation, briefly, is this: Nixon, having given up the presidency and, with it, whatever immunity it carried, is now liable to prosecution for any crimes committed while in office. He, himself, has made public transcripts of his conversations that, to lawyers, provide a prima facie case against him on at least the charge of obstruction of justice. There is evidence from the transcripts and from other sources that might support additional charges against him. President Ford could pardon Nixon, but he has shown no inclination to do so, and, indeed, his press secretary has implied that the new president would be opposed to a pardon. The Lcthbridqc Herald VOL. LETHBRIDGE, ALBERTA, WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 14, 1974 64 Pages 15 CENTS STOWAWAYS FOUND NEW YORK (AP) More than 70 stowaways, seven of them so ill they were unable to walk, were discovered aboard a banana freighter which arrived from Ecuador Tuesday. Six of the men, apparently locked in a hold of the freighter Santa Elena for a week without food or water, were lifted off on stretchers. Sixty-one stowaways, all Ecuadorian and Colombian men, were discovered Tuesday. About a dozen stowaways were discovered earlier while the freighter was still at sea. Turks take airport, advance on Nicosia Could pass bill Congress could conceivably pass a pending resolution favoring clemency, an act that while not legally binding would at least give Jaworski some psychological backup should the prosecutor decide not to prosecute Nixon. Such action, though, now also appears unlikely. Jaworski, the man authorized to prosecute Nixon, is thus on his own. As a result, there are three basic questions, as follows: 1. Should Nixon be prosecuted, or should the books be closed and the former president left alone'' 2. Who should decide? 3 When should the decision be made? The questions involve far more than just the fate of Nixon, for any decision on his legal status will affect to one degree or another the status of other defendants or potential defendants. There is something more at stake too: the public's perception of its legal system. The arguments in favor of prosecuting Nixon go thus: the law applies to all persons equally, and Nixon must be prosecuted for his alleged crimes in the same way that anybody else who apparently committed crimes would be prosecuted. If Nixon is not prosecuted the prosecutions of his former subordinates would be unfair and might have to be dropped. If he is not prosecuted, he will be able to go about the country saying that he has done no wrong and, perhaps, having his opinions heeded. Finally, the argument goes, a failure to prosecute Nixon would lessen whatever respect Americans have for the law. The main argument on the other side is that Nixon has already suffered a penalty harsh enough for whatever offenses he committed he forfeited the presidency, he brought disgrace to his family, he was, and undoubtedly will be, humiliated. Another argument is that a proper system of justice allows compassion and mercy. A corollary is that prosecutors in the U.S. have vast discretion as suggested by Elliot L. Richardson, the former attorney general, who has said he thinks that "as a matter of discretion" Nixon should not be prosecuted. Park entrance deserted The entrance to Anicinabe Park near Kenora, Ont., to a Tuesday noon deadline to end their three-week has been mostly deserted since the militant Indians armed siege. Story on Page 2. occupying the park moved back into the woods prior If strikes harm Inside Letting Nixon free while prosecuting his former aides for what may have been subordinate roles in the Watergate crimes seems, on the face of it, unfair. But it is possible that those aides could be let free that those prosecutions could be dropped, or pardons issued. Such a decision could perhaps be justified on the grounds that the aides were acting at the direction of the president, and since the president was not being prosecuted, for national policy reasons, the aides should not be either. That possibility, of course, raises the next question: Who is to decide what should be done with Nixon? For while a prosecutor has huge discretion in deciding whom to prosecute and what charges to bring, and while there are few ways to control a prosecutor's discretion, there are public policy reasons for Could be freed public: HoO prosecutors posing some limits on themselves. Jaworski is a cautious and traditionally minded prosecutor, considering himself guided if not totally bound by such guidelines as the American Bar Association's standards for prosecutors. Those standards give a variety of reasons for declining to prosecute, such as inadequate proof, or reluctance of the victim to testify, but those reasons are nbt particularly helpful in this case. Also, a decision by Jawor- ski not to prosecute Nixon might set a precedent on which other prosecutors could rely if they wanted to avoid prosecuting important public officials. So, although Jaworski has broad power including, as a practical matter, the power to decide not to prosecute Nixon he might be reluctant to take such a step on his own. BANFF (CP) The president of the Civil Service Association of Alberta told teachers attending the annual Banff Summer Conference Tuesday that all public employees, including teachers, should have the right to strike. Bill Broad told teachers "there is a myth in parts of this country that public employees should not have the same rights and privileges possessed by other workers that is the right to bargain collectively with the employer." "It is a myth that the granting of collective bargaining rights would some way be degrading to the Ford candidacy seen in New York Times Service WASHINGTON Several of President Ford's closest political associates said Tuesday that he has already decided, tentatively at least, to seek a full presidential term two years from now. Since he was chosen last winter to replace Spiro T. Agnew as vice-president, Ford has insisted that he had no future political ambition and that he had no intention whatsoever of seeking the presidency in 1976. But his sudden projection into the White House has clearly changed the former Michigan representative's mind. Even before taking office, Ford had hinted that things might be different if Nixon quit. On April 2, for example, he told reporters: "If those circumstances develop which I don't think will happen, then I've got a hard decision to make." 1976 J. F. terHorst, Ford's press secretary, said Tuesday of the president's 1976 plans, "no decision has been made." This was a significant public retreat from Ford's previous statements of disavowal. An intimate of Ford said that Ford's "perspective has changed completely, as it had since he acceded to the presidency. As a result, he said, the president "basically knows that he will run, unless something changes radically in the interim." No announcement by Ford can be expected for many months, in the unanimous view of republican politicians. The president will not want to commit himself until he has established an identity and a record of his own, they said, and he will want to retain the option of reversing his decision without embarrassment if things go badly. Seen and heard About town Reeve Dick Papworth telling County of Lethbridge school committee members that Premier Peter Lougheed shouldn't buy an airline before buying Calgary Power Aid. Bill Kergan noting that someone should tell the Public Utilities Board hearing Aug. 26 that another hike in the price of milk will make it cheaper to drink beer than milk. crown, degrading to all parts of government. This is a cultural reality here in Alberta." He said "there are people believe that public employees are different and so should not have the same rights as other people who work for wages or a salary." "Public employees, as a group, are just as responsible as any other group of workers. They are people who believe that they must be given the right to negotiate the terms of their employment as others have that right." Mr. Broad said bargaining must take place from a position of strength, which means that strikes must be available to workers. He said "this idea that the public employee must not strike is purely emotional." "It is too bad if the public is harmed or inconvenienced in any way as the public, in the end, is the employer. It is the public who must be inconvenienced and then there is a chance that they will insist that their representatives do something positive to remove this matter that is the cause of their inconvenience. "I am quite sure that the people of Alberta do not give a damn about public service strikes unless it affects them personally." 'You go forward and tell them to stop and I'll go back and tell them to stop.' Classified........28-31 Comics............38 Comment...........4 District............15 Family..........33-36 Local Markets..........39 Sports...........21-24 Theatres............7 TV.................6 Weather............3 LOW TONIGHT 45; HIGH THURS. 65; FEW SHOWERS. By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Turkish forces drove south and east of Nicosia today, taking over the Greek-Cypriot radio station in the southern part of the capital. The Turkish command also reported that its tank-led troops had captured the town of Timbou and overrun a neighboring military airstrip. Minutes after the takeover of the radio station, a Turkish an- nouncer indicated that Nicosia International Airport west of the city also had fallen. But later reports clarified that the airfield taken was the one at Timbou, eight miles southeast of Nicosia. There was no further word about the Nicosia airport, al- though the Turks said their forces were pushing to the southwest of Nicosia where the airport is located. The radio gave the impres- sion that the Turks were at- tempting to encircle Nicosia. Turkish planes, armor and infantry blasted their way through Greek-Cypriot lines on the island, rocking Cyprus with heavy explosions and sending up huge columns of smoke from devastated buildings. At least 41 persons were re- ported wounded in the first few hours of fighting, including 18 patients in a mental hospital, 12 members of the UN peacekeeping force and one reporter. The Greek radio said four Turkish planes were downed. Turkey said it wanted to gain control of only a "fair share" of territory for the minority Turkish-Cypriots and not the whole island. This was an apparent reference to the northern part of Cyprus. Witnesses in northern Greece reported new tanks on flat-cars and trains moved through the night and early today in the direction of the Turkish border. Ottawa undecided on troops OTTAWA (CP) The gov- ernment cannot say at the present time whether Canadian peacekeeping troops will be withdrawn from Cyprus, an external affairs spokesman said today. He said External Affairs Minister Allan MacEachen is meeting department officials this morning to review the situation in Cyprus. Earlier, a report that a Canadian soldier was wounded in the new outbreak of fighting was denied by officials in Cyprus An external affairs depart- ment spokesman said the Canadian sources on the island said there were no Canadian casualties A report Irorn UN sources earlier said a Canadian was wounded by a mortar shell ex- plosion at the Ledra Palace hotel, the Canadian UN peace- keeping force's headquarters in Nicosia 'Canadians f with old Representatives of the 15 NATO governments met in Brussels and most told Greece yrt j I c c fgt CNE officials' fingers crossed TORONTO (CP) Crossed fingers were in order today as the 96th Canadian National Exhibition opened a 20-day run in the midst of a Metro- politan Toronto public transit strike. First, the Ex stands to take a beating in ticket sales alone if the transport tieup that began Monday lasts another week, officials say. Second, officials have pro- claimed crossed index fingers as the signal for hitch-hikers trying to get a lift to the grounds on the Lake Ontario shore two miles from the city's business centre. An opening-day crowd of was predicted, com- pared with last year's Total 1973 attendance was 3.5 million, more than half of whom arrived by public tran- sit. Body found KAMPALA (AP) The dis- membered bofly of one of President Idi Amin's former wives has been found in the trunk of a car that belonged to a doctor who died after poisoning himself, his wife and their seven children, Radio Uganda reported today. they hoped its military with- drawal from the organization would be only temporary. In Washington, President Ford discussed the Cyprus situation with State Secretary Henry Kissinger In London, Archbishop Ma- karu.s, deposed president of us. called on the world's major powers to rescue the eastern Mediterranean island from what he called ''barbarous Turkish aggression." The broadcast came as heavy fighting broke out on the island following the breakdown of peace efforts, and Greece announced withdrawal of its military forces from the North At- lantic Treaty Organization. The announcement was made on the previously Greek-controlled Cyprus Broadcasting Co. station, indicating that the Turks had captured it. The station stopped broad- casting Greek-Cypriot communiques and martial music and appealed in Greek for Greek Cypriots to surrender. LONDON i CP) Transport Minister Jean Marchand said today the Canadian government developed a whole new policy on rail transport because "Ca- nadians became furious" with the old system "They came to Britain and Europe and went to Japan and saw modern, fast trains and then they came home and saw that Canada was not getting new trains Canadian and Canadian Pacific Railways grew "less and less" interested in passenger services, for financial reasons The system was "a mess." Marchand is here to study British rail and other transport systems "to see what has been achieved and to what extent we can use their ideas." Completing a three-day round of talks with British authorities, he flies to Pans later today for a similar tour of French facilities. Stanfield to resign leadership within two years OTTAWA (CP) Robert Stanfield announced today he will step down within two years as national Progressive Conservative leader and will not run in the next federal election. He told a news conference after the first party caucus since its July 8 election defeat that he agreed to stay on for an indefinite period as leader after caucus members approved conditions he demanded. He said he set three specific conditions on continuing on an interim basis: he would not lead the party in another election unless one were called unexpectedly, ahead of the expected timing in 1978. he be free to pick his own departure date on the basis of his judgment of what is best for the party. he not be limited to any set period for continuing in office, such as six months or a year or some other fixed length of time. He said his position was given broad general approval by the caucus, although consent was not unanimous. "I did not expect unanimity; I did not demand unanimity." Mr. Stanfield, elected leader in 1967 and defeated in three elections, said he made up his mind to resign well before the caucus meeting. Having done so, he said, he leans toward an early resigna- tion. But he would make the decision after assessing carefully what would be best for the party. He said it is reasonable to assume that his departure will come before the next general party convention which must, by the party's constitution, be held by March, 1976. The last convention was in March this year and the con- stitution stipulates that a gen- eral convention must be held every two years. It also contains a clause for an automatic leadership review by ordering that a poll be taken on whether delegates favor a leadership convention. Mr. Stanfield said he would quit and leave the party lead- erless if he ever lost the sub- stantial support of his caucus. But he would not let a small group of caucus dissidents upset his plan to stay on until a leadership convention can be arranged. "I have no intention of letting one or two or three people force a decision on me. the caucus, or the party, that I do not he said He said he will not campaign for any particular successor, though he repeated earlier statements that he thought a French Canadian leader would be good. ;