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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - August 5, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta doy, Auguit 5, THE LETHBRIDGE HERAiD _ 5 John Mlka Accelerating Toward "North Of 60' (First of a series) QTTAWA Queen Elizabeth toured the Arctic with her family for a variety of reasons but possibly the most important was the federal government's determination to mate the sov- ereign presence of the Crown in the right of Canada felt "north of CO" as the officials here describe their domain. That demonstration w a s aimed not only at foreigners but also at ambitious provin- cial premiers trying to annex federal land as well as terri- torial politicians who want to take it over from Ottawa as new provinces. Even more important, the federal message that it intends to hold what it owns in the Arctic against all comers was meant to remind Canadians from coast to coast they have in common a magnificent pat- rimony in the north. All this is important because, like a snowball rolling down- hill, Canadian awareness is tumbling towards its northern destiny at last. The oil rush, wholesale post- ing of civil servants to the ter- ritories, Manhattan's voyages, trail blazing pollution con- trols, big inch pipeline plans, creation of an Arctic military command, vice regal, prime ministerial and now royal tours all these calibrate the accelerating interest in the Ca- nadian north. Each turn sweeps a bigger arc through the nation's af- fairs in growing recognition that the basic, enduring, unal- terable Canadian fact is neith- er English nor French more than were the Indian or Eskimo accidents of history but, simply, geography. Unlike the rest of this conti- nent, the rest of the western hemisphere or its so called founding nations, Canada is a northern land and slowly this inescapable fact is tilting the whole nation's outlook towards the tundra. Most know tiie land is wide. Few know it is almost as deep southernmost Middle Island in Lake Erie to north- ernmost Cape Columbia on Ellesmcre Island is a distance of miles and Canada ex- tends 420 miles beyond to the north pole, a total of miles or the distance almost between Victoria and Quebec City. Most have heard that al- most 40 per cent of the country lies beyond the 60th parallel where the provinces end. Yet few are conscious of the conse- quences of this vast possession being held in fee simple by the government of Canada. "Until you have seen the north, you have not seen Can- our prime minister told our Queen and all of us, Prof. James Lotz of the Ca- nadian Research Centre for Anthropology (a 41-year-old English born Canadian with 14 years experience in northern development as scientist, ad- ministrator and acade m i c) puts it this way. "The national ethos, strug- gling to find expression, dis- covers in the north the con- crete embodiment of the uniqueness of the country and a focus for its aspirations. "It's odd that a nation like Canada, with the image, of a timorous people, should sud- denly awake to find themselves charged with the responsibility for developing one of the harsh- est, largest and most demand- ing places on the face of the earth." The dimension being most rapidly measured is the min- eral wealth of the northland and the economics of tapping it. Inevitably that brings con- troversy 'over what values should be applied and how they should be measured out among conflicting groups. The struggles are joined in earnest between exploit e r s and conservationists, northern- ers and southerners, manda- rins and citizens, Ottawa and the provinces, indigenes and immigrants and every group having its own mixture of selfish and altruistic mo- tives. Already there are strange wails from northerners who one would expect to Be over- joj'ed at present economic prospects and the sudden influx of federal men and money. Duncan Pryde, elected mem- ber of the Northwest Terri- U.S. 'Obit' A Bit Premature A LL newspapers keep on file the obituaries of promin- ent persons, to be publ i s h e d only when the sad necessity arises. Historians and social com- mentators are under no such constraint and a number of them have already announced the death or at least the ser- ious illness of one well known Sam. In a newly published book, "The End of the American Cornell political scientist Andrew Hacker states flatly that "America's history as a na- tion has'reached its end The United States is about to join other nations of the world which were once prepossessing and are now little more than plots of bounded terrain." Like Athens at tiie time of Pericles or Rome under the Caesars, America has reached the peak of its power and vi- tality and is in decline, says Hacker, succumbing to a fatal sickness marked by such symp- toms as an incurable racial problem, a growing preoccupa- tion with private concerns and a decreasing willingness to be governed. The illness which Doc Hack- By Don Oakley, NEA Service er has diagnosed as terminal is evidently of very long standing. One thing is usually forgotten, however, when we talk about the imminent fall of civiliza- tion: There has to be some- thing to take its place. Rome didn't just fall, it was pushed. Roman culture could have continued declining indef- initely had it not been for the younger, more vital cultures pressing against its frontiers. Even then, the process required centuries. What is to displace America? Russia? China? Is communism the wave of the future, destin- ed to vanquish those ideals which America still represents, however imperfectly? At least one sage thinks it could be worse. In the opinion of British historian Arnold Toyn- bee, America has become a world menace. To his own hypo- thetical question of whether he would rather be a Czechoslo- vak "liberated" in the bloodless manner of the Russians or a Vietnamese "liberated" by Am- erican bombers, he replies that there is no question but that he would prefer to be the former. If Hacker is right about the end of America, Toynbee could very well get hia choice. But still another histor i a n should be heard from on this subject. Those who are frustra- ted and discontented ought to stand back and take a look at the sweep of this county's his- tory, recommends Prof. Carl N. Degler of Stanford. "I am somewhat awed by the 350 year history of the Ameri- can he writes. "Even when one has discounted all the blessings bestowed by the fortu- nate separation from the tur- moil and destruction of Euro- pean wars and by the bounty of nature in the soil, the achieve- ment of Americans is still wor- thy of being ranked with that of any people; "Noble ideals like equality, opportu n i t y and democratic government are as American as big, flashy automobiles or in- door plumbing, "Moreover, the ideal of wide distribution of wealth, (which) America has long represented and comes closer to achieving than any other people in the history of the world, is some- thing more than dollar chas- ing; it is truly one of the great humanitarian visions of man- kind." America. It was great while it lasted. PRICES EFFECTIVE THURSDAY, FRIDAY, SATURDAY, AUGUST 6th, 7th, 8th. IDEAL FOR BAR-B-QUE CHUCK STEAK 59. Red er Blue Brand Beef................... Ib. tf m or Biue Brand SMOKED SHOULDER Picnic Style.............. Ib. I RflQSt Red or Blue Brand Beef Cross Rib Roast Ground Beef tem, Bologna the Ib. ib. 89c By the Piece Ib. 65c 49c 69c Beef Liver 63c LUNCHEON MEAT, CHUNK TUNA SMALL SHRIMP CHEESE SLICES Javex Bleach iar........ Black Diamond....................... 2-lb. pkg. Orange Crystals, 4 1 .25 jar..........45c Tang Nellsons 14-oz. cello pkg. U7C ORANGE JUICE FRESH PRODUCE VALVES Johnson's Blanched ......20-jor. Sun Pak Chilled 32-oz. container 85c 79c 35' HEAD LETTUCE California, Canada No. T Prunes Washington, Canada No. 1 Jumbo Onions Washington Grown, Canada No. 1 2 2 Ibs. 49" 29' GRAHAM'S FOOD MARKET 708 3rd Avenue South GROCERIES 327-5434, 327-5431 MEATS 327-1812 OPEN THURSDAY Till 9 P.M. PHONE AND SAVE FREE DELIVERY tories Council, makes public statements that he prays Pan- arctic Oil Ltd. doesn't strike oil and warns "all hell will break loose" unless natives are given more voice within the white dominated north and the territories art given pro- vincial status. "We won't get any benefits if they (the federal govern- ment) find oil in the Arctic says Coun. Pryde. "If they do, we won't have provincehood for a long time." Indian Affairs Minister Jean Chretien was openly cursed by a meeting of Yukon bigwigs and then upbraided for five hours in private when he made a speech a year ago in Whitehorse telling them that he had rejected proposals to create a provincial govern- ment. Mr. Chretien has studiously avoided even the hint of a promise that some day the two territorial councils would not be dominated by Ottawa ap- pointees but even if the terri- tories are given provincial status, that won't be enough to .satisfy the northerners. The nub of the dispute is over land. Not only the natives lay claim to the land, so do all northerners. But legal title be- longs to Ottawa and it does not have to pass to the territories even if made provinces. Although Alberta and Sas- katchewan followed Manitoba to provincial status in 1905, it took almost another 25 years before the federal government turned over title to the crown lands in the former territories to the Prairie governments, and has regretted doing so ever since. It was not long after that the great oil boom started in Leduc. A lip biting Ottawa saw billion in royalties and fees pour into provincial trea- suries from the western sedi- mentary basin in the two dec- ades that followed the 1947 dis- covery strike and by this year that total will have soared be- yond billion. Add to that, an estimated million paid in property taxes by the western oil indus- try during the period and the unknown but undoubtedly sig- nificant income taxes from the oil companies and their work- ers over the years which have gone to provincial treasuries under the tax rental agree- ments. It all adds up to a lost trea- sure trove large enough to be mourned even by a national government. Yet it's only half of what is at stake in the north. The in- dependent computations of the Canadian Petroleum Associa- tion indicate there is twice as much oil and gas In the Mac- kenzie Delta and Arctic Is- lands as there is in the sedi- mentary basin within the four western provinces combined. Almost billion has been spent on northern development since 1954, about one-third on infrastructure projects such as transportation and power. In the past five years alone, the federal government has pump- ed almost million into de- veloping northern resources and received less than mil- lion in direct revenue returns. In the next decade Ottawa alone plans to spend up to billion on northern develop- ment projects. The oil industry is expected to spend four times that sum. There are only about residents in the north and, with capital-intensive developemnt in the main, it is not likely the population will grow beyond the projected for the year 1990 by the National En- ergy Board. The thought of Canadians in- vesting such huge sums and, more important, watching even larger revenues from resource development being divided up among the small northern pop- ulation instead of returning to the rest of Canada is politically untenable no matter how nor- therners argue it would merely put them in the same position as were the Prairies when they became provinces with tiny populations and large demands on the federal purse. Because of the moral obliga- tion of fair treatment to the native population, the vital de- fence role of the north and the necessity to establish unques- tioned sovereignty up to the north pole, Mr. Chretien cat- egorically ruled out as "real- istic alternatives" provincial status or partition of the ter- ritories among existing prov- inces in the south as proposed by Premier Bennett. Regardless of the rhetoric of participatory democracy, Otta- wa must and will act in the classic manner of any land- owning oligarchy, citing the same philosphical justifications enlightened patriotism and paternalism for furthering its vested self-interest. And that, ultimately, raises questions about the survival of the federal system. (Herald Ottawa Bureau) Aswan Could Change History From The Gloljo And Mall, Toronto "THE Nile is history. It was (he susten- ance of the earliest delations and the highway to a continent. It has provided the spur to adventure and the glue of an empire. And now it has been conquered. The final sluice gates are in place and the ]2th and final turbine is installed in the Aswan High Dam. Aswan is a monument, albeit a very functional monument, to many things to UK short-sighted stupidity of John Foster Dulles and to the Cold War, to the immense capacity of modern en- gineering, to the anthropologists and ar- cheologists who fought to preserve the masterpeices of an earlier era (and to the governments and institutions who financed their but most of all it is a monument to the determination of the Egyptian people themselves. The Egyptians conceived the project and eventually paid two-thirds of the cost. It was the peasants who left their villages, and a way of life little changed from the days of the Pharaohs, and over a decade acquired the skills required to operate the drills, to plant the dynamite and to bolt together the turbines. Of course the Soviet help wzs essential, but (be bulk of tho work was dene by the Egyptians them- selves. And it is thsy who will benefit most we hope. Propaganda gains are of short duration. The Aswan can make possible the fulfilment of mere positive dreams. The waters of I-ake Nasser now cover vast quarries of the Valley which provided the stone for the Pyramids, and the statistics about gallons and mega- watts are impressive. But more impressive is the promise they hold for the millions of poor Egyptians. Egypt has always owed its existence to tiie river and tha brown silt it annually spread over the Nile Valley. But the controlled Nile will now increase the land available for cultivation by 20 per cent, permit three crops where there use to be one, provide cheap hydro power for rcpid industrialization. Clearly, Aswan offers Egypt, which has contributed much to civilization, an oppor- tunity to become one of the first countries in the Third World to break through tha poverty cycle provided she can find or make the peace necessary to pursue that opportunity. Should SST Go Forward? From The Christian Science Monitor TTHE arguments for and against the su- personic airliner the SST are hardly being resolved with supersonic speed: They are immensely complex, and they involve charges which require more research. Now that the Nixon administra- tion has set up two advisory panels, and is prepared to spend million probing critics' contentions about noise, pollution and ozone danage, perhaps creditable con- clusions can be reached. The United States Congress should be particularly anxious for precise data. It has accorded the American SST prototype some ?700 million worth of support over seven years, and this year another million is being sought. One must recognize that the opponents of the EST got their arguments across faster than did the proponents. We hear often that this supersonic giant will produce an infernal sonic boom wherever it travels. We hear less that it's been fairly well re- solved that this plane won't be flown at supersonic speed over land the conti- nental United States and that tin's elimi- nates the sonic boom problem. On the ecological front we hear charges that its vapor trails will release water vapor into the upper atmosphere where it will accumulate until sunlight is blocked and earth's climate affected, with damage to the ozone as well. We bear less of the counter argument that a fleet of 500 SSTs would distribute only as much water vapor, worldwide, as one thunderstorm cloud produces. And that there are to thunderstorm clouds normally active at once throughout the world. This ques- tion of vapor damage will be researched further by that million project. We hear that tiie SST's engines will be unbearably noisy. The counterclaim is that they will make less noise on takeoff and landing than today's improved subsonic jets. They will be noisier at ths airports, but this (perhaps) will be reduced by fur- ther development. Proponents argue that the supersonic airliner is inevitably going to be built and widely flown if not the American ver- sion, then the British-French Concorde and the Soviet SST. But that a balance of pay- ments dimension of billion, over two decades, is involved in the issue whether the United States sells SSTs to other coun- tries, or vice versa. There remains one potent, unresolved, argument. It fa simply whether, some- where along the line, mankind must not put ntore effort into the quality of life, aid to the downtrodden and repair to the cities and call a halt to prestige and material- ist expenditures, to flying faster and to rushing about so smartly. Are we at the halt-catting place yet? British Railivays Show A Profit By Ray Vicker, In Th e Wall Street Journal rail operations in the Second World War T ONDON At a.m., a minute or two after leaving London's Euston Station the Liverpool Pullman hits SO miles an hour. Every seat on the all first- class train is filled, largely by business- men engrossed in the London Times. Then- impassive faces brighten as waiters bring breakfast orders to tables Bear their seats. One of the passengers, C. Charles Smith, a lanky London accountant, says he used to drive the 194 miles to Liverpool. But train service in Britain has improved in recent years, and the Liverpool Pullman makes the run in two hours, 35 minutes. "Now I use the train says Mr. Smith. "Today I'll have appointments all day in. Liverpool, and the return tram will have me back home by p.m." His round-trip fair: Lots of Englishmen share Mr. Smith's enthusiasm about British Railways. Eng- land's nationalized rail system, long in the red, is finally earning a small profit. And it's doing it by paying close attention to passenger service a thorn in the side of most U.S. rail lines. This isn't to say that British Rail is trouble free. Much of its rolling stock is dreadfully outmoded. And in contrast to its long-haul passenger operations, the road's commuter service is drawing bitter criti- cism from riders angered at delayed trains and dirty cars and stations. None- theless, a look at how British Rail is han- dling its problems may be enlightening in view of tiie growing list of woes plaguing American rail systems. Britain, the first country to develop the railroad, has had a long and dark history of deficit-ridden railroad services. Fifty years ago there were 123 different lines operating, many so uneconomically that no dividends had been paid to shareholders for decades. The government took over and then nearly ran them into the ground. After the war it was evident that private owners would never be able to the overworked system, so the lines were nationalized for good on Jan. 1, 1948. In recent years British Rail's annual deficits have exceeded million, In 1968, however, the government wrote off large quantities of debt owed to the Brit- ish Exchequer and streamlined the rail- road's operations and management struc- ture. Moreover, it recognized a need to subsidize rail services that are unprof- itable but essential. Commuter service, a headache in Britain as in, the U.S., falls in this category. In addition, British Rail has overhauled Its freight operations by introducing spe- cialized trains geared to the needs of one manufacturer or shipper and by establish- ing "merry-go-roand" trains that literally never stop moving. Branch lines have been pruned down, reducing total trackage to miles from miles at the time of nationalization. Electrification is being pushed on all lines, and a new 150-mile- an-hour passenger train is under develop- ment. The modernization moves helped British Rail post a profit last year of million its first profit since 1952 compared with a loss of million in 1968. Though subsidies helped, buoyant intercity passen- ger business accounted for a major part of the improvement. (The nationalized sys- tem is liable for taxes like any other Brit- ish corporation. However, due to large tax-loss carry-forwards, which have more than covered any profits made, British Rail, hasn't paid any taxes since nationali- zation.) In fact, British Rail's overall passenger business now accounts for more revenue than does freight the reverse of the si- tuation in the U.S. Not Much Help By Dong Walker a story apocryphal, no had failed to ascertain whether the de- ceased was male or female. It would hard- ly be appropriate, he thought, to refer to the departed one as "it" so he determined to make a discreet inquiry of the nearest person in the cltapel. Leaning over to a man in the front row Ire nodded toward the casket and asked, "brother or the man re- plied. is doubt about a minster who was called to conduct a funeral on very short notice. For some miknown re.ison the min- ister slated to take the service failed to appear and the substitute was almost lit- erally brought in off the street. Just as Hie service was about to begin tho minister realized with dismay that ha ;