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Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives

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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - August 1, 1973, Lethbridge, Alberta Ask Andy Making glass Andy sends a complete 20 volume set of the Merit Stu- dents Encyclopedia to Celia age of Barring- for her How can they make glass from The main ingredient is a special sand with a high con- tent of a mineral called silica. The earth uses a recipe that changes silica into shiny black which is a natural glass. The secret is enough heat to melt and fuse silica to form a tacky substance. When this it is hard glass. The manufacturers of glass use nature's basic plus many improvements and refinements Different types of sand con- tain various but al- most all of them contain silica. Only sands that contain very high percentages of silica are suitable for making glass. Sil- ica is the most plentiful and in many ways the most won- derful of the earth's rocky in- gredients. It forms ag- ates and a long list of other semi-precious plus a multitude of ordinary in- cluding which is the hardest common mineral. This wonder mineral Is a simple chemical compound of the plentiful elements oxygen and silicon. as so often what nature can mankind can do better. Nature uses the heat from fiery vol- canoes to change sliica into ob- the natural glass min- eral found among the lavas of our Western mountains. Thous- ands of years people dis- covered how to change silica sands into glass and even how to tint it to resemble precious gems. Nowadays a manufacturersg plant may have recipes for making different kinds of glass. In all of them the main ingredient is usually in the form of hard grains found in sand or sandstones. All of them require very high temp- eratures to melt aad fuse the gritty grains to form ttie tacky stubstance that cools to be- come glass Other ingredients in the ba- sic recipe are alkali and lime. The alkali causes the silica to melt with less but the fin- ished glass tends to dissolve in water. The lime is added to make the glass durable an d waterproof. The basic recipe for ordinary window glass requires 72 pounds of silica to about 15 pounds of alkali and about nine pounds of lime. The silica comes in sand or crushed sand- the alkali usually is in potash or soda the lime is added with crushed limestone. This basic recipe must be heat- ed to 3000 degrees which is as hot as a blast fur- nace used to smelt iron. This seething heat separates the molecules in the sturdy crystal structure of the silica. As the mixture the par- ticles flow around and fuse to- gether in a different structure. The molten material is or thick and sticky. In this it is taken from the furnace and molded or blown into its final shape. The hot viscous material sets hard quite so the shaping must be done in a hurry. There is no sign of sandy grains in the finished glass be- cause their silica molecules have been fused and remod- led. Alumina and boric oxide are added to heat-resistant rec- but they are not visible in glass baking dishes. Traces of iron or chromium in the mixture are remodeled to add a greenish tint to glass bottles. Traces of selenium or ropper oxide also seem to dis though actually they add ruby red tints to the fin- ished glass. Questions asted by children of Herald readers slionld be mailed to Ask P.O. Box 765. Hontiugton California 92648. Chronicle Publishing Co. Fun with figures By J. A. H. HUNTER Uncle Andy had addressed the stamps to so the boy took what he fancied before giving the rest to his sister. kept 10 more than half you'd have had if you'd givp me 10 more than half of what you she declared. it's Steve grinned. he told her. '1 gave you 10 more than half what you'd have bad if I'd kept 10 less than half what I gave How many stamps for Yes terday's BAND was 1274. Your horoscope By JEANE DIXON Your birthday The early part of the year is roughest. Once you've come to terms with all comnieners to build for you. Spiritual growth springs is reflected in happier relations hips. To- day's natives are candid in- dividuals who prefer self-ful- fullment to great political power. ARIES 21-April You'll be glad you swallowed ycur pride and did the tactful thing today all day long. Find a show or party for diver- sion. TAURUS 20-May Expect some uphill struggles on your job. Be determined to cover at least the main re- sponsibilities. GEMINI 21 June Deals to improve or consoli- date home and business holdings are favored. But there's no great rush to gat into important action. CANCER 21 July Endless rounds of discussion fill the most of it a little removed from harsh reality. Continue checking facts. LEO 23 Aug. Even routine activities are tense and unsettled Let peo- ple of authority avoid unnecessary travel. Auourt 1973 THE LETHMIDGE HERALD VIRGO 23 Sept. Expect significant informa- tion to be incomplete. Ask questions rather than go along with anything you don't understand. LIBRA 23 Oct. Today you come into a steep improvement in your potential powers. Step right up and claim your own. SCORPIO 23 Nov. This is another day bringing you information as to the best course to and intuition as to what to do. SAGITTARIUS 22-Dec. What seems to ba a bar- gain may not be. Thsre's poten- tial co-operation on all assume leadership. CAPRICORN 22 Jan. Do it yourself if you want it right. after rou- do something for your own amusement. AQUARIUS 20 Feb. W Your though firm- ly are not the it's time that you did something about them. PISCES 19-March Ycur methods of operation corns to perhaps question. Be at let the truth defend itself. Continue as usual. The Chicago DON'T HAVE TO SEE AWTHIN6 i WHAT A WASTE OF MONEY-5PENPIN6tT ON- CLASSES FOR A UWDOHOU WEAR THOSE 5TWIIHOOMN6 W POtft NEEP 6LASSE5 TO scRoe vo ANPMAKE BEOS.' SPEAKING OF MNE ARE 6E61NNINS TO STEAM OP.1 I TUMBLEWEEDS-By Tom K. Ryan SO OUR ANCESTORS HERE PROM PD MAY THE 0IK7 OF PAKAPISE MOLT UPON HIS BLONDIE-By Chic Young LAWRENCE E. M. D. What is sinus WHO'S THE BOSS 1KJ OR MRS. BUMSTEAO e-l BEETLE BAILEY-By Mort Walker GOREN ON BRIDGE BY CHARLES R. GOREN e im. CMun North deals. Both sides vul- nerable. NORTH AK53I AST 0 K A Q .H 2 WEST EAST Q 10 8 A J 9 OK8 062 0 9 8 7 4 Z SOUTH Q J 10 S 4 1 0 AS The ptorth East South 1A Pass 1 V Pass 1 Pass 2 9 Pass 4 V Pass Pass Pass Opening Queen of o Are the players of today better than the stars of years gone There is no question but over the bidding theory has made tremendous strides. A team of modern experts would outbid the stars of three decades ago with comparative ease. In the play of the the difference is less marked. The skill needed in whist and auction bridge was as great as that needed today for contract. To back up my here is a hand played some 40 years ago by the late Willard one the finest play- en of his day. The auction Is a model even by today's standards. When rebid his hearts despite the fact that North had bid both black his partner realized that be probably had a six- card suit and that the com- bined holding should offer a good play for game. West made his natural lead of the queen of dia- monds. Declarer's chtnces were relatively good if he could prevent West from leading thru the king of spades. Dummy's clubs could be used for discards after the king was driven out. Declarer's urgent problem was an entry to his hand. If he could get he could make his contract if West held either the king of clubs or the king of hearts. Declarer overcame his en- try difficulties by overtaking the king of diamonds with the The queen of hearts was covered fay the king and won by the ace. Declar- er reentered his hand with the jack of m the process drawing the out- standing and led the ten of clvJbs. When West turned up with the long in this suit as declarer made all thirteen dis- c a r d i n g his three losing tpades On the clubs. Had West failed to cover the first declarer should not repeat the fi- nesse. he should abandon trumps for the mo- ment and switch to the club finesse. Dear Dr. Lamb Could you write about the diagnosis re- ferred to as tachycar- dealing with the heart Is this diagnosis damaging to the Is there a treatment for etc. Dear Reader Doctors use terms to classify different dis- eases and even different func- tions of the body. Heart spe- cialists refer to the normal beating mschamsm of the heart at its normal between 60 and as normial sinus rhythm That is what most of us have when we are resting quietly and aren't drinking too much smok- ing too many cigarettes or over- ly excited about a football game. When the normal heart beating mechanism speeds up so that the rate is over 100 per minute it is called sinus tachy- cardia. Its real significance depends on its cause. If it is an indica- tion of poor physical one should do something about that problem. If it is from cig- arettes and the answer is obvious. If it is from anx- why then one should find out what is producing the anx- iety and deal with the basic problem. A fast heart rate is sometimes an indication of an overactive thyroid. A fast heart rate is just a symptom like an elevated body temperature. If you exercise a little bit so that you speed up your you'll have And if you have usual functions for a person in reasonably good physical when you it should disappear. In- some people have be- cause of seeing the doctor. Dear Dr. Lamb I am 24 and have one child which my doctor delivered by Cesarean section. I had x-rays which my doctor said showed a pelvis too small for a nine pound breech baby to pass through. I didn't have time to give it much thought since I went into labor that same day. I know that you are not to wait until labor be- gins before a section but my water had broken and my con- tractions had started coming at about four minutes but they almost stopped in a couple of hours. Now that you know a little something about the would you please give me the straight facts about a section. What are the do's and don'ts that make a doctor do such sur- Dear Reader Perhaps the common good medical indica- tion for Cesarean section is when a normal birth cannot be accomplished through the bony pelvic birth canal. Some wo- men have a small pelvis and measurements a c c o mplished early in pregnancy should i identify this problem in most instances. Once a woman has had a Cesarean section many obstet- ricians then feel that all sub- sequent pregnancies should also be delivered by Cesarean. The concern here is that the scar from the previous incision in the uterus might rupture dur- ing the forceful contractions of normal labor. You are correct in saying that it is preferable to do the section before the water has broken and before significant contractions have started. The natuie of pregnancy and being what it it is not too surprising that every once in awhile labor gets well under way or even the water breaks before the woman is able to get to the hospital for oper- ative delivery. Send your questions to Dr. in care of this news- P.O. Box Radio City New N.Y. 10019. For a copy of Dr. Lamb's new booklet on diver- send 50 cents to the same address and ask for booklet. Today in history By THE CANADIAN PRESS Slavery was abolished in all Bntish possessions 139 years ago today-4n but it was not until the vic- tory of the Union in the Civil War that slaves were freed in the United States. The opening up of the West In- dies and the southern states of America had made slav- ery a lucrative trade in the New World. In the latter part of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century the public con- science was aroused at the horror and suffering of this traffic. Internal trading of continued in the United States. House of Com- mons endorsed a gqyero- ment decision to send up to 500 Canadian signallers to the Congo to serve with the UN peace force. IT WAS MOT OH THAT LI'L ABNER-By Al Capp HOME AM' I ALL OVER TV VIEWERS ARE EQUALLV EAGEP TO TASTE ROAST CHEAPLING----- CHo. ARCHIE-By Bob Montana 11 THOUGHT VOU AAEANT YDUR IN I GAVE HIM PRECISE LETTING V INSTRUCTIONS HI AND LOB-By Dik I NEVER REALIZED GOLF WAS SUCH A CRUEL SAME i SHORT RIBS-By Frank O'Neal HAGAR the HORRIBLE-By Dik TO 05 UT6 FOR tlVE A 6000 MIND 1D1URNV3U INTO A NOWIM 3 flEALLY BUGS BUNNY WHAT HE'S FAWNS THAT SLEEP- WALKINJS WOUTINE- AOA'Ni WEFW1GEWATOR .-HMMMJ ON M3UR WAY BACK ME A ;