Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - April 30, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta
24 LETHBRIDGE HERALD Tutsday, April 30, 1974 Timetable for a revolution The government failed to see writing on the wall New York Times Service LISBON Following is a chronology of events that led up to military overthrow of the 45-year-old Portuguese dictatorship last week: 1973 Summer decree by ministry of defense seeks to bolster officer corps by providing for easier introduction and promotion of reservists. It transforms latent dissatisfaction of regular officers into waves of protest over favoritism to outsider. OCTOBER Leftist civilian opposition is forbidden from criticizing war in Africa during electoral campaign for national assembly Opposition withdraws in protest and government forces win all seats and seemingly consolidate power further. But protest movement in army spreads as junior officers hold meetings to air grievances over pay, promotions, frequent tours of duty m Africa. Leftist nucleus in army exploits dissatisfaction among officers. 1974 JANUARY White civilians demonstrate in Mozambique as Black guerrillas become more active. Whites reproach army with inaction. Officers react angrily by saying they are being made scapegoats for Mozambique's difficulties, as occurred when GOA was lost to India in 1961. FEBRUARY Book called "Portugal and the Future" appears with effect of bomshell as its author, Gen. Antonio de Spinola, most popular figure, hero of the Second World War in Portuguese Guinea and deputy chief of defense staff, declares war cannot be won. Book denounces economic and social situation, calls for free debate on African policy and urges effort to come to terms with African nationalism through a freely chosen confederation of equal states. MARCH 5 As split grows in armed forces. Premier Marcello Caetano attempts to fight back against desertion of Spinola by getting assembly support for overseas policy. MARCH H-Spinola is dismissed, as is immediate superior, Gen Francisco da Costa Gomes, who backed book. Action follows pledge of support to premier by military hierarchy at ceremony Spinola and Costa Gomes boycott. MARCH 16 Attempt at military coup fails after government gets word that it is coming. Company of infantry not informed of postponement marches alone on capital, where it is turned back. Later surrenders, with 33 officers arrested, including some plot leaders. MARCH-APRIL Government tries to consolidate position with further arrests and dismissals, including crackdown on left-wing opposition, but dissidence continues in army as young officers issue manifestos denouncing lack of democracy and hopeless war policy. Demoralization in army and civilian population intensifies. APRIL Z5, a.m. Radio station broadcasts popular leftist song of protest called "Grandola" by Portuguese folk singer, Zeca Afonso. It is signal to start coup. 3 a.m. Commander of armored school in Santarem is arrested and armored regiment starts to Lisbon. Two units in Lisbon and regiments in about eight other places begin to take positions. Key points in capital occupied, including airport, private radio station and interior and defense ministries. a.m. Rebels, calling themselves Movement of Armed Forces, appeal to population for calm tell it to stay home, warn potential military opponents not to resist. 6 of Lisbon completed and more key points taken. Caetano takes refuge in headquarters of Para-military Republicas National Guard, a.m. Guard barracks is encircled after Caetano is joined by foreign, defense and interior ministers. Spinola and Costa Gomes remain silent, although broadcasts express hope they will join. A junta mediation effort is begun between Caetano and Spinola. 1 p.m. Hated political police barricade themselves in headquarters in centre of city; some shooting results. Shooting also around guard barracks. More troops move into occupy city center. 4 p.m. Mediation progresses as Caetano signified willingness to hand over power to Spinola, who asks and gets mandate from rebels. p.m. General arrives to public ovation at barracks for negotiation with premier. p.m. Dr. Caetano and ministers taken from barracks by armored car as crowd howls surrender of premier and president. Latter taken after Lancers abandon risistance. APRIL 26 a.m. Spinola, flanked by five officers, goes on television and announces he is heading "a Junta of National Salvation" dedicated to restoring freedom. Pledges Portugal's respect for international obligations and promises free elections of assembly and president President Thomas, Caetano and some of the ministers are flown to Madeira, where they are housed in two luxury hotels. tries to accentuate the common touch PARIS (AP) If Valery Giscard d'Estaing wins the upcoming election, France will get a president of patrician bearing who is a financial wizard and an accomplished performer on the accordion. Giscard d'Estaing, one of the leading candidates in the presidential election set for May 5, now is finance minister. His ambition is to succeed the late Georges Pompidou and, at 48, become the youngest French head of state since Napoleon was crowned emperor at 35 Giscard d'Estaing is a member of the ruling coalition dominated by the followers of Charles de Gaulle, but is leader of his own independent Republican party. He and the Gaullist candidate, former premier Jacques Chaban- Delmas, are engaged in a scramble for the centre-right vote so as to defeat Socialist Francois Mitterrand Mitterrand is expected to come out on top in the May 5 balloting without getting the absolute majority required to become president. He will then face the winner of the Giscard d'Estaing-Chaban- Delmas tussle in a runoff May 19. The latest poll published April 24 shows Giscard d'Estaing running ahead of Chaban-Delmas 26-23 per cent in the first round. Mitterrand scored 41 per cent FAVORED IN RUNOFF Giscard d'Estaing also came off best in a poll on who is likely to win in the second round. He is favored in the runoff against Mitterrand 42- 37, compared to a result of 41- 40 for Chaban-Delmas against the Socialist leader, the poll said "Power and independence for France, security and justice for the are his key goals, Giscard d'Estaing says. In the campaign he has said he will continue French foreign policy along the independent line maintained by Pompidou, but indications are he will try to tone down recent sharp exchanges between France and the United States. He said he will inform the U.S. "through normal chan- nels" about any European de- velopments, but will not participate in "prior consultations" in which the U.S tries to dictate policy Ironically, his expertise on the economic issues that are the focus of the election has given Giscard d'Estaing an image problem. The polls show that most Frenchmen believe him to be brilliant but distant and cold, without empathy for the prob- lems of the common man GISCARD D'ESTAING Only 38 per cent of those asked thought he could effectively reduce inequalities in French society. To gain support, Giscard d'Estaing lately has forsaken his expensive suits to wear a turtleneck sweater and mix with the crowd in the local cafe. A few months ago he made it a point to be photographed barechested in the locker room after a soccer match, and later he entertained a political rally with smooth renditions of popular songs on the accordion. "They say I don't have the common touch, but they forget that I enlisted in a regiment in North Africa as a private second Giscard d'Estaing says. "I was in for a year and I enjoyed it." But most people pay more notice to his chateau on the Loire and other refinements with which Giscard d'Estaing bolsters his aristocratic image. Giscard d'Estaing graduated from all the right schools to make him an accepted member of the ruling elite. He is married to Anne Aymone de Brantes, a member of a family of steel millionaires They have four children. To handle her own image problem, Giscard d'Estaing has made it a point for his wife to be photographed cooking a simple meal on the kitchen range. DIDN'T WASTE WORDS The late drama critic Wolcott Gibbs wrote what is reported to be the shortest theatre criticism when he reviewed the farce entitled Wham! His critique consisted of the word "Ouch1" German opposition asks for Hess release BONN (Reuter) A West German political opposition leader urged Chancellor Willy Brandt on Monday to ask the Second World War allies to pardon Hitler's former deputy, Rudolf Hess. Richard Stuccklen, head of the Christian Social Union's parliamentary party, told the chancellor that Hess, sentenced to life imprisonment at the Nuernberg war crime tribunal in 1946, should be released for humanitarian reasons as soon as possible. Four days ago, Hess spent his 80th birthday in West Berlin's Spandau jail, where he has been for 28 years, the last eight as the only prisoner. The jail is jointly run by Britain, the Soviet Union, the United States and France. 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