Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - April 27, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta
Saturday, April 27, 1974 THE LETHBRIDQE HERALD 5 People of the south By Chris Stewart Hard work never hurt anyone THE VOICE OF ONE Dr. Frank S. Morley Jack Brown claims hard work never hurt anyone. He should know. He'll be 90 on May 16th, has been working (or over 80 years and is none the worse for wear. He still drives his 1969 Rambler, hears perfectly, uses only one contact lens, stands erect and exhibits a sparkling, personality. He maintains his own home, does his own housekeeping, gardening, shopping and cooking and scores top marks in pool and wahoo (a marble game) at the Golden Mile Centre. He's been working as long as he can remember. His legs were so short he couldn't get off his horse when he began herding cattle at age seven in Lisbon, North Dakota. He had to stay on once he mounted. He quit school in grade four or five (he can't remember which) when farm chores interfered with regular school attendance. Born in Painesville, Ohio, in 1884 (one of 11 children) he grew up at Forman, North Dakota, until age 16 when his parents acquired a homestead at McLeod. "There was always enough to he recalls, "even though we were only getting three or four bushels to the acre and wheat was selling for 30 cents a bushel. Dad would kill about 15 pigs for meat. We had plenty of bread and butter but very little fancies." Short-changed? In some ways perhaps, according to today's standards, but not in the training he really values those intangible qualities like stability, courage, determination and purpose, often absent in a formal education but learned through which Jack has been familiar with for nearly a century. He was 26 when he headed for Alberta in 1910 to take advantage of the cheap acreage offered by the W. Kerr Company (who had bought up some CPR Freight was free to land purchasers. He arrived at Portland, the pomt-of-entry, to learn that one of his six horses was suffering from a lung disease. With no apparent improvement despite a two- week lay-over, the horse was shot, Mr. Brown was paid for its demise and he had to proceed with a five-horse team. (To this day he believes the horse's high fever stemmed from over- excitement and not glanders as suspected.) He rode from Bcw Island to Stirling on horseback to join his sister and brother-in-law Louise and Bob Hannah, who had arrived from North Dakota the year previous. After a short stint at Milk River he purchased a tract south of Raymond in 1911 but found he couldn't meet the W. Kerr Company's contract calling for half of the profits from the first seven crops. There were no crops. There had been no rain and the land was too parched. It was "barren and he recalls. He was forced to sell. In 1912 he bought acreage on the Milk River Kidge, married Grace Hannah from North Dakota (his brother-in- law's sister) and set up housekeeping in a 14 by 12 foot tarpaper shack he had moved from Stirling with two wagons and a team of horses in 20 below zero weather. This tiny dwelling was home until he built a larger house in 1916. "It seemed as if I had the only acreage where there were any green he said "The rest of the Ridge seemed black and dry." He broke his 40 acres with six horses and a 16-inch breaking plow when he sowed winter wheat in 1913. The land yielded 30 bushels to the acre a tremendous bonanza in those days. But in 1914 there was no crop at all. There was no rain. "We had a terrible time getting feed for our he said. "Had it not been for the trusting Raymond merchants like Tom O'Brien who gave us credit we couldn't have kept going." Augmenting his problem was the severe hail storm which levelled his crop on Mormon's Day in early July. "The field was so black it looked like it had been freshly he recalls. Luckily he had a crop insurance. He managed to get thrashing jobs at Raley and New Dayton which helped keep the family solvent. His wife Grace managed the farm during his absence. Jack Brown's economy turned for the better in 1916 the year he bought his first Ford car with flapping, curtained windows for By 1919 he could afford a glass-windowed Buick and motored the 1000 miles to North Dakota (it took him a full week) to attend his parents' golden wedding anniversary. It was a dry year with no forage and he had to head north to Blackie to get feed. Freight was free to Raymond but he had to make daily 14-mile hauls from there to the Ridge by sleigh and wagon to provide feed for his cattle. Land in the area was selling for per acre since the Standard Trust Company had taken over the now-defunct W. Kerr Company. Mr. Brown bought five and one half sections, increased his stock, went into turkey-raising and broke more land. With no school on the Ridge a lean-to classroom was added to the Brown residence in 1921 to accommodate the seven pupils (three of them Browns) until the one-room OK school and teacherage was built in 1923. Neighborhood families took turns hauling milk cans full of water to supply the school, stoked the coal furnace and helped with janitorial duties. By 1933 the enrolment had reached 42 but when most of Mr. Brown's neighbors sold to the Hutterites in 1935 the school was closed and pupils bussed thereafter to Raymond classes. He depended on his windmill for power (not a bad idea as long as the elements co-operated but on one occasion there wasn't a breath of wind for two or three hauled water a. quarter of a mile, depended on coal for cooking and was without telephone until 1932. His closest neighbor, Bob Ardel, was two miles away. But despite their lack of conveniences (so-called) which could have created hardship in an emergency, they never had a fire, a serious accident or an illness necessitating a doctor. Mr. Brown's only trips to Raymond for a physician were to attend the births of his own and neighboring Hutterite's children. (The Hutterite men would contact him each time a birth was pending and he would hurry to Raymond for a It was a neighborly courtesy he didn't mind doing, he says. "The Hutterites were good neighbors to us and never hesitated giving us a hand if anything needed fixing." When the depression began in 1928 he was getting five cents a dozen for eggs, butter was selling for 10 cents a pound, a fattened pig for a 400-pound calf for There was little cash but the Browns had plenty to eat since they raised their own food and Book review even made their own flour by grinding wheat at the Raymond flour mill. There, were chokecherries and Saskatoons, ring-necked pheasants and wild deer in abundance even if there was little money for clothes, machinery and extras. One of the bright spots during the grim thirties was the one-room OK schoolhouse which not only provided the three R's but served as a welcome social centre. Mr. Brown would haul his old phonograph to the schoolhouse by wagon or sleigh Friday nights for the community dances and the neighbors would join in rounds, waltzes and fox-trots around the centre of the room with the desks piled high on the sides. Families joined in a fast game of baseball on the Brown farm Sunday afternoons with host Jack Brown serving as pitcher. The ladies provided the picnic lunch. Dominion Day was memorable. Neighbors began arriving at the Browns' in the morning for a full day of baseball, picnicking and dancing. The old gramaphone played on into the wee nours of the morning as the early settlers waltzed around the living room in happy aban- donment. The depression was bad, and they knew it, but they were grateful to be in Canada, the country that offered them opportunity to make good. By 1948, at age 60, with four of his Morris, Stan and Bob settled on his six sections (each had five quarters and his own house. His sons Bud and Elden and daughter Mrs. Vivian Hegeie lived in Calgary: a daughter, Mrs. Mildred McBride in Kamloops; and daughter, Mrs. Marjorie Waterfield is in North Lethbridge. There are 41 grandchildren and 22 great- Mr. Brown felt it was time to move to Lethbridge and semi-retire. But the farm was in his blood and he just couldn't resist driving south to the Ridge each morning to help with the chores. He kept this up for five years until his sons finally announced, "This is They worried about his safety on slippery, wintry roads and besides, "Dad was nearing 70 and it was high time he took things easy." However, the indomitable Mr. Brown didn't agree readily; he was determined to keep hie hand in chores, so to speak and continued daily trips to and from Lethbridge until he finally gave in to family pressure and settled down to city life admittedly with a great deal of difficulty It wasn't easy for this long- experienced cowhand who had roamed the Ridge for 40 years, who had served as both municipal counsellor and schoolboard chairman for 20 years as well as being an active member of the Farmer's Union. But adjust he did. He turned his energy to producing vegetables, taking trips, making new friends at the Drop-In Centre and becoming a champion at pool and wahoo. "Who would have thought he laughs. "Why I've met more friends at the Drop-In Centre that I made during my entire lifetime." "He's even enjoying putting jig-saw puzzles together, which proves anyone can adjust if he is determined to do so." Asked whether he would recommend a similar route to today's farmers he unhesitantly answered, "No. Today farming is big business. It takes a lot of he said. "A grade four education wouldn't prepare a man for the mathematical know-how it requires. 'It's not like it used to be 50 years ago. Today there are so many crooks to contend with and farming is so highly specialized. I doubt very much whether my schooling would be adequate today." But what Jack Brown lacked in formal education he redeemed with tenacity. From the day he broke his first ground with his 16-inch plow he has been brimming with it. Give up? Never! Opt out? Unthinkable! Never long as his two legs would carry him or his calloused hands could work a plow. He may not have had the terminology but he knew the formula for farming and knew it well. It was hard work and plenty of it. Experience had been a good teacher. He finds it difficult to understand young people who shun hard labor as if it was belittling. "It will make a man out oj yea quicker than anything else in he says, "and will likely give you a long life too." The church and society Photo by Rick Ervin Jack Brown Reckless U.S. leader portrayed "The Devil and John Foster Dulles" by Townsend Hoopes (Little, Brown and Co. Ltd., 562 The pious illusion that the world could be made a better and safer place if only men of principle could occupy positions of authority was exploded when John Foster Dulles, a highly moralistic man, directed U.S. foreign policy during the Eisenhower years. Probably only because calculating and compromising men elsewhere, including those in the Kremlin, pulled back from the abyss, was >-he world saved from a nuclear holocaust during those years when Dulles practised brinkmanship. Dulles equated communism with the devil. The devil being something to resist, Dulles consistently shaped U.S. foreign policy in an anti- Communist direction. He was bent on binding various non- Communist nations by treaties to resist Communist aggression. He supported these alliances by establishing U.S. military bases everywhere possible. He showed the flag in situations where he thought there were signs of Communist aggression. While all this could be interpreted as merely precautionary and defensive, it must have seemed highly provocative on the other side of the Iron Curtain. When Britain, France and Israel attacked Egypt over Suez in 1956 in as blatant a demonstration of aggression as the world has seen, Dulles' conviction that the West was characterized by higi-er morality than the Communist yiock ought to have been shaken. But Dulles was blinded by his suspicion of Nasser and his opposition to neutralism. Thus the shamefulness of the attack did not outrage Dulles as it ought. Eisenhower presented a remarkable contrast to his secretary' of state. His inclination was to be more accommodating in most situations of tension and to pull back where Dulles pushed recklessly forward. On occasions he overruled -his secretary and he was very forthright in his condemnation of the Suez action whereas Dulles seemed ambivalent. The surprise, in retrospect, is that Eisenhower did not recognize a basic incompatibility between his and Dulles' outlook and make a change by the second term at least. Perhaps the reason Eisenhower retained Dulles as his secretary of state was that he didn't have the stomach to face the storm of protest that might have ensued. There is no doubt that Dulles' anti-communism sat well with the majority of Americans during those years. It certainly suited the strong right-wing faction of the' Republican party. Ostensibly, however, the reason for his retention was that Eisenhower was a bit awed by the dedication Dulles had for his job. One has to respect the hard work of the man Most of this lengthy book is devoted to a review of world affairs during the years that Dulles was U.S. secretary of slate and of his response to them. Not much is said about the man apart from this major office that crowned his life's endeavors. There was apparently not much about the man that was endearing. It may be that Townsend Hoopes goes out of his way to make this evident mentioning repeatedly his graceless manner and even referring to his chronic bad breath. There is much to admire in John Foster Dulles but his career in a position of power is a reminder that self- righteous men, so obsessed with the righmess of their cause as to be impervious to the humbling thought that they might be wrong, are as much a menace to the peace as the willfully wicked. The need for humility is a message that comes from an examination of Dulles that has more lasting import than all his explicit religious affirmations put together. The book isn't distinguished by style but it will be appreciated by all who are interested in history and the decisive roles men play. DOUG WALKER Back in "The Hungry the years of "The Great the social task of the church seemed obvious. Some brave men lost their pulpits urging measures to help the unemployed and hungry in the name of social justice. One founded the CCF Party which is now the NDP. Some became ardent pacifists following a creed formulated by Fosdick, "I renounce war and solemnly vow never to support or sanction a vow which most disowned in the horrors of the Fascist Nazi war machine. If certain material achievements have come about in social justice, this is far from meaning that the social task of the church is over. On the contrary, the greatest days of Hebrew prophets were in times of comparative prosperity and luxury. Even as Israel was cursed by "false prophets" who said what the king wished to hear, so the church is cursed by a desire to please the crowd, the crowd being the king today. The church is too trendient, a weathervane rather than a guide post, her "nature subdu'd to what it works in, like the dyer's hand." Watergate and Vietnam should have proved that there is a job that should be done and is not being done. The public conscience has become narcotized to crime and pornography. If the task of the church be to create a more sensitive conscience, it is failing dismally. Possibly the "Death of God" theology has had a great deal to do with it, because it has yet to be proved that morality can exist without the matrix of a strong religious faith. You may have scruples, but not ethics, which Jacques Barzun contends is the present American plight. The gracious loveliness of Sunday has been destroyed, turned over to materialism, secularism, and "sports." If a boy wishes to play soccer, baseball, lacrosse, or basketball, he must renounce his church After all. athletes make the largest salaries in society, the professional football player making on an average the professional baseball player the professional hockey player and basketball player annually. In advertising society is coaxed, goaded, and hypnotized into buying what most don't need. Sex is a prime factor in selling. Such has been the sexualization of the public mind that one ot the most .respectable religious journals in Canada, in an effort to increase circulation, showed a bosomy young lady cuddling close to a clergyman, and the advertisement was headed, "What did the actress really say to the bishop9" The exploitation of sex is. everywhere. Horrid too is the exploitation of" children in television and advertising. Surely the church should have some valuable criticisms of pollution. What about the taxpayer's enforced complicity in the production of war materials? What about the immorality of inflation and the destruction of currency? Has the church nothing to say. about the destruction of small farms before the onslaught of the rapacious, huge, landowners? The prophets of .ancient Israel' did. Should the church be silent before the uglification of the cities with box like buildings all cut from the same pattern? Must it be left to the artists to be the to challenge the values which warp the soul, to fight against the material forces of machinery, statistics, and all the' meaninglessness and futility of The' Wasteland9 Is there no. champion of humanity to declare that the criterion of the living standard is not increased production, more TV sels and bathtubs, stronger armaments, 1 and affluence, but growth of the human'' spirit? Surely Courbusier was not right in defining a house .as a machine foi living, The record of science is glorious as it' exalted the power of the mind through Descartes think, therefore I Galileo. Newton, Kepler, and Darwin, but' must science then be deified? Must men- fatalistically resign themselves to the ghastly-' prospect of "total communication" prophesied by David Sarnoff in the New York Times when "an individual, business, or government can establish contact any where, any time, by voice, sight, or document, separately or in combination9" Many of the best minds of the time believe that man has made for himself a life which is not worth living The dry rot in the human spirit is caused by loss of faith. Western civilization is smothered with the pollution of materialism and mechanism. It is the dreadful faith of Thomas Huxley who said. "I hold, with the Materialist, that the human body is a machine, all the operations of which will sooner or later be explained on physical, principles The social task of the church is to make Qod real for society, for individual men and' women, and to restore their integrity aS' children of God Man desperately needs to possess his soul again, to be something more than an instrument. The University of Lethbridge APERTURE If inchfslpr Portuguese myths debunked Dr. Brian Winchester is a member of the University of Lethbridge political science department and has done PhD research on urban politics in Africa. Colonialism is a relationship characterized by economic exploitation and political domination. One immediately recognizes such a relationship between Portugal and its "provinces" Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea-Bissau. To characterize the relationship in any other way is simply to create a myth. After the Second World War, when most Asian and African colonies were demanding and receiving their independence, Portugal simply revised its constitution and designated its African territories of Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea-Bissau (which had previously been designated as colonies) as "overseas provinces." It is, of course, highly questionable whether that stroke of the pen actually transformed those colonies into provinces, especially since the so-called change was effected without consulting the indigenous African inhabitants Since that time, an elaborate mythology has been manufactured which purports that Portuguese Africa is an overseas extension of metropolitan Portugal and not a colonial possession at all. This myth appears regularly in official Portuguese government publications prepared for foreign consumption and is echoed by Portugal's diplomats. The official version of the myth rests on three assertions: (1) that their 400-year presence in Africa established the Portuguese as pioneers and not "johnnies come lately" whose only interest was imperialism. (2) that Portugal has demonstrated tolerance toward and acceptance of. indigenous Africans as evidenced in the absence of segregation and their policy of assimilation, and (3) that Portugal's purpose in Africa has been a civilizing mission and not colonization. All three are either false or distorted. The true purpose of Portugal's presence in Africa and negligible Portuguese settlement there both belie any claim of a legitimate pioneering effort. It is true that Portugal has had continuous contact with Africa since the 15th century; however, the main purpose for maintaining that contact for 300 years was to engage in one of mankind's most despicable and sordid endeavors the trade in slaves. It may never be known exactly how many human beings the Portuguese forced into slavery. Historians estimate the total to be in the millions. Further suspicion i's cast on the "pioneering effort" in that as late as the latter part of the 19th century, Portuguese settlement was limited predominantly to a few small scattered towns and forts along coastal areas Indeed, as recently as 1930, the white populations of Mozambique and Angola were only one-half o." one per cent and one and one half per cent respectively. In the late when world opinion became decidedly anti-colonial, the Portuguese responded by mounting an intensive campaign to encourage emigration to Africa. Even today, whites constitute only 2 per cent and 6.3 per cent of the populations of Mozambique and Angola respectively. With regard to Portugal's tolerance and acceptance of Africans in the past, the slave trade speaks for itself It is true, the legal segregation, so characteristic of South Africa, is absent in Angola and Mozambique. However, while whites and blacks live and farm together in certain rural agricultural settlements, the United Nations Special Committee on Territories Under Portuguese Administration reports that the average European land holding was 60 times that of the average African's in 1967. Though schools are integrated, the classes become whiter and whiter in the upper grades. According to Michael A. Samuels, whose recently completed PhD dissertation examined the history of education in Angola, less than 5 per cent of the university students and students in teacher training colleges in Angola were Africans while at the same time, Africans constituted 94 per cent of the population, Portugal's policy of assimilation, ostensibly to create "Black Portuguese.'' was tantamount to cultural suppression'- Inherent in such a policy was scorn for African culture. To qualify for "assimiladov status, Africans had to read, write and speak Portuguese and adopt the Portuguese lifestyle. Even ignoring the chauvinist basis for such a policy, statistics on the number of assimilated Africans are revealing: after nearly 400 years of Portugal's "civilizing less than 1 per cent of the populations of Angola, Mozambique ana! Guinea Bissau had attained assimilado status. The policy was abandoned in 196k Illiteracy rates in Portuguese Africa, among the highest in the world, also underscore the fiction of the "civilizing" mission. Portugal's response to increasing international pressure to free its African colonies, has been to publicly denounce racism, emphasizing its policy of equality for white and non white alike and increased educational expenditure in Africa. The United Nations Special Committee, however, claims that most blacks are still effectively barred from voting through literacy and income qualifications. Trade unions and political demonstrations remain prohibited by law. Perhaps the clearest indication that Portugal does not really consider Angola, Mozambique and Guinea Bissau as provinces is this: metropolitan Portugal, with a population of 8Vz million, has 124 seats in the Legislative Assembly; Angola and Mozambique, with a combined population of 13V2 million, are allotted only 20 seats between them.