Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - April 27, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta
Tliuridny, April 77, 197? THE IttHBRIDBr HERAIO 3 Mounted Po ice saved West for Canada MANY .years ago I was lalk- ing" to a European jour- nalist who had been stationed lit Stockholm during the thir- ties and I asked Mm what lie knew about Canada at that lime, what images the word "Canada" brought up when it was encountered. "Very llllle, very be re- plied, thinking back. "Only the Mounted Police and Ibc Ottawa Trade Agreements of he adtled. (The latter had marie it more difficult for countries like Sweden to sell lumber anil wood pulp and paper to the British The Mounted Police will Boon be celebrating their cen- tenary. The famous march west "did not occur until the summer of 1B74: but it is al- ready a hundred years since gome of the events which led the way to the creation of the mounted Force. History books tend to over-simplify such ev- ents. A number of factors were at work. The first Hie! Rebel- lion, the departure of the Hud- son's Bay Company as owner and "policer" of (lie great plains, the whiskey traders from Montana and the Cypress Hills massacre were ail in the mind.s of Sir John A. Mac- donald and Ins cabinet anil party when they introduced the legislation into parliament set- ting up the force. (The mas- sacre occurred while it was go- ing The importance of "showing the flag" in a vast area which was becoming far more acces- sible from the United States than from Canada was not liie least of the motives behind the move. H may have been muted in the press, hut it was con- stantly in the mind of Ihe policy makers. Just as the American Civil War hastened and perhaps guaranteed the success o[ Con- federation, it spurred the Ca- nadian Government into creat- ing the province of Manitoba and in occupying the (1 r e a t Plains between the Red and the Rockies. The "Win parallel of latitude is a purely Imagina- tive line, and it cuts through, and across an economic unit. The Indians and the bison paid no attention to this imaginary line. Neither, for that matter, did the Metis and buffalo hunt- ers who operated from lied Hiver. From about 1300 on it was much easier and quicker for Americans to visit (or occupy) the region around Fort Garry or the plains of southern Alber- ta than it was for the "Cana- dians" of Upper or Lower Can- ada. And, as a result in part of the Civil there was an in- creasing capability on (he part of the North to take on any ob- stacles to empire-building, or "Manifest Destiny." In the 18CO's, during the Civil War or just after it, any Cana- dian desiring to visit Fort Garry country could take a (rain at Toronto and proceed to Chicago and La Crosse on the Mississippi. Then he could lake a steam boat to St. Paul, and a train to Georgetown on Ihe Red River. Then he bad a choice of a canoe or a steamer down the Red to Fort Garry. All of which was much faster and more comfortable than a trip through the Pre-Cambrian Shield on an all-Canadian route. The American route was be- coming much more feasible for what is now southern Alberta and southern Saskatchewan, also. The first transcontinental railway was the Union Pa- cific, which was completed at Ogden in northern Utah, i n 1869. But a decade earlier than (hat a commercial route was opened up by water. Shallow draught steamboats could na- Ily Wilfrid ligglcslon. In The Ottawa Journal as they crossed the Imaginary line. The "whiskey" traders of Montana began to do a thriving busi.uss along the Bow and the licllv and into the Foothills of vigutc the Mississippi and the Missouri. They could advance up the Missouri as far as (he "Groat Falls" of what is now northern Montana. Here n pioneer outpost of very considerable importance came into being Fort Ben- ton. The levee where the load- ing and unloading took place was, in due course, a mile long. Wagon trains starting from Fort Benton fanned out through the American empire of the North-West. Some of these wagon (rains crossed the in- visible 49th parallel into Cana- dian territory and the drivers were not aware of any differ- ence. The only inhabitants they encountered were. Indians, who also did not see any difference the Rockies. The slory of the concjuesl of the American West is full of violence and bloodshed. Some historians have wondered why the winning of the Canadian West was so tame. One answer would that Canada, too, had a "Wild but that it last- ed only r.bout five years. It be- gan in 1869 when Fort Whoop- Up, was built, and it ended in 1874 with the arrival of Colonel Maclcod and his Redcoats. The wildest episode in this brief "Wild West" was the Massacre at the Cypress Hills, in which about 40 Indians arc said to have been killed. Paul Sharp, an American historian, not notably pro-Canadian or an'i- American, says bluntly in his "Whoop-Up Country" (I93.'i) that "Only Ihe timely arrival of the Mounted Police in 187'! pre- vented the destruc- tion of these northern Indians." I visited Fort Benton during one of my motor lours across Montana. The terrain between Fort Benton and southern Al- berta is easily negotiated today and apart from a few coulees would present no great ob- stacle to the wagon trains of T h e American invasions of what is now the rich prov- ince of Aiberla would have been a "walkover." Assembly line 'battle fatigue' By Don Oakley, NEA service T3HEATHES there o car own- by rand, very lew people could er who never to himself afford them, has said, "They don't build 'em like they used And it's a good thing they dont. If they still built cars the way they used to, practically But while mass production techniques have made mass ownership of automobiles pos- sible, it lias been at a price. That price is the loss of Ihe Helping families Department of llcallh and Social Development annual report 31 funded projects In seven areas. These figures Here are the ANSWERS for your NEWS QUIZ PART I: 2-False; 3-b; 4-o; 5-a PART II: 1-b; 2-a; 3-d; 4-e; 5-c PART 111: 1-d; 2-e; 3-a; 4-c; i-b PICTURE QUIZ: Governor-General Roland Michener AL-BERTANS are vitally in- terestcd in helping fam- ilies stay together. Lay family counselling is an innovative pre- ventive social services method of helping individuals in trou- ble. Counsellors are trained hy and have an on going consul- tative arrangement wilh a Doc- tor in Psychology. They act in areas where no professional family service agencies are available. As they are volun- teers, the role of our branch is to help meet out-of-pocket and training expenses. The active involvement of vol- unteers in the preventive social services program is one of its outstanding features. Over 1200 volunteers donated approx- imately hours and over to 76 non funded pro- jects in eight areas of the prov- ince In the past year. Approxi- mately 1400 worked hours and gave well over to are not complete but indicate the high level of citizen participation in the 25 municipalities, or groups of municipalities, that have ap- proved preventive social ser- vices projects. Over one hundred Ihousand dollars were allocated to day- care and family service anrj counselling during the past year. Single parent families use 70 per cent of the day-care, facilities. Approximately a thou- sand children were given a good start in school ttirough 28 Head Start (Parent Development) projects. One hundred and twenty-eight total projects were approved for 25 municipalities, or groups of municipalities, in 1970-71. Up to 80 per cent of the costs of these projects Is returned to the mu- nicipalities. Choice. Protecting inefficiency The Tree Press almost non-stop had dcrmimk'd a common (firm policy in FIVE STAR CANADIAN RYE WHISKY I JOSEPH f. SEAGRAM 4 SONS LIMITED WATERLOO. ONTARIO. CANADA 25 01. The smooth taste of quality that is unmistakably Seagram's. Seagram's FIVE STAR Canada's largest-selling rye whisky. Blended and bottled by Joseph Seagram Sons Lid..Waterloo, Ont. pride of workmanship, the satisfaction a man takes in the skill of his hands. !low can there be any feeling of personal accomplishment when most of the important op- crallons arc done by machines, when you have maybe W sec- onds as a car zips by on the assembly line to tighten some stupid bolts or attach some wire to some widget a job any moron could do? But then, how can you man- ufacture cars Cor anything else) competitively unless they are so designed that any moron can assemble them? The conflict between the nuts-and-bolts demands of assembly line and the psycho- logical needs of the individual human worker was lampooned in Charlie Chaplin's "Modern Times" back in 1937. It lisa been the subject of other less hilarious, movies and plays. But the conflict is for real at the world's most modern and efficient automobile General Motors' Vega plant in Lordstown, Ohio, where workers went out on strike against what they considered the inhuman speed and demoralizing routine of the assembly line. On paper, there shouldn't bo any problem. At Lordstown, au- tomated power tools have taken much of the back-breaking la- bor out of building cars. The Vegas has 43 per cent fewer parts and workers don't have to crawl in and out of the car body as they do in older plants. Even the parking lots were designed so that workers don't have to walk so far. The pay is good. Yet in the world's most effi- cient automobile factory th.9 employees are the most unhap- py fellows. Much has been made of the fact that their average age is in the middle 20s. They are said to be a different breed from their fathers. They take for granted a lot of things another generation had to figbt for and they are not so grateful to the company for giving them a job as people once perhaps mere. It may however, that un- derneath it all we were running up against that old thing called pride of workmanship, or the- lack of it. The fact that Lords- town workers have committed acts of sabotage against their own product, their own pay checks, suggests that the G.M management team, for all il5 cost effectiveness brilliance, has left something vitally im- portant out of the equations. The workers' grievances at will probably be sa- tisfied wiU] certain changes and concessions, temporarily. But GM or somebody is going to have to come up with a better idea eventually. At least one automobile plant in Europe is reported Io be ex- perimenting with a system in which, insleail of being strung out along an assembly line and performing (he same repeti- operations on each car as it passes hy, workers are grouped into (cams that arc re- sponsible for the assembly of complete cars from start to fin- ish. If Ibis proves Io be an an- swer to Ihis particular malaise of our modern limes, it. would mean that we have come full circle from the beginning of Ihe century when the assembly line was only a gleam in Henry Kord's eye. 'Crazy Capers' I AST month, after an J meeting Hint vent on (or six days and nights, the ministers of agriculture of the six members of the European Common Market reached a compromise on how much the ECM should increase Ihe prico at which il up its surplus farm pro- duction winch in effect moons that the ministers set new prices for their countries, The guaranteed price paid to farmers will go up four per cent for cereals ami eight per cent for dairy products. Beet will go up by four per cent right away with another in- crease contemplated soon in order to en- courage hecf production, Farmers in other countries and, even move so, consumers may thmk that they fall far below what ECM farmers' organizations had demanded. They had asked for an average increase of at least eight per cent in cereal prices and 12 per tent in the case of milk products, Thus the French minister was able to announce that "the agreement constitutes a reasonable compromise for both producers and con- Hand in hand with these pre-set food prices, of course, go tariffs levied against farm products entering the. ECM from Hie outside. These arc set to raise the pi-ice of imports f r o m efficient food-producing nations Lo the level of those guaranteed in- side (he ECM to its less efficient farming industry. This is protective farm policy a vengeance. And the reason for the protec- tion is the reason for protection anywhere Dr. Sicco Mansholt, who has in charge of carrying out the ECM's farm policy since 1958, admitted, when tha new guaranteed prices were approved, that the Common Market has been protectionist in the past; and as a result, governments of member nations have been under less pressure to make their farmers more effi- cient. The policy was inevitable, however, ss part of the agreement, because France return for permitting the free trade in In- dustrial goods that was demanded by Wci-t Germany. All told, the ECM sfwnds somo bil- ion each year to bail out its various farm economics; and ttu's must, of course, be reflected in taxes and food prices, How- ever, according to Dr. .Mansholt (and other the day when the ECM can simply raise ils guaranteed price for farm products is almost at an end. This is be- cause Britain, Ireland, Denmark ami Nor- way arc due to become members ticxt Jan- uray 1. Tlwse countries Britain in par- ticular have much more efficient agri- culture industries than any of the present ECM members and will, as a consequence, be unwilling to see large-scale spending on farm-price support. If European farmers have to be liclpeii after the four new nations join, some other way of aiding them must be found, ac- cording to Dr. Mansholt. It has been sug- gested that this can be done only by using the system Britain now uses to assist its farmers. This consists of making deficien- cy payments to supplement farm incomes, while letting world prices apply to The Economist has suggested a system of deficiency payments, supervised by thn ECM commission, but operated on a conn- try-bv-country basis to allow farm in- comes to be implemented in high-cost coun- tries like Germany and low-efficiency coun- tries like Italy-without the burden being placed on the more efficient members. The proper solution, of course, is to make farming in the ECM more efficient. But while member nations have talked much about this, results have not been startling. The meeting which agreed on the nesf prices also came up wilh proposals design- ed to persuade some two million farmers lo leave the land in the next three years. But to this end the ministers propose tn spend only at most ?285 million a year, as against the billion now being spent on support prices, Improving engineering education The Stanley Report, named after Chair- man D. R. Stanley of the Special Commit- tee on Engineering Education, has pro- posed the establishment of a provincial board of engineering education with rep- resentation from the faculties of Uie Uni- versity of Alberta and the University of Calgary, the students bodies of the two uni- versities, and tile Association of Profes- sional Engineers, Geologists and Geophys- icists. The exclusion of representation from in- dustry may have been an oversight. It could also have been a deliberate omis- sion. Nevertheless, the report is opposed by the engineering faculties of the univer- sities, perhaps because having been ini- tiated by the association it calls for ma- jority representation from the association "at least equal in number to tiie total of the university and student representation.1' One finding of the committee is, con- trary to previous belief, that the demand for professional engineers will not more than double by the year 2000, and the num- ber of engineering graduates is now meet- ing the demand. A further finding is that the industry finds postgraduate students no more efficient than graduates. One reason for Uie decreasing demand for engineers is that technologists trained by teclmical colleges are taking over a By Joe Ma greater portion of Ihe actual engineering practice, Tlie demand for engineers a s management personnel and specialists i? necessarily limited. The committee there- lore recommends greater emphasis on lha humanities for engineering undergraduates and "course content designed to develop an appreciation of the social, ecological and economic consequences of engineering undertakings Another point of irritation to the univer- sity faculties is that the report implies Ibat some academic staff, with lillle or no practical experience outside the university, may not. be the best teachers and recom- mends more representation of professional engineers on the faculties. This may ba true. This may be what is required to bring university engineering training closer to the industry's needs. Far from Utopia, modern technology has given us Hiroshima. Unless man learns to love his fellow man, technology will not bo man's useful servant but his master. This is why education in the arts is essential to mankind. The retxirt's recommendation for more humanities education for engi- neering students is a sound one. The tech- nical college approach fulfills a society need, but it cannot subslituto for univer- sity education. And universities cannot stand apart from the society. JIM F SHBOUPxNE Because it's there? hut apart fwn your h ii'jor-nat Is, v-liM filinrj experience have you hid, you wonder occasionally why man should wish to go out into space? I do. Probably I've heard most of the more persuasive arguments for spending billions on a space program, and while (most of the lime) I'm among those who can believe it's worthwhile Io invest in the continued advancement of science, I'm still more than a trifle dubious about n system ot priorities that places Ihe collection of moon rocks, at several millions of dollars a pound, at the top of Ihe list. Nevertheless, man goes to the moon, and sends his un- manned probes unquestionably his ov.ii forerunners t" the neighboring planets. So he's headed for Ihe stars. On a scale somewhat less grand, man also seems impelled In climb mountains, and again one wonders H cant be simply to attain the height; a hundred' airlines rouUncly fly higher lhan Everest, and it should be comparatively simple Io put a man on a mountain top by helicopter. Yet man persists in mobilizing enormous resources, and then risking his life and I hat of his companions, to climb moun- laias. When you come to think of it, quite a few Ihe games man plays arc dangerous, and it almost seems that the more danger involved, the more expensive the game. Sky-diving, auto racing, under-water Syorls, big-game hunting and a dozen other spoils all seem characterized by danger to Uie participant and also by substantial ex- pense. On Ihe face of it, it (Iocs seem a bil odd lhat man, considered Io be more or less rational, should wish to make such a great effort to risk breaking his neck, and Io spend so lavishly for Ihe privilege. But perhaps it isn't odd at all; perhaps ii's just the result of Ihe way we live, the na lural outcome of what our Civilization has done to man. If the anthropologisls and (he archcacilo- gists and others who dig into the past are to be believed, there was a time when life was a pretty simple proposition. When nature called Ihe tune, before what we call civilization, those who survived were Iliose who could find, catch or lake from someone else enough to cat, and who were strong, fast or wily enough (o deal with all Uie adversaries, human and otherwise, that came their way. Civilization, being tho couiiler Io nature's rule of survival of the fittest, changed all thai. Slcadily, over Uie years, civilized man worked oul a .system of beliefs and procedures Io ensure Ihal. survival of any individual was not decided by cither nature or man himself. I suspect Ihe change is still not quite com- plete. Man may have been more or Icfs civilized for a few Ihousand years, but he has existed for millions of years, if we can believe the experts. For most of that time, he lived or died by his ability to com- pete. II seems at least quite likely thai, during the thousands of generations in- volved, Uie impulse Io compete would be- come pretty deeply ingrained, something il would take A long lime to completely erase. So perhaps the classic "Becausa it's there" may be coasiderably more than clever repartee, whether mountain, moon or something even more remote is the object. Maybe as long s.i whatever "it" may be is there, man will have Io go there, or admit he's become something less than he was. Nature is still a force l'i be reckoned with.