Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - April 26, 1972, Lethbridge, Alberta
34 THE IFTHnRIOGE HERALD Wodnoidoy, April 56, 1971 On the nurfacv- ihc issue is simplt lasars stir controversy in astronomy DIRECT FROM CHINA Ling-ting, (he female giant panda, eats from a bowl at Washington's National Zoo. A pair of the animals were presented to the American people from the Chinese People's Republic, ling.Ling weighs 136 pounds, heavier than me male companion, Hsing-Hsing, lower picture. Both are about 13 months old. PASADENA, Calif. CAP) T w i n k I e, twinkle, little quasar. Are yon near or are you far? That question is fuelling an intense controversy in astron- omy unparalleled since a hit- ler debate split that normally sedate science in the 1930s. On the surface, the issue is simple. Are quasar s, the star-like objects thai emit radio waves, on the very edge of the universe more tlian a billion trillion miles awr.y? Or are they much less than a million Irillion miles? If the astronomers who claim, galactically speaking, that quasars are close can demonstrate their contentions, then: validity of a basic yardstick used for four dec- ades to measure distances in the universe will ba seriously challenged. w i d e 1 y held "big bang" theory that the uni- verse was created about nine billion years ago when an in- small, dense object exploited wit] be in question, if not disproved. opposing "steady state" theory that matter is being created all the time in the universe wilt receive a boost. be faced with the disturbing possibility that some physical laws thill gov- ern matter on earth don't apply throughout the nni- vor.se. NKVV PHYSICS POSS1HI.1-: i3r. Maartcn Schmidt of the California Institute of Tech- nology said in an interview tlic possibility that science might have to embrace a "now physics" is really the heart of (lie controversy. It was Schmidt discov- ered m 1063 that light from the mysterious quasars was grcally shifted in color or wavelength toward the red end of the spectrum. Three (legacies earlier, a her.icd dispute dividing as- tronomers had when it was proved that the greater a space object's red- tho more distant the ob- j ject and (ho. more rapid its recession from earth. The redshitt is an intimate part of the big bang theory. If our galaxy, the Milky Way, was near the centre o! the primordial explosion, all ob- jects outside the galaxy should appear to be moving away. And the objects hurled out fastest by the explosion now should bo the farthest. Over the years the rcdshifta observed for cclesliai objects fitted this idea the quasars. Their light was shifted so fai toward the red it meant some of them hr.d to be- on the edge of tiie universe, several billion Irillion miles away. BRIGHTNESS A FACTOR However, the quasars wore exceedingly bright. So bright, in fact, lhat theorists had dif- ficulty explaining how oh- jcct so distant could radiato I such energy. This paradox quickly led some astronomers to suggest quasars really me quite cln.se a lew galaxies and that they show a high r e d s h i ft because of sonm unique property never oh- i served before. The debate began to warm up early in 1S71 when James tiunn, a 32-year-old Caltech aslronomer, reported discov- ering two quasars of high red- shift sitting among galaxies of equally high rcdshifl. The dis- tance of the galaxies was ac- curately known from another distance measuring techni- que. The conclusion was that Ihe quasars were associated with the galaxies and their large rcdshift wa real. Geoffrey Burbidge of Ihe University of California at San Diego says most of Ihe arguments against the steady state theory disappear if quas- ars are local. He suggests some astronomers may cling to the redsliift and oppose the steady stale theory because of religious reasons. "People like to have a be- ginning somehow. They can tolerate creation in (he begin- ning, hut they can't tolerate creation going on around them now." he wrote recently. Live in blessed country razilian residents lucky IMPORTANT MESSAGE ABOUT YOUR ACiBGE, 1UO DC JANIERO (AF) Japanese and explorer Pedro Al- "Clod is an old a larger number of Caijrnl discovered the At- ing here families came from coast of Brazil in 1500. Anil may bo it's true. Where Brazilians ask, is there Brazil is a land of established a colony and named it for its brazil- land so big, fertile and rich in minerals, blessed with pleasant wcat her a n d free f r om limes [locking Opiiler.t splendor often exists side-by-side with which was in great dc-mr.id in Europe for making dyes quakes, hurricanes and J1J22. Prince Pedro, son of natural disasters? Where Although this is the king of Portugal and regent do so many people of differing races and religions seem to get along so wall? Whare else, populous Roman Catholic country, millions of Brazilians believe i" voodoo cults. A Brazil, proclaimed the colony's independence. The former prince became say, is there surli may cross )i i m s e 1 E'cdro I of Brazil but fceur.li; for music, nature and ibe plain joy of living? Brazil's 97 million people occupy an area which, if placed in North America, would stretch from Portland, Ore., to Boston and from Hudson Bay to while passing a church, fiut on his windshield there's a black No. 7 in a red circle: the symbol of a mysterious spirit called Mr. Seven. can call New York or Toncinn from Uio. via satellite, in a couple of minnles. But forced ir.to exile nine years later. He died in Portugal, and this year the Portuguese are returning his body permanently to Brazil in honor of the country's 150th anniversary. There will be several other events, including ait international soccet1 tourna- Brazi] iritis conic in all colors. About GO per cent are white, of tho original distance calls can take days and in llaranheo slate, postmen still deliver the mail on t'nis year in Brazil lo commemorate the date. SET COUNTRY ON PATH guesi? settlers and Carefree hippie Juscclino K u h 1- who came later from beginning to sprout in hie tschok set Brazil Italy and Germany. Some Bui in many small (owns "''c lo tnle per cent are black, slightest breach in medieval lollluon ami tte of African slaves. The rest of "family honor" can ur> fram Uio lo Brasilia, mostly mixtures of white, a wave of vengeance kill- 1 elt-v from scratch in and native Indian. Brazi! in the middle of the is making a mad shift from an agricultural 1964, the armed forces industrial economy. out a civilian government now produces claimed was leading the all its own to bankruptcy and com- from toothpaste to In power since then, and the 1970 military has succeeded in that for the first time out the country's M more Brazilians live in cities than in rura" areas. Industrialization has but at Ihe cost of sus-pending basic civil rights. Hundreds of political enemies of j a large middle class. Millions regime are in jail or exile, Brazilians now there is evidence that over- cold beer cans in tlieir police and military com- and summer have tortured prison- Yet there are still n of illiterate current president is Emi- II 91 and cily skiin G. Medici. OS, a former barely participate in army general. His economy. expires in How his per capita income wili be picked is not than S-ifJO a Deadline ivorries U.S. auto-makers Now's the time to call AGT about phone service to your "place in the All new out-of-town phone lines are under- ground cable which must be buried before the winter season. So, we must plan well ahead to give you service this year. Don't delay! Call AGT Now about country telephone service! And tell them when you'll need it. CALL YOUR LOCAL AGT BUSINESS OFFICE 1NLETHBRIDGE AT 328-5551 B AGTJ ALBERTA GOVERNMENT TELEPHONES WASHINGTON1 fAP) American auto-maUers are approaching July with the queasy sensation that they won't make their deadline for meeting Hie U.S. govern- ment's 1975 exhaust-emission standards. The pressure from govern- ment, and industry critics al- ready is getting heavier. "It is extremely difficult for me lo understand this sudden and coincidental inability to achieve Ihe Clean Air Act i said Senate Denr ocratic leader Mike Mansfield I after the manufacturers an- I nounced they would ask for an extra year to meet standards set by the 1970 act. Consumer advocate Ralph Nader lias said it's already loo late because llio auto in- dustry decided long ago to re- work the pnweitt engines in- stead of designing new en- gines powered by clec- t tic i ty or a cl can power source. Government and industry officials concede that as yet, a few months before manufac- turers .say they must start the ordering and tooling for 1975 cars, no one has developed a mass production cm1 which will meet all (lie standards. SOMK MODELS C1-OSK But researchers have devel- oped sonic cars which come tanlalizingly close and gov- ernment officials are not con- vinced the industry needs the year's reprieve it has re- quested, The cleanest cars in mass production this year are a Chevrolet Monte Carlo with a 454-cnbic-inch engine and a Chevellc 402. Roth put out twice the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide that will be permitted in 1975 if the stand- ards arc met. Tesfs on a Mercedes-Benz diesel the Environmental Protection Agency have shown il emits permissible levels of carbon monoxide, but perhaps double1: the per- missible levels of hydrocar- bons and far above 3975 levels for oxides of nitrogen, Engelhard Minerals and Chemicals Corp., an cnl catalytic filter researcher, says it recently ran a car (or miles with ifs con- verter, and the car still put out no more than legal levels. FI1IU) MEETS STANDATID Ford has run a stratified- charge engine in its laborator- ies which meets the 1975 standards. But even thn most promis- ing experiments have what ttic auto industry considers to be some important qualifiers: In addition to meeting legal limits of emissions for 1975, the cars must also maintain that level for miles. No test car has done this yet. In an October survey, the National Academy of Sciences survey of five domestic and 13 foreign cars found that the stratified-charge engine run at Ford and five foreign cars j mot Hie ISI7.> standards, bul all were hrnid-imido and a decade away from mass pro- duction. No one has yet built a test car which meets all tlie fi cat ions for emissions and mileage. SHAHPl.Y CUT FUMKS The 197.> standards, if met, woul.l cvit by 90 per cent the amount of polluting fumes permitted for this year's mod- els. I Transportation Secretary John Volpe has estimated in- ternal combustion engines contribute 55 per cpnt of the pollution in sparsely popu- lated areas and as much as 9r> per cent in big citie.s. Cars give off carbon monox- ide, a poisonous gas, and hy- drocarbons and oxides of ni- trogen, which cook in the sun to create smog. Regardless of what anti-pol- lution system auto-makers fi- nally choose, or what year's models they put the systems on, American drivers will feel for Ihe first time the impact terms of cost and conven- ience- of cleaning up the air. The or 197fi cars, say engineers, will start harder. I hnvc less pickup, exhibit a j greater tendency Lo stall and I cost more. Fuel economy will I deteriorate by 3 to J2 per cent.